Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Flora Andhrika Part III -Eudicots Part 2

This part includes remaining orders 
ROSALES 
CANNABACEAE
Trees or herbs; leaves spiral or opposite, margins serrate, intra-petiolar stipules present, veins ascending, that do not proceed straight into the teeth; prophyllar buds prominent; flowers imperfect/unisexual, K valvate; corolla clawed. The fruit is a rounded drupe; flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones +;  
Cannabis sativa L., 
Celtis philippensis Blanco,
Trema orientalis (L.)Blume
MORACEAE

Large woody shrubs or trees; latex milky; leaves spiral, lamina vernation variable, stipule also ensheathing stem; dioecious ; inflorescence congested, spicate; flowers 4-merous; fruits a drupe or achene, receptacle often accrescent.
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., 
FICUS 
Ficus amplissima; Ficus arnottiana; Ficus benghalensis; Ficus benjamina; Ficus hispida; Ficus microcarpa; Ficus mollis; Ficus racemosa; Ficus religiosa; Ficus retusa; Ficus tomentosa; Ficus tinctoria; Ficus virensFicus dalhousiae Miq., ; Ficus exasperata Vahl;Ficus talbotii King, Ficus tsjakela Burm.f., 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25978080996/in/album-72157664045227914/
Morus alba L., Syn Morus indica L.,
A cultivated plant for feeding silk worms.common name: Mulberry
Morus alba fruit
Plecospermum spinosum 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25703426010/in/album-72157664045227914/
STREBLUS
Streblus asper Lour., 
The leaves are rough to touch
Streblus taxoides (Roth) Kurz, 
RHAMNACEAE

Woody (lianes);stipules 0; flowers small, 4-5 merous; C cucullate, enfolding A (0); nectary as disc; on ovary; G [2-3(-5)], ± inferior; K often deciduous; seeds often laterally flattened.
Colubrina asiatica (L.)Brongm., Surya narayana &Srinivasa rao reported it from SriHarikota;
Colubrina asiatica
Gouania leptostachya DC.,
large climbing shrubs; tendrils +; flowers in 15-30 cm long spikes or racemes; fruit 3-winged, crowned by persistent calyx.
పెంకిటి తీగ ; in Godavari VSKP dist.
visit:http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Slender%20Spiked%20Gouania.html
Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.,
shrub; branchlets ending in a spine. Leaves fascicled, margin serrate; flowers yellowish in axillary  fascicles; drupes red, globose.
Rare in VSKP.,
SCUTIA
Scutia myrtina; 
VENTILAGO 
Ventilago denticulata; Ventilago maderaspatana;Ventilago gamblei Susseng.,
Pubescent climbing shrubs; branchlets stout; fruit wings mucronate at apex, ferrugenous, tomentose.
Rare; in Kurnool dist.,
ZIZIPHUS
 Zizipus glabrata; Zizipus jujuba; Ziziphus mauritiana Var.sponatanea;Ziziphus oenoplea; Ziziphus xylo pyrus 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25908912891/in/album-72157664045227914/
Zizipus horrida Roth, Thorny shrubs; flowers greenish-yellow in pedunculate cymes; styles 3; fruit globose.
Rare in Kurnool, Krishna dist.
Zizipus nummularia (Burm.f.)Wight&Arn.,
Shruns upto 1.5m tall; branches zigzag, tomentose; leaves orbicular, tomentose; flowers yellowish in short fascicles.
common in dry districts.
Ziziphus nummularia
Ziziphus rugosa Lam.,
Scandent shrubs; brown -pubescent; leaves rufous pubescent beneath; flowers in 10-12 cm long cymose panicles; drupes white at maturity.
in Godavari district.
Ziziphus rugosa fruits
ROSACEAE
Stipules often petiolar; inflorescences racemose; stamens many; ); G free, stigmas punctate to expanded or down stylulus; fruit aggregate of achenes.
ROSA
Rosa species are widely cultivated
visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25908886401/in/album-72157664045227914/ to
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25908879481/in/album-72157664045227914/
ULMACEAE
Holoptelia integrifolia 
Visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25908861631/in/album-72157664045227914/ &
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25977907446/in/album-72157664045227914/
URTICACEAE
Habit variable; leaves stipulate, box venation; flowers small on branched cymes; the anthers are often explosively dehiscent. 
Pilea microphylla;
Visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25908851131/in/album-72157664045227914/
Pouzolzia auriculata; Pouzolzia wightii; Pouzolzia wightii
visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25375052313/in/album-72157664045227914/   to
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/25881038752/in/album-72157664045227914/
CUCURBITALES Berchtold & J. Presl,
CUCURBITACEAE Jussieu, nom.,
List of species: 
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.Blastania garcinii (Burm.f.) Cogn.; Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.;Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai; Corallocarpus epigaeus (Rottler) Benth. & Hook.f. ex C.B. Clarke; Coccinia grandis (L.)Voigt.) ;
Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis var. agrestis; Cucumis sativus; Cucumis melo L. Var.melo; Cucumis maderaspatensis L.; Cucurbita maxima; Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.Jeffrey; Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn., Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)Standl.; 
Luffa acutangula; Luffa cylindrica;Momordica charantia L., ; Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd. ; Sicyos edulis Jacq.,Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi,
Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn.;Trichosanthes cucumerina L.,  
Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.,   Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.; Zehneria maysorensis (Wight & Arn.) Arn., 

Perennial to annual vines, climbing by axillary tendrils, hairs often glandular; leaves entire, often with extrafloral nectaries; plants dioecious,  flowers axillary; ebracteolate or not,  often 5 merous, rarely 3 merous; hypanthium  tube formed by adnation of calyx and corolla , calyx often connate, open, valvate; staminate flowers: stamens variously connate often forming a central column, pistillode 0; carpellate flowers: staminodes present; carpels 1 or 3 or , inferior, placentae intrusive, ovules, pendulous. Fruit usually fleshy pepo. Alkaloids, bitter tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids, punicic acid [C18H30O2], citrullin , saponins  present; little oxalate accumulation, tannins 0.
BEGONIACEAE C. Agardh, nom. cons.
Fleshy herbs; stems with swollen nodes; leaves two ranked, stipulate, lamina base asymmetric, margin serrate. The hairs are often large, flattened, spherical, multicellular, sessile. The plants are monoecious; inflorescence cymose; the staminate and carpellate flowers often have different numbers of tepals, sepals petal like, stamens many in male flowers, in centrifugal arrangement, connective enlarged; bright yellow. In carpellate flowers placentae are large, bilobed, stigmas twisted, yellow, fruit is often winged.
Plants tanniniferous, soluble oxalate accumulation is seen. 
Begonia malabarica Lam.,
FAGALES Engler,
CASUARINACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Species: Casuarina equisetifolia L.,  
Conifer like trees; roots with N-fixing Frankia; leaves 4-16-whorled, scale-like, margins entire; plant monoecious or dioecious, flowers in capitula or in spikes, bracts and bracteoles well-developed; staminate flowers: Perianth lobes 2 ; stamens 1, filament incurved in bud; carpellate flowers forms a small cone; bracteoles large; P 0; staminodes 0; ovules bitegmic; fruit a samara, freed as the much accrescent bracteoles separate.
MYRTALES Reichenbach
COMBRETACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
List of Species: Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Bedd., Combretum albidum G.Don, Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps,Conocarpus lancefolius ; Getonia floribunda Roxb., Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., Terminalia alata Roth, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia catappa L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia coriacea Wight & Arn., Terminalia pallida Brandis, Terminalia paniculata Roth,
Evergreen, trees or shrubs; bark flaking, leaves simple, opposite, entire; pellucid dots, and surface glands present; hairs unicellular, pointed, thick-walled, with a basal internal compartment. Flowers small, massed in spicate inflorescence, 4-5(-8)-merous; Corolla often small or 0; stamens obdiplostemonous, alternate with or opposite sepals; less than15, inserted below or at the hypanthial apex;  carpels 2-5, inferior, alternate with sepals or odd member, ovary unilocular, stigma capitate, ovules 2-7, fruit indehiscent, dry; seed single, large, inflated or winged. 5-desoxyflavonoids, flavonoid sulphates +; tropical in distribution. 
ONAGRACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
List of species: Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H.Hara, Ludwigia perennis L.,
 Flavonoid sulphates and raphides are present. 
LYTHRACEAE Jaume Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.
List of species: Ammannia baccifera L., Ammannia multiflora Roxb., Lagerstroemia indica L., Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.)Pers., Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb.,Lagerstroemiatomentosa C.Presl.,Lawsonia inermis L.,Punica granatum L.,Rotala densiflora ( Roth ) Koehne, Rotala verticillaris L.,   Rotala indica; Rotala densiflora (Roth)Koehne., Sonneratia apetala Buch. -Ham.Woodfordia fruticosa (L.)Kurz

Herbs to trees; bark flaky; leaves opposite, entire. Inflorescence variable; Flowers usually 4-6 merous; heterostyly common; hypanthium/K often strongly ribbed,thick; appendages alternating with sepals, petals clawed, crumpled in bud, (0); stamens 10 or more of unequal length; basically obdiplostemonous, inserted just below C to near ovary, filaments of unequal length; G superior, [2-6(-many)], or inferior, orientation variable, (placentation parietal), stigma capitate to punctate,ovules 1 per carpel. fruit a capsule, dehiscence often irregular, also circumscissile, loculicidal  or indehiscent; or berry, K often ± enclosing fruit; seeds usu. flattened   quinolizidine alkaloids +; mucilage cells common; mostly tropical.
MYRTACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
List of species: Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G.Don ex Loudon, Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., Eugenia roxburghii DC., Psidium guajava L., Syzygium alternifolium (Wight) Walp., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels,Syzygium jambos  (L.) Alston (Cultivated),
Trees or shrubs, often aromatic; bark flaky; leaves often opposite, entire, punctuate, with well-developed intramarginal vein ; flowers perfect, 4-5(-8)-merous; sepals calyptrate or circumscissile, petals 0 or 4-5, often deciduous; stamens many, conspicuous, in fascicles opposite to petals; anthers with an apical gland; G [2(-18], ovary inferior,stigma capitate; fruit baccate; while another large group of genera has ± superior ovaries and capsules.
MELASTOMATACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
List of species: Melastoma malabathricum L., Memecylon edule Roxb., Memecylon grande Blume,   Memecylon royenii Blume, Memecylon umbellatum Burm.f., Osbeckia zeylanica Steud. ex Naudin, 

 Herbs to shrubs and trees. Leaves opposite, entire, exstipulate, 2 or more strong veins ascending from at or near the base. Flowers 4or 5 merous, usually terminal, purple or blue; K quincuncial, C contorted; stamens twice the number of petals, carpels opposite petals, stigma punctate; Fruit berry.  The family has 2 major groups: Melastomatoideae and Olisbeoideae.  Visit: 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157664045311074
SAPINDALES Berchtold & J. Presl
ANACARDIACEAE R.Br. nom.cons.

Trees or shrubs; exudates black and/or rather resinous-smelling; leaves simple odd-pinnate and the leaflets are opposite to alternate. The flowers are small, 5 merous, andro/ gynophore present, ovule 1 per carpel.stigma capitate, and the fruits often have an excentric style or styles (e.g. Spondias!) and are often more or less flattened and single-seeded drupes. funicle often long.
Anacardium occidentale L., Buchanania axillaris (Desr.) Ramamoorthy,
Buchanania lanzan Spreng.,  Leaves broadly ovate; pubescent below; panicle with copious branches villous. Found in deciduous forests.
 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr., Mangifera indica L.,
Nothopegia heyneana (Hook.f.)Gamble; Small tree; flowers 4-merous, in axillary rufous racemes; drupes 0.5 cm across; blue; apex depressed.
Rare in Visakha patnam.
Rhus mysorensis G.Don, Rhus paniculata wall. Ex. Hok.f., Small unarmed tree; leaflets elliptic, margin entire; flowers in slender elongate panicles
Rare; in Rampa hills of E.Godavari district.
Semicarpus anacardium L.f., Trees; Leaves simple, rusty villous below; flowers 5-merous, in terminal panicles; all stamens fertile;  drupe reniform seated on fleshy receptacle.
Nalla jeedi. In Godavari, Visakha patnam districts.
Spondias pinnata (L.f.)Kurz, 
Trees, Leaves imparipinnate; flowers yellow in panicles at the end of leafless branches,  drupe ellipsoid.
Rare, in Kadapa district.
BURSERACEAE Kunth, nom. cons.  
BURSERACEAE Kunth, nom. cons.  
Trees or shrubs; bark often flaky, light grey; exudate colorless to white, resinous, scented (myrrh, frankincense). Leaves compound, odd-pinnate; leaflets opposite, long-petiolulate, pulvinate. Dioecy common. Flowers small; 5 merous; calyx connate; C valvate; ovules 2/carpel;style short. Drupes angled or septifragal capsule.
Boswellia ovalifoliolata N.P.Balakr. & A.N.Henry, Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn.) Engl., Garuga pinnata Roxb.,Trees; leaves imparipinnate, puberulous, with characteristic reddish galls; flowers yellow in terminal panicles; not deciduous at flowering; drupe oblong.
Protium serratum (Colebr.)Engl., Trees;leaves imparipinnate; flowers pale green; pyrenes covered with arilform pulp.

In Kurnool&Noth coastal districts.
SAPINDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Trees or shrubs; leaves spiral, odd pinnate, leaflets alternate, articulated, margins serrate; The base of the petiole is quite strongly swollen and the stem is ridged. inflorescence paniculate, the flowers often in clusters, imperfect; flowers 5-merous, C clawed; nectary extrastaminal; A 8, hairy; carpels 3, superior; fruits loculicidal capsule; only one or two seeds per carpel and are often deeply lobed, or a single carpel only may develop, the other one or two carpels persisting at the base; samaras of various types are common.
quebrachitol [cyclitol], toxic saponins, cyclopropane amino acids present.
Allophylus serratus (Hiern)Kurz, Cardiospermum corindum L., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.,
Erioglossum rubiginosum Bl.,
Large shrubs; leaves imparipinnate, inflorescence clothed in rusty tgolden tomentum, flowers greenish-white;fruit1-3 lobed. Common in Godavari and VSKP districts.
Lepisanthes tetraphylla Radlk., Sapindus trifoliatus L., Schleichera oleosa (Lour.)Merr.,
SIMAROUBACEAE
Trees; leaves odd-compound, leaflets have coarse, blunt, teeth and flat glands on the lower surface. The flowers are rather small, the petals usually barely exceeding the sepals. The fruits are often separate drupelets or samaras. Branchlets tomentose with persistent leaf scars. The bark is bitter, even when dry.
AILANTHUS Desf.,
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., SIMAROUBA Aubl.,

Simarouba amara Aubl.,
RUTACEAE
Trees or herbs rarely herbs. Leaves compound and leaflets opposite, punctuate; usually articulated, entire or serrate. Flowers perfect, 5-merous, petals free; stamens obdiplostemonous, often arranged in a ring, filaments flat, disc conspicuous at the base of the ovary, and stigma expanded. Fruits variable, many posses glandular-punctate pericarp, while others are dry, deeply lobed, and dehisce to reveal the black and shiny seeds.uranocoumarins, distinctive limonoids +; tropical.
AEGLE Correa,
Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.,Trees; Flowers polygamous, 4-merous, fragrant in paniculate cymes, yellowish; drupe indehiscent.
Common in VSKP
Aegle marmelos (L.)Corrêa, ATALANTIA Correa.,
Atalantia monophylla (L.) DC., CHLOROXYLON DC.,
Chloroxylon swietenia DC., Citrus L.,
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limetta Risso,
Citrus medica L., Shrubs; leaf crenate-serrate; flowers white-tinged red;  fruit large rind warted, thick, pulp scanty.
Rare in Prakasam and VSKP
Clausena heptaphylla (Roxb.) Wight&Arn.,
Shrubs; leaves 5-9 foliate, petiole short, stong-smelling, margin crenate; flowers yellow in panicles; berry 1-2 cm long, reddish.
In VSKP
Euodia lunuakenda (Gaertn.)Merr.,, Trees, unarmed; leaves 3-foliate; flowers white, 4-merous, unisexual in axillary panicles.fruit globose, 4cocci, each muricate.
Rare in E.Godavari dist.
GLYCOSMIS Correa,
Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.,
LIMONIA L.,
Limonia acidissima L.,
Micromelum pubescence Bl., Trees, leaves imparipinnate upto 30 cm long; flowers pale green in corymbose panicles; stamens 10, berry red, ovoid.
Rare in Kurnool and VSKP
MURRAYA Koen. ex L. nom.cons.,
Murraya koenigii Spreng., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, NARINGI Adans,Narangi alata(Wall. Ex.Wight &Arn.) Ellis, Small trees; leaves trifoliate, petioles winged.
In Nallamalai, and VSKP
Naringi crenulata ( Roxb.) Nicolson, PAMBURUS Swingle,
Pamburus missionis (Wight)Swingle,  
Paramignya monophylla Wight.,
Large scandent thorny shrubs;spines recurved; leaves 1 foliate; flowers white fragrant; berry yellow, obovoid, 2 cm across.
Rare in E.Godavari
Paramignya scandens (Griff.) Craib.,
Stout armed climbing shrubs; flowers solitary or fascicled; flowers smaller than P.monophyllla,
Very rare in VSKP.
PLEIOSPERMUM Swingle,
Pleiospermium alatum (Wight&Arn.)Swingle, TODDALIA Juss. nom.cons,
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.,
Zanthoxylum armatum Dc.,
Shrubs; prickles vertically flattened on the trunk; pungent aromatic; leaves imparipinnate,  petiole and rachis winged. Flowers in sparse panicles.  Petals 0; fruit red, ovoid, tubercled.
In VSKP.
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight.,
Shrubs; leaves 3 foliate; prickles straight or  slightly curved;flowers white in dense paniculate cymes. Fruit spherical, slightly pitted.

In Chittor district.
MELIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Usually trees. Leaves spiral and odd-compound; leaf bases are swollen and elongated vertically; leaflets are often opposite, dry, thin and brittle; tertiary venation evident. Bark odoriferous; gives out exudates. Flower buds longer than broad; flowers 5 merous, petals much longer than sepals; stamens 10, the mouth of staminal tube is blocked by the large stigma. The fruits and seeds are usually quite large.
Aglalia elaeagnoidea (Juss.)Benth.,
Trees; leaves odd-pinnate; flowers 5-merous, yellow; berry globose, ferruginous. Chittor, Godavari dist. Yerradugu ఎర్రడుగు 
Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.)Parker,
Large trees; branches serious; leaves odd-pinnate; flowers 3-5 merous, white in long spikes; capsule globose.
Rare in VSKP
AZADIRACHTA A. Juss.,  
Azadirachta indica A.Juss.,
Cipadessa baccifera(Roth) Miq.,
Small trees; branchlets tomentose; leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 4 pairs; flowers greenish-white in axillary corymbose panicles; drupe globose, 5lobed, red when ripe.
CHUKRASIA A.Juss.,
Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.,
MELIA L.,
Melia azedarach L.,
SOYMIDA A.Juss.,  
Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A.Juss.,
SWIETENIA L.,
Swietenia mahogani L.,
Toona ciliata Roem.,
Tres; leaves imparipinnate; flowers white in terminal panicles; capsule 5-valved; seeds 20-30 winged.
In VSKP
Trchilia connaroides(Wight&Arn.)
Small trees; branchlets reddish-lenticellate; leaves imparipinnate, coriaceous; flowers white in corymbose panicles; capsule 2 valved.
WALSURA Roxb.,
Walsura trifoliolata (A.Juss.) Harms,
Xylocarpus granatum Koening,
Trees; branchlets lepidote; leaves paripinnate; flowers white in corymbose panicles; capsule globose; 4 celled; seeds large.

Rare in swamp lands of Krishna district.
MALVALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
BIXACEAE Kunth, nom. cons.
List of species: Bixa orellana L., Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston, 

Plants shrubs or small trees with secretory canals; lamina margins serrate, a single vein proceeding to opaque deciduous apex of tooth; inflorescence terminal; flowers large; flowers 5 merous, calyx imbricate;  stamens many clustered in the centre of flower; anthers dehiscing by pores; stigma at most slightly lobed; ovules many per carpel on parietal placentation. Hairs glandular, not stellate.  Pantropical in distribution.
DIPTEROCARPACEAE Blume, nom. Cons
List of species: Shorea roxburghii G. Don, Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb., Shorea robusta Roxb. ex Gaertn. f., 
Trees; leaves spiral and two-ranked, coriaceous, with strong, parallel, if not particularly close, secondary veins and scalariform tertiaries; the hairs are often fasciculate or stellate. The inflorescences are axillary, branched, monochasial cymes, and flowers are small, pointed in bud and have a conspicuously contorted corolla; anthers versatile, connective distinctive. Fruits with strongly accrescent unequal sepals surrounding single-seeded nuts.
MUNTINGIACEAE C. Bayer, M. W. Chase & M. F. Fay, 
List of species:   Muntingia calabura L.
Trees; leaves two-ranked, base asymmetrical, margin serrate, stipules 0; flowers extra-axillary,  fasciculate, 4 or 5-merous; sepals valvate, basally connate,  persistent. Corolla imbricate, shortly clawed, crumpled in bud; stamens many; G (5-7), with  many ovules , style stout; fruit berry. Ellagic acid present.
MALVACEAE Jussieu nom.cons.
List of species: 
Abelmoschus crinitus Wall., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench,; Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) Wight & Arn., Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.,; Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet, Abutilon persicum (Burm. f.) Merr.; Abutilon pannosum (G.Forst.) Schlect., Abutilon indicum (L.)Sweet, A.indicum ssp. Guineensis; Adansonia digitata L.,  Alcea rosea L.,(Cultivated);  Bombax ceiba L., Byttneria herbacea Roxb., Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.; Corchorus aestuans L.;  Corchorus capsularis L.; Corchorus depressus  (L.) Stocks; Corchorus olitorius L.; Corchorus tridens L.; Corchorus trilocularis L.; Decaschistia crotonifolia Wight & Arn.; Decaschistia rufa Craib ; Decaschistia cuddapahensis T.K.Paul & M.P.Nayar; Eriolaena hookeriana Wight & Arn., Eriolaena lushingtonii Dunn ; Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R.Br.;  Gossypium arboreum L. Var. Obtusifolium ; Gossypium barbadense L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Gossypium herbaceum L., Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex A. L. Juss.; Grewia asiatica L.,  Grewia bracteata Roth, Grewia damine Gaertn., Grewia flavescens A.L. Juss. ;  Grewia hirsuta Vahl, Grewia orbiculata Rottler ; Grewia orientalis L., Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth, Grewia rothii DC., Grewia tiliifolia Vahl, Grewia tenax (Forsskal) Fiori; Grewia villosa Willd.;  Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.;Helicteres isora L., Herissantia crispa (L.) Brizicky, Hibiscus aculeatus Roxb.( Adavi gogu, Kondo gogu, Danasonigogu.), Hibiscus cannabinus L., Hibiscus hirtus L., Hibiscus lobatus (Murray) O. Kuntze, Hibiscus micranthus L. f., Hibiscus mutabilis L., Hibiscus platanifolius (Willd.) Sweet, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.,  Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Hibiscus schizopetalus (Masters) Hook. f. Hibiscus surattensis L.,Hibiscus vitifolius L., (syn. Kosteletzkya vitifolia ( L. ) M.R.Almeida & N.Patil) Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott & Endl. (Extinct in wild);  Kydia calycina Roxb.,(Potri) rare; Malachra capitata (L.) L., Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke; Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. var. arboreus ; Melhania incana Heyne ex Wight & Arn.; Melochia corchorifolia L.; Pavonia glechomifolia (A. Rich.) Garcke ex Schewin. f., Pavonia odorata Willd., Pavonia zeylanica (L.) Cav.; Pentapetes phoenicea L., ; Pterospermum diversifolium Blume, Pterosprmum suberifolium (L.) Lam., Pterospermum xylocarpum (Gaertn.) Santapau & Wagh;Sida acuta Burm. f., Sida cordata (Burm. f.) Borss.; Sida cunefolia Roxb., Syn. Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A. Rich.; Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn., Sida ovata Forsskal, Sida rhombifolia L., Sida spinosa L., Sterculia foetida L., Sterculia urens Roxb., Sterculia villosa Roxb. ; Theobroma cacao L., cultivated ; Thespesla lampas (Cav.) Daiz. & Gibs.; Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa; Triumfetta pentandra A. Rich; Triumfetta pilosa Roth,  Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.; Urena lobata L., ; Urena sinuata L., Waltheria indica  L.,

Shrubs to trees or herbs; leaves spiral or two-ranked, stipulate, margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; indumentum stellate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units ; epicalyx +, Calyx valvate, connate with a nectary at the base inside ; Corolla  contorted; the stamens are often numerous or 5 and variously connate and/or fasciculate;  androgynophore +; extrorse; pollen spiny, G (3-5-∞), variable in orientation, fruit a capsule or berry, schizocarp;the inside wall of the fruit and/or the surface of the seed is often hairy. 
BRASSICALES Bromhead,
MORINGACEAE Martynov, nom. cons
Woody, often quite stout-stemmed deciduous trees; bark exudes gum when wounded. Leaves spiral, odd-pinnate, 1- to 3-compound leaves that have conspicuous glands at the articulations and at the base; often smells unpleasantly when crushed. Flowers monosymmetric, 5-merous, papilionoid; median petal is adaxial; stamens 5; ovary oblong, style as long as stamens. Capsule woody, elongate, tricarpellate, three-angled. Seeds woody, globose, winged.
MORINGA Adanson,
Moringa concanensis Nimmo ex Dalzell & A.Gibson, Moringa oleifera Lam.,
CARICACEAE Dumortier, Stems stout, with flowing latex-like exudate; leaves spiral, lamina strongly lobed or palmately compound. Plants di or monoecious; flowers imperfect, in axillary, cymes. Staminate flower: calyx connate, small; corolla connate, contorted or valvate; stamens adnate to corolla, 10, of two lengths, whorled, the longer opposite the sepals, or equal and opposite to sepals, connective often developed; nectary on pistillode. Carpellate flowers: Corolla often free; nectary 0; G [5], placentation axile, style branches separate, stigmas flabellate or almost petal-like. The fruit is large berry and contains numerous seeds borne on five parietal placentae and each surrounded by mucilage. Benzylglucosinolates  are present.
CARICA L.,
Carica papaya L.,
SALVADORACEAE Lindley, nom. cons.
Small trees  or shrubs; with opposite, small, rather leathery leaves; plant dioecious or polygamous, or flowers bisexual; floral orientation oblique; 4-merous, sepals and petals contorted, corolla-staminal tube  present, short, stamens equal and opposite to sepals, free, basally connate, or adnate to corolla tube; nectar glands alternating with or abaxial to stamens or 0; ovary 1-4 locular, ovules 1-2 per carpel, style short, stigma at most slightly lobed; fruit a fleshy berry or drupe.
AZIMA Lam.,
Azima tetracantha Lam., Salvadora persica L.,
CAPPARACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Plants woody, leaves simple, compound in Crateva; the inflorescence is racemose, the flowers 4 merous, have a long gynophore, and monosymmetric; and often many stamens with long filaments, and the fruit is indehiscent.
CADABA L.,
Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce,; Cadaba trifoliata (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.
 CAPPARIS L.,
Capparis brevispina DC., Capparis divaricata Lam., Capparis grandis L.f., Capparis rotundifolia Rottler, Capparis roxburghii DC., Capparis sepiaria L., Capparis zeylanica L.,
CRATEVA L.,
Crateva religiosa G.Forst.,
MAERUA Forssk.,
Maerua cylindrocarpa Hadj-Moust.,
Niebuhria L.,
Niebuhria apetala Dunn,
CLEOMACEAE Berchtold & J. Pres
Herbaceous or shrubby plants with palmately compound leaves, the inflorescence is racemose, the flowers are monosymmetric, have four clawed petals, stamens six or many, and two carpels; the gynoecium has a gynophore, the stamens have long filaments, and the dehiscent fruit has a thin, persistent, loop-like woody placenta that remains on the plant after the fruit valves have fallen off.
CLEOME L.,
Cleome aspera J.König ex DC., Cleome chelidonii L.f.,Cleome chelidonii L.f. var. pallai V.S.Raju&C.S.Reddy,  Cleome felina L.f., Cleome gynandra L., Cleome monophylla L., Cleome rutidosperma DC., Cleome simplicifolia Hook.f. & Thomson, Cleome tenella L.f., Cleome viscosa L.,(syn.) Arivela viscosa (L.) Raf.,Cleome viscosa L. var. nagarjunakondensis Toth.,
Cleome monophylla
BRASSICACEAE Burnett, nom. cons.//CRUCIFERAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.
Herbs, quite often with a cabbagey smell and a pleasant, biting taste, with small eglandular hairs. Flowers 4 merous, dissymmetric, ebracteate, in corymbs. Corolla lobes clawed, stamens 6, as long as petals or included; the gynoecium has two carpels and a short style, and the distinctive dehiscent fruit has persistent, almost woody placental strands and also a membranous false septum or replum.
Methyl glucosinolates 0, methionine-derived glucosinolates present.
BRASSICA L.,

Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L., Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes L., Lepidium didymium L., Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern; Nasturtium officinale W. T. Aiton, Schouwia purpurea (Forssk.) Schweinfurth
Lepidium didymium
SANTALALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
XIMENIACEAE Horaninow
XIMENIA L.,
Ximenia americana L.,
OLACACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons
Plant parasites; leaves distichous, margins entire; flowers small in cymes; K small,  persistent, accrescent in Olax , cupular, teeth ± inconspicuous, C valvate,-3 in Olax large and protecting bud, with adaxial hairs; stamens opposite C, fertile-3, staminodes 3-6, anthers basifixed; nectary+, flowers heterostylous; G [3], style +, stigma small; ovule 1/carpel fruit 1-seeded drupe ; seed coat crushed.
OLAX L.,
Olax scandens Roxb.,
 LORANTHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.  
Stem parasites whose own stems form secondary points of attachment along the host stem. Leaves opposite, often rather thick and brittle (especially when dry) margin entire, venation inconspicuous. Flowers 4-5 merous; narrowly tubular and brightly colored - often red and/or orange - and lack much in the way of a calyx; Corolla lobes connate into tube, often split on 1 side; inflorescences of umbels, racemes, or spikes.the ovary is inferior and the fruits are fleshy. The flowers often have a bract/bracteole at the base and immediately to one side of the ovary.
DENDROPHTHE Mart.,
Dendrophthoe cuneata (B.Heyne) G.Don,
 Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh., 
Taxillus heyneanus Danser,
 OPILIACEAE Valeton, nom. cons.   
Root parasites, trees/ scandent shrubs; leaves, two-ranked, lack much in the way of venation, and may have small bumps because of the cystoliths. The flowers are small in almost catkin-like when young; axillary; there is only one perianth whorl. K very small, C free to ± connate The ovary is superior. nectaries alternating with A); G [2-5] (half inferior) stigma ± capitate.
CANSJERA A.Juss.,
Cansjera rheedei J.F.Gmel., ,Opilia amentacea Roxb.,
SANTALACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons. 
Plants stem parasites; flowers small, 4-5-merous; hypanthium + or 0; calyx 0, usually a patch of hairs on corolla where stamens are inserted; nectary on inside of corolla; pollen various; G [2-5], inferior, odd member abaxial,  or placentation free central, stigma often capitate or lobed; ovules straight  oranatropous, or not distinguishable; fruit baccate
SANTALUM L.,
Santalum album L.,Viscum articulatum Burm.f.,
CARYOPHYLLALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157666200789642
PLUMBAGINACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely climbers. Leaves simple, with broad bases and are frequently only shortly petiolate and with entire margins; flowers bisexual, regular, which have a relatively large, persistent, connate, ribbed, calyx; corolla contorted; stamens equal and opposite to petals; G [5], stigmas capitate or not; ovules single, funicle long and curled.
PLUMBAGO L.,
Plumbago zeylanica L.,
POLYGONACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Shoots monopodial, A sheathing stipule is common and the nodes of the herbaceous taxa in particular are more or less swollen; inflorescences racemose, with flowers in fascicles; flowers small, pedicels articulated;perianth  uniseriate, basally ± connate, lobes 3 to 6, persistent or become enlarged, surrounding the achene that is oftentrigonous. stamens equal to perianth members, or 3 times to tepals, alternate with perianth. Seed ruminate. 
ANTIGONON Endl.,  
Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.,
PERSICARIA (L.) P.Miller.,
Persicaria barbata (L.)H.Hara, Persicaria glabra ( Willd. ) M.Gómez,Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross; Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre; Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe
Persicaria pulchra (Blume) Soják ;Persicaria strigosa (R.Br.) Nakai
POLYGONUM L.,
Polygonum plebeium R.Br.,
 RUMEX L.,
Rumex vesicarius L.,
CARYOPHYLLACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Mostly herbs with opposite, entire leaves; geotropic adjustments occur at the swollen nodes. Flowers arise in cymes; with clearly distinguishable calyx and corolla; corolla bilobed or clawed or absent; stamens 5 or 10; fruit 1-seeded indehiscent capsule.
POLYCARPAEA Lam.,
Polycarpaea aurea Wight & Arn.,
Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam.,
AMARANTHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
ACHYRANTHES L.,
Achyranthes aspera L., Achyranthes aspera var. pubescens (Moq.) M.Gómez,  Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, (New record); Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult.,  Aerva lanata (L.) Juss., Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume, Allmania nodiflora (L.) R.Br. ex Wight, Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson,  Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze,  Alternanthera ficoidea (L.)Sm.,  Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil., Alternanthera  philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Alternanthera pungens Kunth, Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.,
 AMARANTHUS L.,
Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell., Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L.,Amaranthus polygonoides L.,  Amaranthus roxburghianus H. W. Kung, Amaranthus spinosus L., Amaranthus viridis L.,Amaranthus tricolour L.,Amaranthus caudatus L.,
ARTHROCNEMUM Moq.,
Arthrocnemum indicum Thw., syn. Halosarcia indica (Willd.) Paul G.Wilson Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume
Psilotrichum sericeum (J. König ex Roxb.) Dalzell
ATRIPLEX L.,
Atriplex repens Roth,  Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang., Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris (Cultivated)
CELOSIA L.,
Celosia argentia var. spicata L., Celosia cristata L., Celosia polygonoides Retz., CHENOPODIUM L.,
Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L.; Bassia indica (Wight) A.J.Scott;
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants
DIGERA Forssk.,
Digera muricata Mart., GOMPHRENA L.,
Gomphrena celosioides Mart., Gomphrena globosa L., Gomphrena serrata L.,  NOTHOSAERVA Wight,
Nothosaerva brachiata (L.) Wight, PUPPALIA A.Juss.,
Pupalia lappacea ( L.) A.Juss., Pupalia lappacea var. lappacea, Unknown.
SUAEDA Forssk. ex. J.F.Gmel.,
Suaeda fruticosa Forssk. ex J. F. Gmelin, Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort., Suaeda monoica Forssk., TRICHURIELLA Bennet,

Trichuriella monsoniae ( L.f.) Bennet,
AIZOACEAE Martynov, nom. cons.   
Prostrate herbs; leaves opposite, fleshy, leaf base membranous and usually surround the stem. The flowers 5-merous, perianth members green outside and coloured inside; stamens 5 or 10, inferior and ovary is septate. Fruit opens on moistening as septal or other tissue swells. Distributed in tropical, sub-tropical, arid areas.
SESUVIUM L.,
Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L., TRIANTHEMA L.,
Trianthema decandra L., Trianthema portulacastrum L., Trianthema triquetra Rottler & Willd., 
GISEKIACEAE Nakai   
Prostrate herbs; leaves opposite; flowers white in  leaf-opposed, dichasial cymes; perianth lobes 5, quincuncial;  stamens 5-15, alternating with perianth; carpels 5, ovary superior, pseudapocarpous, opposite to perianth, styluli  present; fruit muricate achene.
GISEKIA L.,
Gisekia pharnaceoides L.,
NYCTAGINACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Annual herbs to shrubs, or weak-stemmed trees, or lianas; leaves opposite; flowers 5 merous,  in cymose clusters; perianth connate, petal-like, valvate or contorted; stamens5, connate at base, ovary 3 celled, superior; fruit surrounded by perianth, achene or nutlet; covered by glands that produce a very sticky secretion. Isoflavonoids  present. Tropical in distribution.
BOERHAVIA L.,
Boerhavia chinensis (L.) Rottb., Boerhavia diffusa L., Boerhavia erecta L., Boerhavia repens L., BOUGAINVILLEA Comm. ex Juss.,
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, MIRABILIS L.,
Mirabilis jalapa L., PISONIA L.,

Pisonia aculeata L.,
MOLLUGINACEAE Bartling, nom. cons.
Herbs or subshrubs with pseudo-verticillate leaves that often have scarious stipules; flowers that may be quite showy but which generally lack any corolline whorl; stamens 5-10, filaments connate basally; G(5), placentation axile, style short or 0; ovules 1 per carpel; fruit loculicidal capsule and seeds that lack an obviously long funicle.
GLINUS L.,
Glinus lotoides L., Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC., Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser., Mollugo disticha Ser., Mollugo nudicaulis Lam., Mollugo pentaphylla L.,
BASELLACEAE Rafinesque, nom. Cons            
Succulent vines or lianes; flowers small, inflorescence racemose; perianth 5, connate, stamens 4-9, often equal and opposite perianth members, adnate to them, basally connate; stigma capitate or lobed; ovule single; fruit an utricle, surrounded by persistent perianth.  
BASELLA L.,
Basella alba L.,
TALINACEAE Doweld   
Herbs to shrubs, underground parts often tuberous;  leaves simple, entire, flowers perfect, corolla quincuncial, stamens 15-25; G [3], ovary at least initially septate. Fruit baccate, mucilaginous.
TALINUM Adanson,
Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss.,
PORTULACACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.  
Succulent, annual, herbs; leaves opposite; leaf axils with hairs, bristles, and/or slender scales, sometimes short and inconspicuous;  flowers axillary, solitary or in terminal cymes. Tepals 4-8, connate; bracts and tepals deciduous, stamens twice the petals, G(5), semi inferior, and capsule circumscissile; seed with hilar aril.
PORTULACA L.,
Portulaca grandiflora Hook., Portulaca oleracea L., Portulaca quadrifida L., Portulaca tuberosa Roxb.,Portulaca pilosa L., Portulaca umbraticola Kunth,
CACTACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.  
Plant woody; stems stout and very fleshy, green, axillary areoles of spines and hairs present, and flowers that usually have an inferior ovary and many stamens and "petals"; the fruits are fleshy.
C3/CAM cycling; rays wide and tall; calcium oxalate as whewellite [CaC2O4.H2O];
CEREUS Mill.,
Cereus pterogonus Lem., HYLOCEREUS (A. Berger) Britton & Rose,
Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose, NOPALEA Salm-Dyck,
Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck, OPUNTIA Mill.,

Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.)Haw., Opuntia monacantha Haworth,Opuntia vulgaris Mill., Opuntia stricta(Haw.) Haw.,
 CORNALES Dumortier  
CORNACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons.   
Trees and shrubs; leaves two ranked, often with entire margins, actinodromous venation. Flowers small, aggregated into compact inflorescences, all flowers open together. Flowers 4-10 merous, calyx small, connate, petals valvate, stamens opposite to sepals, anthers oblong, ovary inferior, crowned by a disc, 1-2 locular. Fruit 1-seeded drupe.
ALANGIUM Lam.,
Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wangerin,
visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157664059310453
https://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/4681923067
ERICALES Dumortier
BALSAMINACEAE A. Richard, nom. cons.  
Fleshy glabrous, herbs with more or less translucent stems; mucilage canals present; leaves simple, spiral, toothed. The flowers are strongly, vertically monosymmetric,  inverting during growth [resupinate];sepals 1-3, functionally abaxial sepal with prominent nectariferous spur, petals 5, when sepal 1, adaxial petal often with a sepaloid keel, lateral petals connate in pairs ; anthers connate and forming cap over stigma, filaments stout. Carpels 4, opposite to petals, style short, stigma fairly broad; ovules 1-several per carpel. The fruit is usually an explosively-dehiscent capsule with the walls inrolling from the base.
non-hydrolysable tannins, naphthoquinones present.
HYDROCERA  Blume ex Wight & Arnott,
 Hydrocera triflora (L.) Wight & Arn., IMPATIENS L.,
Impatiens balsamina L., Impatiens leschenaultii Wall.,
LECYTHIDACEAE A. Richard, nom. cons.   
Trees; leaves spiral, in tufts at the ends of the branches, or the leaves are two-ranked and scattered along the stem; minutely stipulate, margins are serrate. The flowers are often large and have free petals. Stamens numerous (up to 1200) free to connate; when connate, they may form a complex, cochleate structure that obscures the style and top of the ovary. The ovary is inferior and crowned by the often persistent valvate calyx. Fruit berry.
BARRINGTONIA J.R. Forster & J.G.A. Forster nom.cons,
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn.,
CAREYA Roxb., nom. Cons,.
Careya arborea Roxb.,
COUROUPITA Aubl.,
Couroupita guianensis Aubl.,
SAPOTACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Shrubs or trees with milky latex; terminal buds small, naked with adpressed, brownish, hairs. Leaves simple, two-ranked, entire, secondary veins often rather close; exude copious gutta. Flowers anisomerous, in cymes or axillary  fascicles; sepals connate at base, persistent; petals 4-18, stamens equals petals in number, and opposite to petals, introrse to extrorse, staminodes  opposite to sepals; carpels with hairs on the inside of the ovary, placentation axile, style short, stigma punctate or minutely lobed, ovules 1-2 per carpel; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds large, hard, shiny, hilar scar large, white.
ISONANDRA Wight,      
Isonandra villosa Wight, MADHUCA Ham. Ex Gmel.,    
Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia (Roxb.) A.Chev., MANILKARA Adanson,
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard,
Manilkara zapota (L.) P.Royen,Chrysophyllum roxburghii G.Don, Xantolis tomentosa (Roxb.) Raf., 
 MIMUSOPS L.,
Mimusops elengi L.,
EBENACEAE Gücke, nom. cons.   
Trees, bark is black, hard; leaves simple, two-ranked, lamina margins entire; flat, dark-colored glands on the lower surface of the blade are common. Pedicels articulated; flowers imperfect, sepals connate, corolla contorted. Staminate flowers: stamens adnate to corolla, in two series, basifixed, anthers long, connective prolonged, pistillode present; carpellate flowers: staminodes present, style  divided; ovules 2/carpel, pendulous, apotropous; fruit a berry, Calyx persistent,accrescent; Naphthoquinones are common in the family.
DIOSPYROS L.,
Diospyros chloroxylon Roxb., Diospyros ebenum J.Koenig ex Retz., Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Diospyros ovalifolia Wight, Diospyros vera (Lour.) A.Chev.,
PRIMULACEAE Borkhausen, nom. cons.,  
AEGICERAS Gaertn.,
Aegiceras corniculatum (L.)Blanco,Anagallis arvensis L.
Ardisia solanacea Roxb. Embelia ribes Burm.f. Embelia tsjeriam-cottam (Roem. & Schultes) DC.; Embellia villosa Wall. Ex. Roxb.;
Anagallis arvensis
EUASTERIDS
LAMIID/ASTERID I
ICACINALES van Tieghem 
ICACINACEAE Miers, nom. cons.
Evergreen trees or vines; tendrils are not strictly axillary; leaves opposite, entire, exstipulate. The flowers are small; pedicel articulated; K free to connate basally, C ± free; A free, filaments shorter than anthers; 1 carpel fertile. Fruit a drupe, compressed, ridged, longer than broad, the stones are variously ribbed or pocked.
list of species: 
 Natsiatum herpeticum Buchanan-Hamilton ex Arnott, ,rare in E.Godavari
 Pyrenacantha volubilis Wight in Hooker, rare in Nellore dist 
GENTIANALES Berchtold & J. Presl.
Branching from current flush; leaves opposite, joined by a line across the stem, (stipules +), ovules many/carpel. Iridoids [different pathways!], monoterpene indole alkaloids, (O-methylated) flavones and flavonols +, myricetin rare; glandular hairs 0.
RUBIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Plant woody; herbs to trees; stipules interpetiolar, two pairs; toothed ±;leaves simple, opposite or whorled; inflorescences often thyrsoid, flowers often aggregated; flowers 4- or 5-merous; calyx small, aestivation open, corolla with early tube formation, (valvate); ovary inferior, nectary on top, placentation axile (to parietal), style usually well developed; fruit baccate, drupaceous or capsular. seeds 1-many. Tannins, anthraquinones from shikimic acid.
List of species: 
Argostemma verticillatum Wall. In VSKP
Benkara malabarica (Lam.) Tirveng.,
Canthium coromandelicum (Burm.f.) Alston,  Canthium parvifolium Roxb., Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.,
 Ceriscoides turgida (Roxb.) Tirveng., Chassalia curviflora (Wall. ex Kurz) Thw. var. ophioxyloides (Wall.) Deb & Krishna; Coffea arabica L. Deccania pubescens var. candolleana (Wight & Arn.) Tirveng., Dentella repens (L.) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Galium asperifolium Wall., Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst., very rare; reported by R.S.Rao;  Gardenia gummifera L.f., Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis, Gardenia latifolia Aiton, Gardenia resinifera Roth, Guettarda speciosa L., Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. & B. Bremer, Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale, Hamelia patens Jacquin, Hydrophylax maritima L.f.,  Hymenodictyon obovatum Wall. Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabberley –(Nallamalai) ;Ixora coccinea L., Ixora finlaysoniana Wall. ex G.Don, Ixora pavetta Andr.,
Knoxia sumatrensis (Retz.) DC., Knoxia wightiana Wall. ex G.Don, Kohautia aspera (B.Heyne ex Roth) Bremek., Lasianthus truncates Bedd., Meyna spinosa Roxb. ex Link; Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC., Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth., Morinda citrifolia L.;Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham., Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. & Thonn., Neanotis calycina (Wall. ex Hook.f.) W.H.Lewis, Neanotis lancifolia (Hook.f.) W.H.Lewis,  Neanotis montholonii (Hook.f.) W.H.Lewis,  Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb.) Merr.;Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser, Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. & Schult.) DC., Oldenlandia attenuata (Willd.) M.R.Almeida, Oldenlandia corymbosa L., Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb., Oldenlandia ovatifolia (Cav.) DC., Oldenlandia stricta L., Oldenlandia umbellata L., Ophiorrhiza hirsutula Wight ex Hook.f.,  Ophiorrhiza mungos L.; Ophiorrhiza rugosa Wall., Paederia foetida L., Pavetta indica L., Pavetta hispidula Wight&Arn., Pavetta tomentosa Roxb. ex Sm., Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers,  Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc; Psychotria monticola Kurz;  Psilanthus wightianus (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) J.F.Leroy, Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn.,  Richardia scabra L.; Rubia cordifolia L., Spermacoce articularis L. f., Spermacoce hispida L., Spermacoce ocymoides Burm.f., Spermacoce pusilla Wall., Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb.; Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre, Tarenna asiatica (L.) Kuntze ex K.Schum., Thecagonum pteritum (Blume) Babu ; Wendlandia angustifolia Wight ex. Hook.f.; Wendlandia heynei (Roem.&Schult.) Santapau&Merchant;

Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC., Wendlandia tinctoria subsp. orientalis Cowan,
LOGANIACEAE Martius, nom. cons.   
Shrubs to trees or lianes; tendrils branched; leaves opposite or alternate, stipulate; entire, secondary veins palmate, 3-7 from the base. Flowers bisexual, 4-5 merous, in cymes, grouped into thyrsus. K basally connate or not, Corolla valvate or imbricate, often hairy at the mouth, nectary 0, poorly developed, or on walls of ovary; ovary often partly inferior and partly apocarpous (carpels congenitally syncarpous; postgenitally connate apically only), placentation axile, stigma capitate, long-clavate, 2-lobed, or punctate; ovules 1-many/carpel; fruit a follicle, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, drupe or berry; seeds often embedded in pulp.

Tryptophane-derived alkaloids, quercetin, kaempferol +;
 Mitreola petiolata (J.F.Gmel.) Torr. & A.Gray, Buddleja asiatica Loureiro, Mitrasacme indica Wight, Strychnos colubrina L., Strychnos lenticellata A.W.Hill;Strychnos nux-vomica L., Strychnos potatorum L.f., Strychnos wallichiana Steud. ex A. DC.,
GENTIANACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Herbs to shrubs, plants glabrous, leaves sessile, usually connate with stems  basally; flowers 4-5-merous, "disc-like" structure between calyx and corolla, Corolla right-contorted, marcescent, (tube formation intermediate), nectary 0, G 2 collateral, style often short, stigma broadly 2-lobed or capitate, fruit a septicidal capsule; calyx often prominent; seeds small to minute.
List of species:

Canscora alata (Roth) Wall., Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Canscora heteroclita (L.) Gilg , Canscora pauciflora Dalz., Canscora perfoliata Lam., Enicostema axillare (Poir. ex Lam.) A.Raynal, Exacum pedunculatum L., Exacum tetragonum Roxb., Exacum petiolare Griseb., Hoppea dichotoma Willd., Swertia angustifolia Buch.-Ham. var. pulchella (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don) Burkill
 APOCYNACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons
A number of taxa are climbers by twining, few are herbs or trees; latex copius, milky white; leaves simple and opposite. Flowers regular, appears extra axillary;  Corolla left-contorted, postgenital connation forming the upper tube[above the insertion of the anthers], corona also present in many species; anthers connivent, filament short; secondary pollen presentation is seen, pollen transported in foam; nectary separate the lobes, on outer wall of ovary, or 0; The two carpels are usually held together only by the swollen stylar head, adherent to anthers; Fruit a follicle, often diverge (if both are fertilized); seeds flattened with tufts of unicellular hairs at either end are common.
 tryptophane-derived, steroidal, indolizidine alkaloids, route II decarboxylated iridoids +, tanniniferous; 
List of species:
Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G.Don, Aganosma dichotoma K.Schum., Allamanda blanchetii DC., Allamanda cathartica L., Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don, Alstonia neriifolia D. Don,  Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br., Alstonia venenata R.Br.,; Anodendron paniculatum A.DC., Asclepias curassavica L.,; Brachystelma glabrum Hook. f.,Brachystelma volubile Hook.f., Brachystelma penchalkonensis(New record) ; Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata (Wall.) Gravely & Mayur., Caralluma indica (Wight & Arn.) N.E.Br., Caralluma stalagmifera C.E.C.Fisch., Caralluma umbellata Haw., Caralluma umbellata Haw., Carissa carandas L., Carissa spinarum L., Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold, Catharanthus pusillus (Murray) G.Don, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don, Cerbera odollam Gaertn., Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb., Ceropegia candelabrum L., Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn., Ceropegia juncea Roxb., Ceropegia spiralis Wight,   Cosmostigma racemosum (Roxb.)Wight., Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. &Schult., Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R.Almeida, Cryptolepis elegans Wall ex. Don; Cryptolepis grandiflora Wight; Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br., Cynanchum callialatum Buch.-Ham. ex Wight, Cynanchum tunicatum (Retz.) Alston ,  Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., Dregea volubilis (L.f.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Gymnema decaisneanum Wight , Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. ex Schult., Hemidesmus indicus var. pubescens Hook.f., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Heterostemma deccanense (Talb.) Swarup. & Mangaly,(Endemic to A.P) Heterostemma tanjorense Wight & Arn.; Holostemma ada-kodien Schult., Hoya pendula Wight & Arn.; Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton, Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn., Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Moon, Nerium oleander L., Oxystelma esculentum (L.f.) Sm., Oianthus disciflorus Hook.f.; Pentalinon luteum (L.) B.F.Hansen & Wunderlin, Pentatropis capensis (L.f.) Bullock, Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov., Plumeria alba L., Plumeria rubra L., Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., Rauvolfia serpentina  (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, Sarcolobus carinatus Wall.; Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt, Secamone emetica (Retz.) R.Br. ex Schult., Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Telosma pallida (Roxb.) Craib, Telosma cordata (Burm. f.) Merr.; Toxocarpus kleinii Wight & Arn.,  Toxocarpus longistigma Wight & Arn. ex Steud. syn.Toxocarpus roxburghii Wight & Arn.(Endemic to A.P), Tylophora fasciculata Buch.-Ham. ex Wight; Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Tylophora pauciflora Wight &Arn., Tylophora rotundifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Wight; Vallaris solanacea (Roth) Kuntze, Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb., Wrightia indica Ngan(New record), Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.,
SOLANALES Berchtold & J. Presl  
SPHENOCLEACEAE Baskerville 
Erect fleshy annuals of damp or flooded habitats with entire, spirally-arranged leaves and dense terminal spikes of small flowers with more or less inferior ovaries. The small fruits are circumsessile, the lid coming off just. Cortical air spaces+. Distribution: Pantropical.
SPHENOCLEA Gaertn.,
Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn.,
HYDROLEACEAE Edwards,   
Annual herbs, growing near or even in water. Leaves small, flowers blue, sepals connate, corolla broadly campanulate, and an ovary with separate, more or less spreading styles, fruit septicidal capsule. Distribution:Tropical, warm temperate.
HYDROLEA L.,
Hydrolea zeylanica (L.) J.Vahl,
CONVOLVULACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Plants vines, laticiferous to scarious; if indumentum is present it is silky. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, palmate venation. Flowers in dichasial cymes; Calyx persitent, quincuncial; corolla large, radially symmetric, contorti-plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation and the five stamens are adnate to the tube. G(2), each loculus usually having two ovules. Fruits are brown and woody. Seeds are hard and shiny; exotesta with papillae or hairs. Homospermidine synthase +, (pyrrolizine alkaloids +), (ergoline alkaloids +
List of species:
Argyreia arakuensis N.P.Balakr. Argyreia cuneata (Willd.) Ker Gawl.,  Argyreia cymosa (Roxb.)Sweet, Argyreia daltonii C.B.Clarke. Argyreia hirsuta Wight & Arn., Argyreia involucrata C.B.Clarke; Argyreia kondaparthiensis P.Daniel & Vajr.
 Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer, Argyreia pilosa Wight & Arn., Argyreia roxburghii (Wall.) Arn. ex Choisy, Argyreia sericea Dalzell, Bonamia semidigyna (Roxb.) Hallier f. 
Convolvulus arvensis L., Convolvulus rottlerianus Choisy; Cressa cretica L.,  Cuscuta campestris Yunck., Cuscuta hyalina Roth, Erycibe paniculata Roxb. Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L., Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L., Hewittia scandens (J. König ex Milne) Mabb., Ipomoea alba L., Ipomoea aquatica Forssk., Ipomoea barlerioides (Choisy) Benth.ex Clarke, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet,, Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D.F. Austin, Ipomoea coptica (L.) Roth ex Roem. & Schultes, Ipomoea dichroa Choisy, Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br., Ipomoea hederifolia L., Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc., Ipomoea macrantha  (Kunth)G.Don,  Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth, Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-Gawl., Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br. var. pes-caprae , Ipomoea pes-tigridis L., Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea quamoclit L., Ipomoea rumicifolia Choisy, Ipomoea staphylina Roem. & Schultes, Ipomoea turbinata Lag., Ipomoea wightii (Wall.) Choisy ; Jacquemontia paniculata var. paniculata Hallier f., Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm. f.) Hallier f., Jacquemontia pentantha (Jacq.) G.Don,;
Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urban, Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hall.f., Merremia emarginata (Burm.f.) Hall.f., Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hall.f., Merremia quinquefolia (L.) Hall.f., Merremia umbellata (L.) Hall.f., Merremia tridentata (L.) Hallier f.,  Merremia vitifolia (Burm.f.) Hall.f.; Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso; Rivea hypocrateriformis Choisy, Rivea ornata (Roxb.) Choisy,;
SOLANACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Herbs to shrubs, usually foetid;  branching sympodial; paired leaves adjacent on the stem are common; leaves simple to compound; branching/leaf insertion in inflorescence distinctive ; flowers 5 merous, weakly monosymmetric, sympetalous ; Corolla in twisted aestivation; median petal is in the adaxial position; anthers dehiscing by pores or the anthers as a group are connivent at the apex. calyx connate, persistent  and even enlarge in fruit. Ovary oblique, often pseudo-4-locular, placentae swollen, stigma capitate or peltate. The fruit is usually bicarpellate and is a septicidal capsule or a berry with flattened seeds. Distribution: World-wide.
hygroline alkaloids, oligosaccharides, (myricetin) +;
List of species:

Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., Cestrum nocturnum L., Datura innoxia Mill., Datura metel L., Datura stramonium L.,; Lycianthes laevis (Dunal) Bitter, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum L.,Petunia hybrids; Physalis angulata L., Physalis lagascae Roem. & Schult., Physalis peruviana L.; Solanum americanum Mill, Solanum anguivi Lam., Solanum erianthum D.Don,, Solanum giganteum Jacq., Solanum melongena L. var. Melongena, Solanum pubescens Willd., Solanum seaforthianum Andr., Solanum torvum Sw., Solanum trilobatum L., Solanum undatum Lam.,, Solanum villosum Mill.; Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal,

BORAGINALES Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons.
The classification of families are done as per APG system of classification as per http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/; but the Plant list there is only one family ie., Boraginaceae
BORAGINACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Plants herbaceous; roughly hairy; the leaves are spiral; simple, with midvein alone obvious. Flowers solitary or in cymes; bracteoles 0; sepals free, persistent; corolla funneliform, lobes spreading, mouth with in pushings of corolla tube; ovary with secondary septae, placentation parietal, style gynobasic, hollow, stigma capitate, heterostyly +;  fruit a schizocarp, four nutlets which may be ornamented with hooks and various other projections.
 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids; silicon concentration common. Temperate to tropical in distribution.
Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl ex Hornem.) Thunb. ex Lehm.; Rotula aquatica Lour.,      Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm., Trichodesma indicum var.amplexicaule (Roth) T. Cooke, Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br.,
HELIOTROPIACEAE Schrader, nom. cons. 
Herbs, leaves simple, alternate, often scabrous; flowers 5-merous, in scorpioid cymes; C imbricate or with involute margins; A connate at apex; style much swollen apically- almost plug-like, stigma receptive only basi-laterally, the style is terminal. The fruit is often a schizocarp- drupe with 4, 1-seeded stones.
HELIOTROPIUM L., Heliotropium bracteatum R.Br., Heliotropium curassavicum L., Heliotropium indicum L., Heliotropium ovalifolium Forssk., Heliotropium scabrum Retz., Heliotropium strigosum Willd.,
CORDIACEAE Dumortier, nom. cons.
Plants woody, rarely herbs; the bark is fibrous, and the twigs are whitish in color. Leaves spiral, scabrous. Flowers 4-or 5-merous, solitary or in sub-dichasial cymes; K valvate to open; C contorted; stamens 4; and the styles are twice branched and with capitate stigmas. The fruits are drupes, surrounded by a persistent and more or less accrescent calyx.
COLDENIA L.,
Coldenia procumbens L., Cordia dichotoma G.Forst., Cordia domestica Roth,  Cordia macleodii Hook.f. & Thomson, Cordia sinensis Lam.,
Cordia monoica Roxb., Cordia sebestena L.,
EHRETIACEAE Martius, nom. cons. 
Woody shrubs or trees, often the bark is fibrous, the twigs are whitish in color. The leaves are alternate, simple, pubescent or scabrous. The flowers 5-merous, small, in simple or dichasial cymes. K-valvate, C imbricate or inwards-folded, rotate; stamens 5;G(5) , placentation axile, and the style is once-divided, stigmas capitate. The fruits are drupes, surrounded by a persistent calyx.
EHRETIA P.Beauv., 
Ehretia acuminata R.Br., Ehretia aspera Willd., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Ehretia laevis var. pubescens (Benth.) C.B. Clarke, Ehretia microphylla Lam.,
LAMIALES 
visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157666200153432
OLEACEAE Hoffmannsegg & Link, nom. cons.   
Plants woody, trees or shrubs erect or scandent; stem is also somewhat swollen at the nodes, there is no line across the node. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, simple to odd-pinnately compound; petioles dark and drying; buds superposed; the terminal bud quite often aborts. Inflorescence with terminal flower, with cymose branches;  flowers usually 4 merous, Jasminum 5merous,  sympetalous, polysymmetric;  calyx valvate; stamens 2; style short. Fruit a berry or samara.
carboxycyclic iridoids, myricetin, orobanchin, mannitol +; fibre tracheids +; hairs peltate secretory; cuticle deeply furrowed. More or less worldwide, especially East Asia.
List of species:
Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb.; Chionanthus zeylanicus L., Jasminum angustifolium (L.) Willd., Jasminum angustifolium var. sessiliflorum (Vahl) P.S.Green, Jasminum auriculatum Vahl, Jasminum azoricum L., Jasminum brevilobum A.DC. ,Jasminum calophyllum Wall. & G.Don, Jasminum cuspidatum Rottl. & Willd., Jasminum grandiflorum L.,   Jasminum malabaricum Wight, Jasminum multiflorum (Burm.f.) Andrews, Jasminum scandens Vahl, Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton, Jasminum trichotomum Heyne ex Roth, Olea paniculata R. Br.; Schrebera swietenioides Roxb., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.,
PLANTAGINACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons
Herbs or shrubs; or rooted aquatics; leaves spiral to opposite, simple to compound; hairs with gland head, stamens 2, thecae parallel, end-to-end, sagittate, connective well developed, ovules 1 per carpel, stigma slightly capitate or bilobed . Fruit a septicidal capsule; seeds 1-many.
BACOPA Aublet.,
Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst., reported by Srinivasa rao &Suryanarayana but not traced Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst., Dopatrium is reported earlier; but now not traceable in the area.
Kickxia ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., 
Limnophila aquatica (Roxb.) Alston,Limnophila aromatica (Lam.)Merr., Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.,  Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth., Limnophila indica (L.)Druce, Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth., Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr., Lindenbergia muraria (Roxb. ex D. Don) Brüh; Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small,  Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. & Cham., Scoparia dulcis L., Stemodia viscosa Roxb.,
SCROPHULARIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Herbs or shrubs, leaves opposite, or spiral, lamina punctate; flowers polysymmetric , 4-merous in racemes, sepals unequal or not, ovules 1 per locule,  pleurotropous, stigma capitate. Capsule septicidal.
Sutera dissecta Walp.,Verbascum chinense (L.) Santapau,
LINDERNIACEAE Borsch, K. Müller, & Eb. Fischer   
Ephemerals to suffruticose perennials; stems 4 anglular, with opposite leaves, lamina venation  palmate, margins entire or serrate;flowers  monosymmetric,axillary or racemose; corolla with glandular hairs on the inside; stamens 4 or 2 the lower stamens usually very different from the upper, either Z-shaped, or long and curved, with a projection, or very much reduced; abaxial Z-shaped staminodes with an appendage; stigma bilobed,; capsule septicidal or -fragal; seeds with ruminate endosperm, surface alveolate or furrowed.
Distribution: Pantropical to warm temperate.
LINDERNIA Allioni,
Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston, Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell, Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell., Lindernia hyssopoides (L.) Haines, Lindernia nummulariifolia (D.Don) Wettst., Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee, Lindernia parviflora (Roxb.) Haines ,  Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox,    Lindernia pusilla (Willd.) Bold., Torenia indica C.J.Saldanha, 
PEDALIACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.   
Annual to perennial herbs; stem usually succulent; rarely deciduous trees; Leaves simple, margins toothed, lobed or entire; flowers usually axillary in dichasial cymes; monosymmetric; paired nectaries at base of pedicel; corolla with spur, stamens 5, thecae  confluent, at right angles to filaments, staminode present; ovary superior. Fruit with hooks or prickles, splits loculicidally, style base indurated.   
Mostly tropical, in coastal or arid habitats.
PEDALIUM L.,
Pedalium murex L., Sesamum alatum Thonn., Sesamum indicum L., Sesamum laciniatum J. G. Klein ex Willd., Sesamum prostratum Retz.,
MARTYNIACEAE Horaninow, nom. cons.   
Annual herbs, with tuberous roots, with sticky hairs; leaves  spiral, lamina margins toothed; flowers monosymmetric, large, in racemes; calyx free; stamens 2, connective with apical gland, staminodes present, ovary superior ovary with parietal placentation, placentae bilobed, stigma bilobed; 2-many ovules/carpel; capsule with paired apical spurs or hooks; mesocarp  fleshy, falling off, woody layer with crests and spines.
harpagide, harpagioside [8ß-8α-methyl substituted iridoids] +;
Tropical and subtropical America
MARTYNIA L.,
Martynia annua L.,
PHRYMACEAE Schauer, nom. cons.
Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, inflorescences bearing small, monosymmetric flowers. The calyx tubular, toothed, subplicate-ribbed persistent. Corolla subequal. Stamens 2, anthers subreniform, thecae confluent. Stigma broadly 2-lobed.  Capsule many seeded.

Peplidium maritimum (L. fil.) Wettst., 
ACANTHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Herbs to shrubs; inflorescence racemose, bracts large, conspicuous; Calyx free or connate, often sharply pointed, adaxial lobes of Corolla outside others in bud [aestivation descending cochleate], (lobes narrow); stamens 2 or 4, staminodes present or 0; carpels 2, syncarpous, superior; capsule dehiscence explosive, walls cartilaginous, calyx persistent. Mostly tropical.
List of plants:
Acanthus ilicifolius L., Andrographis alata (Vahl) Nees, Andrographis echioides (L.f) Nees, Andrographis elongata (Vahl) T. And., Andrographis glandulosa Nees, Andrographis lineata Nees,  Andrographis ovata (T.Anderson ex Bedd.) Benth. & Hook.f., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Andrographis serpyllifolia (Rottl. ex Vahl) Wight, Andrographis nallamalayana J.L.Ellis ,Andrographis beddomei C.B.Clarke;(Endemic to Andhra Pradesh); Asystasia chelonoides Nees, Asystasia gangetica (L.) Anderson, Asystasia dalzelliana Santapau, Avicennia  alba Blume, Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh, Avicennia officinalis L., Barleria acuminata Nees, Barleria buxifolia L., Barleria courtallica Nees, Barleria cristata L., Barleria cuspidata Heyne ex Nees, Barleria gibsonii Dalz., Barleria longiflora L.f., Barleria montana Nees, Barleria mysorensis Heyne ex Roth, Barleria noctiflora L.f., Barleria prattensis Sant., Barleria prionitis L., Barleria strigosa Willd.,
 Barleria tomentosa Roth,  Blepharis integrifolia (L.f.) E.Mey. & Drège ex Schinz , Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) B.Heyne ex Roth, Cardanthera balsamica (L.f.) Benth. ex C.B.Clarke, Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees, Crossandra nilotica Oliv., Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees, Dicliptera cuneata Nees, Dicliptera foetida (Forssk.) Blatter, Dicliptera verticillata (Forssk.) Christensen, Dicliptera  beddomei C.B.Clarke,  Dicliptera parvibracteata Nees; Dicliptera paniculata (Forssk.) I.Darbysh., Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.)Nees, Dyschoriste erecta (Burm.) Kuntze, Dyschoriste litoralis (L.f.) Nees, Dyschoriste vagans (Wight) Kuntze Ecbolium ligustrinum (Vahl) Vollesen, Ecbolium viride  (Forssk.) Alston, Elytraria acaulis (L.f.) Lindau, Eranthemum capense L., Eranthemum purpurascens Nees; Gantelbua urens (B.Heyne ex Roxb.) Bremek., Gymnostachyum pubescens (Lam.) M.R.Almeida, Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) Majumdar,  Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T.Anderson, Hemigraphis venosa C.B.Clarke, Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine, Hygrophila heinei Sreemadh., Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees, Justicia adhatoda L., Justicia betonica L., Justicia diffusa Willd., Justicia gendarussa Burm. f., Justicia glabra (Oerst.) Lindau, Justicia glauca Rottler, Justicia japonica Thunb., Justicia nilgherrensis (Nees) Wall. ex C.B.Clarke, Justicia pectinata L. , Justicia parviflora Retz. , Justicia procumbens L., Justicia prostrata Gamble, Justicia quinqueangularis J. Koenig ex Roxb.,  Justicia repens L., Justicia tranquebariensis Roxb., Justicia trinervia Vahl, Justicia vahlii Roth, Lepidagathis cristata Willd., Lepidagathis cuspidata Nees, Lepidagathis fasciculata (Retz.) Nees, Lepidagathis hamiltoniana Wall. ex Nees, Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Lepidagathis mitis Dalz., Lepidagathis subarmata Gamble, Leptostachya wallichii Nees, Meyenia hawtayneana Nees, Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng., Nilgirianthus circarensis (Gamble) Bremek.
; Petalidium barlerioides (Roth) Nees , 
Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet ,  Phlebophyllum jeyporense (Bedd.) Bremek.
Phlebophyllum versicolor (Wight) Bremek.
Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.) Guillaumin, Pseuderanthemum latifolium (Vahl) B. Hansen, Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz var. Nasutus, Ruellia patula Jacq., , Ruellia tuberosa L., Ruellia simplex C.Wright, ; Staurogyne glauca Kuntze, 
Strobilanthes alternata (Burm. f.) E. Moylan ex J. R. I. Wood, Strobilanthes carinei J. R. I. Wood, nom. nov. (Replaced name: Stenosiphonium setosum T.Anderson, non Strobilanthes setosa J. R. I. Wood, Strobilanthes consanguineus (Nees) T. Anders., (Phlebiphyllum spicatum) Strobilanthes cordifolia (Vahl) J. R. I. Wood,(Stenosiphonium russelianum); Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees(syn. Nilgirianthus heyneanus (Nees) Bremek. ) Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov.(syn. Hemigraphis latebrosa (Roth) Nees,) , Thunbergia alata Boj. ex Sims, Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T. And., Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. var. Fragrans, Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
BIGNONIACEAE Jussieu   
Trees or shrubs; leaves bicompound, margins entire (toothed); flowers large; K often with nectaries, A (5, 2), thecae sagittate or head-to-head, usu. not confluent, tapetum amoeboid, ovules in two groups in each loculus, (placentae lobed), stigma lobes broad, sensitive, fruit often with nectaries; seeds many, winged; C-4 carboxyl and ecarboxylated iridoids +; cork also cortical; cambium storied.
List of Plants:

Adenocalymma comosum  (Cham.) DC., Dolichandrone arcuata (Wight) Clarke,  Dolichandrone atrovirens (Roth) K.Schum., Dolichandrone falcata (Wall. ex DC.) Seem., Heterophragma quadriloculare (Roxb.) K.Schum., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don , Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. , Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum., Millingtonia hortensis L.f., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Radermachera xylocarpa (Roxb.) Roxb. ex K.Schum., Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv., Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC., Stereospermum tetragonum DC., Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook.f. ex S.Moore; Tabebuia berteroi (DC.) Britton , Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) Bertero ex A.DC. , Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl., Tecoma castanifolia (D.Don) Melch., Tecoma  stans  (L.) Juss. ex Kunth , Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., 

LENTIBULARIACEAE Richard, nom. cons.   
Vegetatively diverse insectivorous herbs of wet habitats. Utricularia may have leaves or not, but plant parts are modified in to animal-collecting bladders with trap-door entrances that open on stimulation of one of the four sensitive hairs. The flowers are strongly bilabiate, with a nectar-secreting spur, and there are only two anthers.
Utricularia aurea Lour.,  Utricularia bifida L.,    Utricularia caerulea L.,  Utricularia graminifolia Vahl, Utricularia gibba L., Utricularia polygaloides Edgew., Utricularia scandens Benj., Utricularia stellaris L.f., Utricularia striatula Sm.,
VERBENACEAE Jaume Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.   
Vines, trees, or herbs; aromatic, the opposite leaves are serrate; the stem is often 4-angled and with a line across the node, eglandular hairs unicellular, and the often rather weakly monosymmetric flowers with a trumpet-shaped corolla and more or less included anthers are borne in racemes or heads. A of two lengths, but free ; G collateral, placenta on the margin of the carpel,The stigmatic area is conspicuously asymmetricly swollen and glandular and the ovary has four ovules. obturator +; fruit a schizocarp or drupe, K persistent. 4-carboxy-iridoids +; needle crystals common; stomata diacytic,
DURANTA L.,
Duranta erecta L., Lantana camara L., Lantana indica Roxb.,Lantana wightiana Wall. Ex Gamble, Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene, Priva cordifolia (L.f.) Druce, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Stachytarpheta  urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims, Citharexylum spinosum L.,  Petrea volubilis L.,Chascanum hyderabadense (Walp.) Moldenke
LAMIACEAE Martynov, nom. cons.//LABIATAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom alt.
Mostly herbs; stem often 4 angled; eglandular hairs unicellular; or stellate; leaves simple or palmately compound, lamina vernation variable, margins toothed; flowers monosymmetric, stamens 4 or 2, staminode 0 ;G [2(-5)], style bifid, stigma inconspicuous, not expanded, ovules 2 per carpel, borne on inner side of carpel margin, erect, apotropous; fruit indehiscent, a schizocarp, berry or drupe, calyx persistent or accrescent;
Diterpenoids, betaines, C4-decarboxylated iridoids +;worldwide.
List of Plants:
Acrocephalus hispidus (L.) Nicolson & Sivadasan, nallamala, vskp; Ajuga macrosperma Wall. ex Benth, VSKP; Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) Wall., Anisochilus eriocephalus Benth., Anisochilus verticillatus Hook.f., Anisomeles heyneana Benth., ,   Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze, Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R.Br. ex Sims,; Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench, Callicarpa arborea Roxb., Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl, Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) L., 
Clerodendrum aculeatum (L.) Schltdl.( Volkameria aculeata L.),  Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb., Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze, , Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn., Clerodendrum infortunatum L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f., Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm., Endostemon viscosus (Roth) M.R.Ashby, Gmelina arborea Roxb., Gmelina asiatica L., Gomphostemma parviflorum Wall. ex Benth.,  Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz.,  Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.,  Lavandula bipinnata (Roth) Kuntze, Isodon japonicus (Burm.f.) H.Hara, Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br., Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link, Leucas biflora (Vahl) R.Br. ex Sm., Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng., Leucas chinensis (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm., Leucas diffusa Benth., Leucas hirta (B.Heyne ex Roth) Spreng.,Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.
Leucas lanceifolia Desf., Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R. Br., Leucas montana Spreng., Leucas stricta Benth., Leucas urticaefolia (Vahl) R.Br., Leucas vestita Benth.  var. Vestita, Mentha arvensis L. , Meriandra bengalensis (Konig ex Roxburgh) Benth., Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Benth., Clinopodium capitellatum (Benth.) Kuntze, Ocimum americanum L., Ocimum basilicum L. var. Basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Origanum majorana L., Orthosiphon pallidus Royle ex Benth., Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth., Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen, Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, Platostoma elongatum (Benth.) A.J.Paton, Platostoma menthoides (L.) A.J.Paton, Plectranthus ambonicus (Lour.)Spreng., Plectranthus barbatus Andr., Plectranthus caninus Roth, Plectranthus mollis (Ait.) Spreng.; Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Pogostemon myosuroides (Roth) El Gazzar & L. Watson, Pogostemon nilagiricus Gamble,Pogostemon parviflorus Benth., (New addition)Pogostemon rugosus (Hook.f.) El Gazzar & L. Watson; Pogostemon pressii Panigrahi, Pogostemon stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze; Premna corymbosa Rottler & Willd., Premna latifolia Roxb., Premna lucidula Miq., Premna serratifolia L., Premna tomentosa Willd., Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb.; Salvia plebia R.Br., Salvia splendens Sell. ex Nees
Scutellaria barbata D.Don , Scutellaria violacea Heyne ex Benth., Symphorema involucratum Roxb., Tectona grandis L.f., Teucrium tomentosum Heyne ex Benth.,Verbena officinalis L., Vitex altissima L.f., Vitex leucoxylon L.f., Vitex negundo L., Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer, Vitex pinnata L., Vitex trifolia L.
OROBANCHACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
   Hemiparasitic herbs; leaves spiral to opposite; lamina margins often toothed to deeply lobed;  inflorescens raceme; flowers monosymmetric, calyx free; Corolla aestivation quincuncial. Staminodes 0, anther thecae parallel or ± confluent, sagittate to inverted U-shaped, often hairy, with tails or basal awns; carpels 5, superior, stigma clavate to capitate; ovule more than 1 per carpel, placentation parietal. Capsule loculicidal to septicidal, or indehiscent; seeds minute, winged. Ectomycorrhizae absent; orobanchin present, little oxalate accumulation.
Mostly tropical.
Alectra avensis (Benth.) Merr., ,Buchnera hispida Ham. Ex. D.Don,
Centranthera tranquebarica (Spreng.) Merr., ,Micrargeria wightii Benth., Orobanche cernua Loefl., Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Hochst.) Benth.Sopubia delphinifolia G.Don,, Striga angustifolia (D.Don) C.J. Saldanha, Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze, ,Striga densiflora (Benth.)Benth., Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke,
VAHLIALES Doweld
VAHLIACEAE Dandy
Densely glandular-pubescent herbs; leaves opposite entire; flowers small in cymose inflorescences, pedicels short; petals are free, A not adnate to C, anthers sagittate;and the gynoecium has a single loculus with apical placentae; the fruit has an inferior ovary and dehisces at the apex inside the sepal lobes, and these, the corolla, etc., are all persistent. 
list of species:
Vahlia dichotoma (J. A. Murr.) Kuntze
Vahlia digyna (Retz.) Kuntze 
ASTERACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons. //COMPOSITAE Giseke, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   
Herbs rarely trees or vines; leaves  opposite, rarely alternate; flowers small, aggregated into head or capitulum,  lacking a terminal flower, involucral bracts in several series; flowers poly- or variously monosymmetric, flowers open first on the outside, bracts or bracteoles 0; calyx reduced; corolla 5 lobed, 3-lobed in  ray florets, lobes of disc corollas usually longer than wide; anthers connate  and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved; anthers with conspicuous apical and basal appendages. Ovary inferior, one loculed, ovule solitary, basal. Fruits single seeded, calyx pappose in fruit; and are frequently dispersed by wind.Various alkaloids, polyacetylenes  , iso/chlorogenic acid, isoflavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, terpenoid essential oils,  present in the seeds, tannins also present.
LIST of PLANTS:
Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Acilepis divergens (Roxb.) H.Rob. & Skvarla,  Acmella oleracea (L.)R.K.Jansen, Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K.Jansen, Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze, Adenostemma macrophyllum (Bl.)DC.,
Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Ageratum conyzoides L., Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Amberboa ramosa (Roxb.) Jafri,  Anaphalis adnata DC., Anaphalis subdecurrens (DC.) Gamble, Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp., Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff,Bidens pilosa L., Bidens bipinnata L., Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson, Blepharispermum subsessile DC., Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC., Blumea bifoliata (L.) DC., Blumea eriantha DC., Blumea hieracifolia (D. Don) DC.,  Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC., Blumea laciniata (Roxb.) DC., Blumea membranacea DC., Blumea obliqua Druce, Blumea oxyodonta DC., Blumea virens DC., Blumea viscosa (Mill.) V.M.Badillo,; Blumeopsis flava (DC.) Gagnep., Caesulia axillaris Roxb.,  Centipeda elatinoides (Less.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex O.Hoffm., Calyptocarpus vialis Less., Centratherum punctatum Cass., Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Chrysanthemum indicum L., Cissampelopsis corymbosa (Wall. ex DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza stricta (Willd.) Hiern , Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore, Cosmos sulphureus Cav., Cyanthillium albicans (DC.) H.Rob., Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob., Cyathocline purpurea (Buch.-Ham. ex Don) Kuntze,
Cyathocline manilaliana C.P.Raju & R.R.V.Raju (New addition)
 Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze, Dicoma tomentosa Cass., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Elephantopus scaber L., Emilia sonchifolia (L.)DC. ex DC., Enydra fluctuans Lour., Epaltes divaricata (L.)Cass., Erigeron sublyratus Roxb. ex DC. Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohrn , Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook.f.,   Glossocardia bidens (Retzius) Veldkamp,, Glossocardia bosvallia (L.f.) DC., Gnaphalium polycaulon Pers., Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Desf., Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass., Gynura lycopersicifolia DC., Helianthus annuus L., Himalaiella heteromalla (D. Don) Raab-Straube, Kleinia grandiflora (Wall. ex DC.) N.Rani,  Lagascea mollis Cav., Laggera alata (D.Don) Sch.Bip. ex Oliv., Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper & J. R. I. Wood,  Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd, Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f., Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) Sch.Bip. ex Kuntze,  Oligochaeta ramosa Wagenitz, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Pentanema indicum ( L. ) var. indicumY.Ling, Pluchea ovalis (Pers.) DC., Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B. L. Burtt

 Pulicaria angustifolia DC., Pulicaria wightiana C.B.Clarke, Sonchus oleraceus L., Sphaeranthus indicus L., Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Synedrella nodiflora Gaertn.,  Tagetes erecta L., Tagetes patula L., Tricholepis radicans (Roxb.) DC., Tridax procumbens L., Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex A.Gray, Vernonia elaeagnifolia DC., Wedelia urticaefolia  (Blume) DC. ex Wight , Xanthium indicum Roxb., Youngia japonica (L.)DC.,  Zinnia elegans Jacq.,
PITTOSPORACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Trees, shrubs, or twining vines/lianes; aromatic; leaves simple, estipulate leaf base narrow to sheathing; flowers medium-sized; sepals, petals and stamens equal in number, K quite large, free; C slightly basally connate; nectary on flank of ovary; G superior, parietal placentation,  style undivided, straight, stigma capitate , ovules many; fruit a capsule or berry, K deciduous; seeds pulpy-resinous.

Pittosporum napaulense (DC.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson, 
ARALIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Shrubs or trees; stems stout, little-branched, aromatic. The leaves are often variously compound, base broad, stipulate, borne on the leaf base; petioles long, leaflets articulated. Flowers small, in umbels or heads. plants andromonoecious; C valvate;stamens 3, carpels 3, stigma punctuate; fruit a drupe, seeds ruminate.  

Polyscias cumingiana (C.Presl) Fern.-Vill., Schefflera venulosa (Wgith & Arn.) Harms var.venulosa
APIACEAE Lindley, nom. cons.//UMBELLIFERAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.  
Plants woody; leaf base encircling stem; inflorescence axillary and terminal, branched 
, flowers small, 5 merous. Calyx a ring of teeth; corolla lobes clawed, free,  usually with inflexed tips; stamens 5, free; G [3], inferior, abaxial carpel fertile, stigma  capitate, ovules 1-2 per carpel; fruit dry schizocarp, mesocarp lignified, endocarp woody. Pyranocoumarins, myricetin, mannitol +, umbelliferose [raffinose (trisaccharide) isomer] the storage carbohydrate.
Bupleurum ramosissimum Wight & Arn.,  Bupleurum  andhricum M.P.Nayar & R.N.Banerjee,

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Coriandrum sativum L., Pimpinella bracteata Haines, Pimpinella heyneana (Wall ex DC.) Kurz, Pimpinella tirupatiensis N.P.Balakr. & Subr.  Pimpinella wallichiana (Miq.) Gandhi, Polyzygus tuberosus Walp., Sesili indicum Wall. ex Wight & Arn., Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
To be continued....