Saturday, May 18, 2013

Flora Andhrika Part II -EUDICOTS




EUDICOTS
RANUNCULALES Berchtold & J. Presl  
Includes Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae and Ranunculaceae 
PAPAVERACEAEJussieu, nom. cons.   
Papaveraceae is recognized by herbs; soft  bristly-hairy leaves, copious latex, and flowers with two, large, fugaceous sepals enclosing the bud, crumpled petals, usually  stamens many, and syncarpous bicarpellary gynoecium with a short style, ovules many, parietal placentation; fruit a capsule.
1. Papaver somnifer గసగసాలు or నల్ల మందు this plant is well known, but not cultivated in A.P
2.  ARGEMONE L.
Argemone mexicana L. Prickly coarse, greyish, erect, annual herbs with yellow latex; leaves irregularly pinnatifid; Flowers solitary, terminal, bright yellow, showy; capsule oblong, prickled; seeds many, black.
Toxicity: The seeds contain 22-36% of a pale yellow non-edible oil, called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine. Seeds resemble mustard seeds it is used to adulterate mustard seed; the adulterated oil causes lethal dropsy when used for cooking.
The latex, root, flower are used to cure skin diseases and ophthalma in traditional and ethnomedicine.
A common weed along road sides and waste places.Native of S.America; entered as seed contaminant. Ver.name: Balurakkasi,బలురక్కసి  pitchi kusuma, brahmadandiబ్రహ్మదండి (Tel.) Mexican poppy, Mexican prickly poppy, cardosanto(Eng.)

MENISPERMACEAE

Menispermaceae are recognised by their often viney/lianescent habit, broad rays; petioles pulvinate at both ends and often coriaceous lamina with palmate venation.The plants are dioecious, Flowers 3-merous, small, and the drupelets often have a distinctively sculpted endocarp and strongly curved.
Anamitra cocculus (L.) Wt.&Arn.
Large climbing shrub;leaves ovate-cordate,10-20x12-15cm; glabrous; flowers greenish in drooping panicles; drupes red globose.
Rare in Kadapa dist.
Ver.name: Indian berry, fish berry; levant nut(Eng.)


Cissampelos pareira L.

A slender vine, plants dioecious;leaves cordate-suborbicular, coriaceous, flowers greenish, small, in hairy panicles(a raceme of fascicles);male flowers 1-2mm across,stamens many; bracts large and conspicuos in female flowers,stigma 3 lobed; fruit berry, globose/ slightly compressed.

Rhizome is rich in alkaloids; used in skin diseases, women's problems; it is known as Midwife's herb; used against snake bites; 
Female plant -Cissampelos
Ver.name: Adavi banka teega అడవిబంక తీగ (Tel.)
Velvet Leaf, Abuta, Pereira Root, Barbasco.(Eng.) 
Male plant-Cissampelos

Cocculus hirsutus ( L. ) W.Theob.
twining undershrubs; leaves variable;densely hairy when young, male flowers hairy; small,stamens 6; female flowers rarely racemed; fruits dark purple.
Cocculus hirsutus
The juice of the ripe fruit yields a permanent bluish-purple ink and the roots as well as the leaves are used in native medicine and as a tonic. used against skin infections and itchy skin; root decoction for rheumatism; leaves sometimes taken as leafy vegitable.
 The plant contains 135 alkaloids belonging to 13 groups.
Ver.name: Cheepuru teega;చీపురు తీగ  dusara teega, katla teega (Tel.)  Broom Creeper, ink berry(Eng.) Patalagarudi (San.)
Cyclea peltata (Lam.)Hook.f.
pubescent, twining herbs; leaves cordate coriaceous;flowers greenish-yellow in paniccles; drupes white, ovoid.
Rare in Chittor and VSKP districts.
Cyclea peltata vegetative

Pachygone ovata (Poir.) Diels 
A woody climber; leaves alternate, cordate, coriaceous, puberulous; plants dioecious, flowers small, yellow in axillary racemes; drupe red to purple globose, slightly compressed. Seeds U shaped. 
Pachygone ovata
Fruit is a stimulant and analgestic. The dried fruit is a reputed fish and rodent poison; the plant is insect repellent. The root, leaf and fruit have several alkaloids.
Ver.name: Pedda dusara teegaపెద్దదూసర (Tel.)
Parabaena sagittata Miers.
woody climbers; leaves cordate, sagittate; young toothed, older entire.Flowers green, drupes green
Rare in VSKP district. 
Stephania japonica (Thumb.)Miers.
Slender climbers; leaves peltate; glabrous; flowers grenish-white in small umbels of 3-5 heads. Drupes ovoid, red.
In hilly areas of North coastal districts.
Ver.name: Duvvateega దువ్వతీగ (Tel.)
Stephania japonica vegitative

Tiliacora acuminata Miers 
 Ever green climbing shrubs; leaves ovate, coriaceous, margin undulate; flowers small, yellow, in axillary lax racemes; drupes ovoid, yellow to red.

The long flexible branches are used for thatching and for making baskets 
Ver.name: Kappateega, కప్పతీగ Verri chitramulam(Tel.)
Tiliacora acuminata
Tinospora cordifolia Miers.
Woody climber; stem light grey with papery bark; leaves alternate, cordate, glabrous; flowers small greenish yellow in short axillary racemes; drupes ovoid, glossy succulent, red. 
Tinospora cordifolia
The notable medicinal properties reported are anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic activities.It contains alkaloids, glycosides and steroids.
Ver.name: Tippateegaతిప్ప తీగ  (Tel.) Gulbel, Indian Tinospora; Gulanshe Tinospara, Gulancha Tinospara, Giloy (Eng.) Guduchi(San.)
Tinospora sinensis (Lour.)Merril
Looks similar to T.cordifolia but branches  and leaves are clothed with white hairs.leaves are almost wooly beneath. Flowers greenish-yellow in axillary racemes. Drupes globose, red.
Rare in Rayalaseema.
Ver.name: Tippa teegaతిప్పతీగ (Tel.)

RANUNCULACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Herbaceous habitat; spiral exstipulate, lobed leaves with broad bases. The flowers have large and often petal-like sepals, "petals" nectariferous, stamens numerous, spiral,  carpels many, seperate borne on a well-developed receptacle.
CLEMATIS L.
Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.
woody vines; Leaves 3-5 foliate, petiole tendrillar; flowers white,in axillary/ terminal racemes; stamens many, style densely villous, persistent; achenes fesiform.
Ver.name: Gowri-kunthala ;peduteega(Tel.); Gourian Clematis, Indian travelers's joy(Eng.
Clematis gouriana
 Clematis nutans Royle.
Silky pubescent climbers; leaves pinnately compound, leaflets obtusely 3-5 lobed; flowers pale yellow in much branched many flowered panicles.
Rare in VSKP district.
Clematis smilacifolia Wall.
Robust climbing shrubs, leaves 1-3 foliate;petiole twining up to 20cm; flowers maroon-violet in axillary panicles.
Rare in north coastal districts.
Ver.name: Gurrapu teega గుఱ్ఱపుతీగ .(Tel.)
Clematis wightiana Wall. ex Wt&Arn.
Large woody climbers; leaves pinnately compound, leaflets ovate, irregularly dentate; flowers creamy yellow in axillary panicles.
Rare in hills of north coastal districts.
NARAVELIA A.P.de Candolle nom. cons.
Naravelia zeylanica DC.
Woody  climbing shrubs; leaves 3-foliate, terminal one modified into branched tendril; flowers pale yellow; stamens 10, styles persistent feathery upto 3cm in fruit; fruit achene.
. It is an anti toxic plant, root is used against viper bite in kerala.
Ver.name: Pullabachala (Tel.) Jatavan Naravelia(Eng.)
Naravelia zeylanica
ORDER PROTEALES 
Family: NELUMBONACEAE A. Richard, nom. cons. 
Aquatic, rhizomatous herbs; with air canals; leaves  peltate, with dichotomous main venation that are held above the water surface like parasols,flowers large, have free carpels immersed in a large, obconical receptacle. 

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
It is the National flower of India. The flowers are used for worship in temples; the tender petioles, rhizome, and seeds are eaten as vegetable in many cultures. The leaves are widely used as meals plates. 
Common name: Lotus, Sacred lotus, East Indian Lotus(Eng.); తామర; కమలం; పద్మం 
Photographed at Daamaramadugu Village of Nellore district.
Nelumbo nucifera

PROTEACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   

Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br. commonly known as Silver oak is cultivated as avenue plant in some parts of the state;

DILLENIALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
DILLENIACEAE Salisbury
Leaves simple,coarse, strong and parallel secondary veins that proceed straight into the teeth; scalariform tertiary venation; flowers conspicuous, pedicels articulated, petals crumples; stamens many, reflexed in bud; fruits shiny follicles; seeds arillate.
DILLENIA L.
Semi evergreen trees/shrubs, leaves simple, spirally arranged;Flowers showy, usu.solitary,pentamerous, stamens many; carpels 5-20; many seeded pulpy fruits.
Dillenia bracteata Wight. Tall evergreen tree, leaves elliptic-obovate;margin undulate;flowers yellow in terminal racemes.Fruits subglose.
Rare in forests of Chittor.
Ver.name: Chiruteku.
Dillenia indica L. Tall evergreen tree, branchlets tomentose, leaves oblong lanceolate,with impressed veins, margin serrate.Flowers large, pendent, petals white,stamens yellow , pendent. Fruit aggregated fleshy fruit; each fruitlet with 5 seeds, embeded in fibrous pulp.
fruits bitterly sour and edible.
In hilly valleys of Chittor and north coastal districts.
Ver.name: Revadi, Pedda kalinga(Tel.)Elephant apple(Eng.)
Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. is also a rare deciduous tree seen in E.Ghats.Leaves very large, smooth and shining. Flowers yellow, fragrant in fascicles on naked branches. Fruit edible.
Ver.name: Chinna kalinga, parudu(Tel.)
For images pls refer Wikipedia
SAXIFRAGALES Berchtold & J. Presl
branching from the previous flush [woody members];leaf margin serrate; anthers basifixed, with basal pit; carpels free, at least apically, styluli short, stigmas decurrent; fruit dry,seeds small compared with other angiosperms;
They have a very poor representation in the tropics.
CRASSULACEAE Jaume Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons
succulent herbs; sepals, petals and carpels same in number; carpels free and have nectariferous scales at their bases. The fruits are usually follicles.
Bryophyllum pinnatum ( Lam. ) Oken 
A common garden plant. Leaves 3-pinnate to simple leaves; succulent, the leaf margin on touch with soil produces new plants.
Ver.name: Ranapaala రణపాల 
Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H.Perrier
1-2feet tall succulent herb. Leaves upto 30x10cm , in other features it looks similarto Bryophyllum
Kalanchoe diagramontana

Kalanchoe laciniata ( L. ) DC.
A garden plant similar to the above plant.
Kalanchoe lacinata

Kalanchoe miniata Hils. & Bojer ex Tul.
All these garden plants produce new plants from adventitious leaf buds.
Kalanchoe minuta
Ornamental Kalanchoe
VITALES Reveal
VITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Often vines, nodes are often swollen; the stems are often strongly lenticellate, with the bark ultimately flaking off; tendrils usu. Leaf-opposed; leaves palmately compound, or lobed or veined; leaf blades are very brittle when dry, with coarse teeth; stipules caducous; flowers small in leaf-opposed paniculate/ umbellate cymes; petals valvate. The stamens are equal in number to and opposite the petals,  Gynoecium bicarpellate, 4-ovulate, stigmas sessile, berry often has ruminate seeds.
Ampelocissus latifolia ( Roxb. ) Planch.
Aherbaceous climber, with tuberous root-stock and hollow stem;leaves shalowly 3-7 lobed; flowers numerous, deep reddish in thyrsoid compact cymes ; berries black.
rare in dry deciduous forests.
 Ver.name: Adavi draaksha,అడవిద్రాక్ష  bedasa teega, doba teega (Tel.) Wild Grape (Eng.)
Ampelocissus latifolia

 Ampelocissus tomentosa ( Roth ) Planch.Gregarious climbing shrubs, branches white wooly tomentose; Flowers numerous, deep red in dense tomentose panicles on tendrillate peduncle;berry subglobose, black when ripe.
common in hill forests , over bushes and hedges, often spreading on the ground.
Ver.name: Alukula baddu; gari gummadi గారి గుమ్మడి (Tel.)
Ampelocissus tomentosa
Cayratia pedata Gagnep.
Climbing shrubs; leaves pedately 5-7 foliate.Flowers green in axillary branched corymbose cymes. Berry sub-globose, pink or pale yellow when ripe. Common over over hedges and bushes in hilly areas.
It is used as a medicine in traditional medical systems.
Ver.name: Edakula mandula mariఏడాకులమందులమారి (Tel.)Fox grape(Eng.)
Cayratia pedata
Cayratia carnosaGagnep.
Fleshy twining pubescent herb; leaves 3-5 foliate;leaflets dentate, acute.Flowers greenish white, with purple stiyle, and anthers. Berry globose, white.
Common in planis. 
Cayratia carnosa

CISSUS L.
Cissus pallida (Wt&Arn.)Planch.
Shrubs, stem terete, woody branchlets glabrouscent, tendrils simple, leaf opposed; leaves simple, very large, orbicular, thin, coriaceous, cordate, serrate; flowers yellow in umbellate cymes.
Common in forests of Rayalaseema. 
Cissus quadrangularis L.
Tendril climber, stem 4-angled, green, fleshy, glabrous;leaves broadly ovate-suborbicular; flowers  small, greenish-yellow, in  leaf opposed shortly peduncled cymes with spreading umbellate branches.Berries  globose red.
Common in dry deciduous forests on hedges and bushes.It is used in bone disorders, fractures  in Ayurveda; and as food in chutnies and papads.

 Ver.name: Nalleru; నల్లేరు vajra valli (Tel.) Veldt Grape or Devil's Backbone(Eng.)
Cissus repanda Vahl.
Perennial climbing srubs, tendrils with flattened discs; leaves cordate-ovate, with crenate-serrate margin, pubescent, silky tomentose beneath; flowers pink in umbellately branched cymes;.
Common in North coast and Rayalaseema districts.
Cissus repanda
Cissus vitiginea L.Climbing shrubs, stems grey tomentose; leaves ovate or shalowly 3 lobed; tendrils simple, leaf-opposed; flowers creamy yellow in dichotomous cymes. Berries ovoid-pyreform, dark-purple.
Fruits are edible. Common over hedges.
Ver.name: Adavidraaksha; Adavi Gummadi అడవిగుమ్మడి (Tel.)
Cissus vitiginea
Cyphostemma setosum ( Roxb. ) Alston
Extensive succulent climbing shrubs; branchlets  glandular bristly setose. Leaves trifoliate; flowers yellowish, in much branched leaf opposed cymes; berries red.
Common in dry forests. The acrid juice from fruit is irritant.
Ver.name :Poda bachaliపొదబచ్చలి ; Barre bachaliబర్రెబచ్చలి(Tel.)
Cyphostemma setosum
Leea indica ( Burm.f. ) Merr.
Large shrubs   often with stilt roots;leaves compound; flowers pinkish-green in leaf-opposed corymbose cymes; berries black, depressed globose.
Rare, it is used in traditional medical systems for digestive problems.
Ver.name: Anka dora అంకదొర ; Jata mukudi(Tel.)Bandicoot Berry(Eng.)
Leea indica
TETRASTIGMAJ.B.Planchon
Tetrastigma sulcatum (Lawson)Gamble.
Large climbers;leaves 3-5 foliate, pedate,lateral leaflets assymetrical, leaflets ovate, thick coriaceous, margin crenate; glaucous; flowers yellow, in cymes; berry globose, pyreform.
occasional in E.ghats.
ZYGOPHYLLALES Link.
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE R. Brown, nom. Cons. 
Herbs to trees; nodes swollen; leaves compound, stipulate and opposite; that lack a terminal leaflet. The flowers have all parts free apart from the carpels; there are usually ten obdiplostemonous stamens, usu. with scales at the base. Grow in arid and saline conditions almost worldwide.
 Tribulus terrestris L.
Annual, prostrate, pubescent, herbs; leaves opposite, 1 leaf is smaller than the other in the pair; leaflets <8 pairs; flower axillary, bright yellow; pod globose, pubescent, 2 spines on the middle of the margins.
Almost cosmopolitan in tropics. It is used as a potent diuretic and nephroprotective.
Ver.name: Palleru పల్లేరు (Tel.)  bullhead, cat's head,devil's eyelashes,devil's thorn,devil's weed, goathead, puncturevine, tackweed (Eng.)
Tribulus terrestris
CELASTRALES
CELASTRACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.

The family is vegetatively variable; spiral and opposite leaves on the one plant are not infrequent;however, opposite, serrate leaves are common, the stipule-like structures are small and quite often fringed; strongly ascending veins are prominent; Flowers small, in cymes, Disk very broad, in which the ovary is more or less immersed and five stamens, are often distinctive. The fruit is frequently a loculicidal capsule with winged or arillate seeds. 
CASSINE L.
Cassine glauca Kuntze;
A large tree, leaves opposite, leathery, shiny, ovoid with crenate-serrate margin;flowers small, green in divergently branched lax corymbose cymes; fruit dry ovoid 1 seeded drupe.   Common in hill side forests.
The root is used as an antidote for snake bite.
Ver.name: Nirja, nerdi,bhutankusamభుతాంకుశమ్ (Tel.)


Cassine glauca
CELASTRUS L.
Celastrus paniculatus Willd.
Unarmed scandent shrubs;stems groved or angled, lenticellate; leaves alternate, ovate, thin, coriaceous, margin entire.Flowers small, yellow in terminal paniculate cymes.Capsule globose, orange when ripe.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
Ver.name: Maneru teega మానేరుతీగ (Tel.)
Celastrus paniculatus


GYMNOSPORIA L.
Gymnosporia montana Benth.
An armed shrub to small tree; branches may end with spines; leaves alternate, oblong-elliptic, glaucous, thick, coriaceous, margin regularly obtusely serrulate; flowers greenish white,fragrant,  small in axillary dichasial cymes;both bisexual and unisexual flowers on same plant;capsule pyriform, pink to purple; 1/3 lower part of seed covered with rose-pink aril arranged obliquely. 
Common in deciduus forests through out the state.
The leaf is used to treat gastric troubles.
Ver.name: Danti, దంతి chinni (Tel.) 
Gymnosporia montana

Hippocratea obtusifolia sensu Oliv
A glabrous woody climber. Leaves coriaceous, elliptical-oblong.Flowers unisexual,green,  in loose, many- flowered, axillary, puberulous cymes;  on pendent subcirrhose branches forming a loose panicle interrupted by long internodes and reduced leaves. Samara obovate; seeds winged.
Found in rocky forests of Eastern ghats.
Ver.name: Mediteega మేడితీగ(Tel.)  
Hippocratea obtusifolia
MAYTENUS Molina emend Bosch
Maytenus emarginata (Ruiz & Pav.) Loes.
Armed shrubs; leaves alternate, coriaceous, subspathulate, or obovate, margin entire; flowers greenish white in axillary fascicles. Fruit a capsule; seed red arillate.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
 Ver.name: Danti,దంతి  Goddalichippa గొడ్డలి చిప్ప(Tel.)  Redspike thorn; thorny staff tree(Eng.
Fruit of Maytenus emarginata
PLEUROSTYLIA R.Wight et Arnott                                                                                                              
Pleurostylia opposita (Wall.) Alston
Unarmed shrubs to small trees; leaves opposite to alternate; ob-ovate to elliptic, thin, chartaceous. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, in 1-7 flowered extra axillary fascicles.fruit a capsule, white, 1-2 seeded.
Common in dry forests.

Ver.name: Piyari, kuntichintha, కుంటిచింత Nalla nakkena నల్లనక్కెన (Tel.) Pleurostylia (Eng.)
Pleurostylia opposita
SALACIA L.
Salacia chinensis L.
Climbing shrubs; leaves opposite, thick, coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, margin incipiently serrate; flowers yellow, small, in axillary cymes; berry globose, red when ripe.
common in scrub jungles; root is used to treat may ailments; it is antidibetic.
Ver.name: Neraniనేరాని (Tel.)Chinese Salacia; Vine, Lolly; Lolly Vine; Lolly Berry; (Eng.)
Salacia chinensis
OXALIDALES
OXALIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.   
BIOPHYTUM L.

Biophytum sensitivum ( L. ) DC.
Annual herb with short unbranched stem, leaves pinnately compound; leaflets sensitive to touch.Flowers yellow  with red/ maroon streaks, in terminal umbels; crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles.Capsule which is shorter than the persistent calyx.
Biophytum sensitivum
Ver.name: Little tree plant, sensitive plant,siker pud(Eng.)Attapatti, jalapushpaజలపుష్ప  Pulicenta(Tel.)
OXALIS L.
Oxalis corniculata L.
Annual, creeping, runners;leaves 3-foliate;leaflets obcordate; flowers yellow, in 3 flowered umbels;capsule cylindric, 5-ridged.
Common in waste places near watercourses.
 Ver.name: Ambotikuraఅంబటికూర, pulichinthaపులిచింత .(Tel.)  Creeping woodsorrel, Procumbent Yellow-sorrel , Sleeping Beauty(Eng.)
 
Oxalis corniculata
 ORDER- MALPIGHIALESMartius
Includes-Erythroxylaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Ochnaceae, Clusiaceae, Calophyllaceae, Violaceae, Hypercaceae,Putranjivaceae, Malpighiaceae, Elatinaceae,Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Linaceae  
ERYTHROXYLACEAE Kunth. nom.cons.
Shrubs to trees; leaves entire, stipules interpetiolar;flowers small, infew flowered fascicles;calyx and staminal filaments are persistent and remain attached to the fruit.
ERYTHROXYLUM P.Brown.
Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb.
Large shrubs or rarely trees; leaves simple, thick, coriaceous, glabrous, obovate, margin entire;flowers white, in axillary few flowered fascicles; corolla with inner scales;fruit oblong-ellipsoid, red.
Common in dry deciduous forests through out the state.
Ver.name: Devadaaru, దేవదారుGatiriగతిరి(Tel.) Red Cedar, Bastard Sandal(Eng.) 
Erythroxylum monogynum
RHIZOPHORACEAE Persoon, nom. cons
shrubs to trees, with aerial prop roots, often served as pneumatophores;leaves opposite, with large interpetiolar stipules; thick, coriaceous.Flowers other than 5-merous; subepidermal laticifers in flower is also common; calyx is thick and valvate, the petals are often lobed or fringed, each enclosing one or small groups of stamens, and the ovary is often more or less inferior.Viviparous germination is also common; most of these members are mangroves.
BRUGUIERA Lam.
Bruguiera cylindrica Blume;
Small trees, stem base buttressed, with many stilt roots. Flowers small, white in 3 flowered cymes; sepals recurved in fruit; hypocotyl cyllindric10-15cmx0.7cm, terete.
Common in Godavari, Krishna and Pennar estuaries.
Ver.name: Vuradaఉరడ(Tel.); Bakau putih; reflexed orange mangrove(Eng.)
Bruguiera cylindrica

 Bruguiera gymnorhiza ( L. ) Lam.
Medium sized trees; with many geniculate pneumatophores. Flowers large, red, solitary; sepals erect in fruit. Hypocotyl angular, radical grooved, 15 cm long, 1-2cm in diam.
Common in Godavari, Krishna and Pennar estuaries.
Ver.name:Thuddu Ponnaదుడ్డుపొన్న(Tel.) large leved orange mangrove(Eng.)
Bruguiera gymnorhiza
CARALLIA Roxb.
Carallia brachiata (Lour.)Merr.
Large trees; leaves obovate,margin entire; flowers small, white in axillary branched trichotomous cymes. Fruit pyriform, red.
Rare in Kadapa, Chittor districts.
Ver.name: Karalliకారళ్లి, gijju chettuగిజ్జుచెట్టు  (Tel.); Fresh water mangrove(Eng.)
Carallia brachiata twig
CERIOPS Arnott.
Ceriops decandra ( Griff. ) W.Theob.
small trees or shrubs; stem base pyramidal; leaves elliptic-oblong; Flowers greenish-white, in dense condensed cymes, in several axils from the upper branchlets. Hypocotyl 12-14 cm long, 0.5cm in diam., sulcate, angular.
Rare along the edges of mangrove swamps in the river estuaries.
Ver.name: Podapa; పొదప gatharu గతురు (Tel.); flat leaved spurred mangrove (Eng.)
Ceriops decandra
KANDELIA (A.P. de Candolle) R.Wt &Arn.
Kandelia candel (L.)Druce.
Shrubs;leaves elliptic-oblong;Flowers white, in axillary dichotomous cymes; Hypocotyl cylindrical, smooth with reflexed calyx lobes.
Common in tidal forests.
Ver.name:kandigalaకందిగల Thuvarakandamతువారకందన్ (Tel.) Narrow-Leaved Kandelia, dichotomous cymed mangrove(Eng.).
Kandelia candel flower
RHIZOPHORA L.
Rhizophora apiculata Blume
evergreen trees;supporting stilt roots many, descending from the stem and branches, branching of these aerial roots is sympodial. Leaves elliptic oblong. Flowers 1.5 cm across, yellow, sessile, paired in upper axils from cupular involucres, tetramerous;hypocotyl smooth cylindrical, 40-80 cm long.
Common in tidal forests.
Ver.name: Uppuponnaఉప్పు పొన్న (Tel.); Bakau minyak(Eng.)
Rhizophora apiculata
Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
Large tress that form un-penetrable thickets in the mangrove forest. Branching of proproots parallel, leaves elliptic, wth mucronate tip; flowers creamy in axillary pedunculate cymes; hypocotyl 30-40 cm long.
Common in tidal forests.
Ver.name: uppuponna ఉప్పు పొన్న (Tel.) Red mangrove(Eng.)
Rhizophora mucronata 
OCHNACEAE Candolle, nom. cons.   
Trees. Leaves 2-ranked, alternate, often coriaceous with rather sharply serrate margins, more or less brochidodromous venation - the secondary veins can be very closely parallel - and rather scaly stipules that have strong, parallel veins and also may have fringed margins. Scarious calyx is also distinctive; stamens obdiplostemonous, filaments longer than anthers, the anthers often open by pores, and the style is sometimes gynobasic, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit indehiscent, usu. a drupe, receptacle enlarged, stamens persistent.
OCHNA L.
Ochna lanceolata Spreng.
Trees; leaves lanceolate;flowers yellow, axillary, in 2-3 flowered cymes;drupes 1-3 lobed.
Rare in Kadapa,and some Telangana districts.

  Ochna obtusata DC.
Deciduous shrubs-trees; leaves elliptic or obovate;apically clustered;flowers yellow, in terminal or axillary racemes;drupes 3-10 lobed.
Ochna obtusata var.gamblei(King ex Brandis)Kanis.
Small trees,leaves obovate-elliptic;flowers bright yellow, in terminal or axillary dense clusters, persistent fruiting calyx red.
Common in dry deciduous hilly forests.
Ver.name: Kukkamoiకుక్కమొయ్(Tel.) Ramdhan Champa, Golden champak, Mickey Mouse Plant(Eng.)
Ochna obtusa var.gamblei

Ochna obtusata var.obtusa; Kanis
Shrubs to trees; leaves oblong-lanceolate,flowers in umbellate panicles;fruit red.
Common in scrubs.
Ver.name:Errijembiఎర్రిజెంబి (Tel.)
CLUSIACEAE Lindley, nom. cons.//GUTTIFERAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   
Trees or shrubs, or epiphytic; dioecious; The leaves are opposite and exstipulate, the blades are often thick, with entire margins, and usually have resin canals. A white or yellow exudate is very common. The flowers have free sepals and petals and numerous stamens that are sometimes in fascicles. The fruit, when dehiscent, opens along the septal radius. The seeds are small to large.
GARCINIA 
Garcinia spicata Hook.f.
3-5 m tall evergreen tree; branchlets angular; leaves dark green, coriaceous, elliptic oblong,5-8x3-4cm,  base cuneate, apex obtuse or retuse, margin entire; flowers unisexual, cauliflorous, often spiked, mixed with in axillary fascicles. Berry oblong, smooth, 1-3 seeded.
Rare in the state.
Ver.name: Pidathaపిడత (Tel.) Mangosteen(Eng.) 
Garcinia spicata
CALOPHYLLACEAE J. Agardh    
Trees; leaves spiral to opposite, exstipulate, margin entire, pellucid dots; exudates from stem cuttings;The flowers have free sepals and petals - usually white or pink - and numerous stamens; the androecium is not obviously fasciculate, the anthers sometimes have large, apical glands.Fruit dehiscent or not.
Calophyllum inophyllum L.
8 to 20 m tall ever green tree. Leaves 2 ranked, decussate,  glossy, elliptic, 8-15x4-8cm, margin entire, apex rounded; flowers white, fragrant, 2.5 cm across on axillary/ terminal panicles. Stamens yellow, many in a central mass. The fruit globose  green drupe 2 to 4 cm in diameter with a single large seed; when ripe orange red.
Fruit is edible, grown as an ornamental plant.
Ver.name: Ponnaపొన్న  (Tel.) Beauty Leaf, Alexandrian laurel, Indian laurel(Eng.)


VIOLACEAE Batsch, nom. cons. 
Herbs to trees.Leaves serrate, stipulate; leaves which often dry yellowish and with raised venation.Flowers which are often spurred and have stamens with short filaments and very well-developed connectives that closely surround the gynoecium;fruit loculicidal capsule;seeds large, dispersed explosively.  
HYBANTHUS N.J.Aacquin nom. cons.   
Hybanthus enneaspermus ( L. ) F.Muell.
Suffruticose perennial slender herbs; leaves simple, alternate, lanceolate, margin serrate,pubescent; flowers solitary, pink,corolla unequal.
common in waste places and dry forest lands.
Whole plant  is used in the treatment for impotency, as health tonic, and  for filariasis in Ayurveda, and Traditional herbal medicine.
Ver.name: Ratnapurusha,రత్నపురుష  nela chandri,నేలచంద్రి (Tel.) Spade flower(Eng.)
HYPERICACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Herbs and shrubs. Leaves are opposite and with pellucid or dark dots; the flowers are often yellow; the androecium is often fasciculate and/or the stamens are numerous; the stigma is sometimes obviously papillate; and the seeds are small.

Hypericum japonicum Thunb.

Annual slender herbs; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, gland dotted, margin entire; flowers yellow in terminal cymes; stamens many; capsule 3 valved.

Rare in VSKP and Chittor districts.
Flower Hypericum japonicum
Ver.name: Japanese St. John's wort, Swamp hypericum(Eng.)
PUTRANJIVACEAE Meisner 

Evergreen,trees to shrubs;the leaves  two-ranked, coriaceous and stipulate, asymmetric at the base and dry  greyish in color;  taste peppery or like an  radish when fresh. The flowers minute, in axillary fascicles ; P 4-6, flowers: A 3-20 extrorse, disc + or 0; flowers: G (1-3), stigmas flap-like, ovules epitropous; the drupe single-seeded often crowned by the persistent, flap-like stigmas.
DRYPETES Vahl.
Drypetes sepiaria (Wight & Arn.) Pax & K.Hoffm. 
Small sized unarmed trees; bark gray, smooth; branchlets puberulous.
Leaves simple, alternate, elliptic-oblong, base rounded or cordate, margin entire, apex obtuse-retuse; coriaceous, shining above. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, in axillary fascicles; drupes globose, red, pulp fleshy and yellow. 
Rare in scrub jungles in E.ghats.
Drypetes sepiaria

Ver.name: Bira బీర (Tel.)
PUTRANJIVA  
Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.,
Small sized trees; leaves alternate, elliptic-oblong, serrulate; flowers greenish-yellow;  in clusters,  solitary; fruit ovoid drupe.
Common in in shady areas along the hilly areas.
Ver.name: Kondajuvvi కొండజువ్వి (Tel.) Putranjiva, Lucky Bean Tree (Eng.)
Putranjiva roxburghii
ELATINACEAE Dumortier, nom. cons.
Elatinaceae are often herbaceous plants of moist habitats with opposite, more or less toothed leaves with small, paired, scarious stipules. The cymose inflorescences have small flowers with papillate stigmas.
BERGIA L.
Bergia ammannioides B.Heyne ex Roth,
Diffusely branched, erect, glandular-pubescent herbs. Leaves 2 seriate or pseudoverticillate, oblong-linear; Flowers purple-red, 2-3mm across, sessile/ subsessile,  in axillary clusters;Capsule 3-5- locular, ovoid-globose.
Common in moist places.
Ver.name: Agnivendramఅగ్నివేండ్రం(Tel.) Lal-keshuria(Eng.)
Bergia ammannioides
Bergia capensis L.
Diffusely branched, succulent marshy herbs; rooting at nodes; leaves elliptic-lanceolate; flowers pink in axillary fascicles; 2-4mm across; capsule 5 furrowed.
common in moist places.
Ver.name: Neerupaavila నీరుపావిళ్ళ(Tel.)Bergia (Eng.)
MALPIGHIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Lianes to trees; leaves opposite, entire;stipules cauline,paired,position varied, there are often conspicuous flat glands on the lower surface of the leaf blade or on the petiole; flowers poly- or obliquely mono symmetric; sepals with large paired abaxial oil glands; petals are clawed, often crumpled in bud, often fringed.Carpels 3,each with single ovule; stigmas asymmetrically capitate.The sepals and filaments often persist at the base of the fruit, which is often a samara with a variable number of wings.
Aspidopterys indica ( Willd. ) W.Theob.
Climbing shrubs; branches rusty tomentose; leaves ovate-elliptic, entire; flowers minute, white, in 7-10cm long terminal panicles.Samaras elliptic-oblong, yellowish-brown.
Occasional in hill slopes.
Ver.name: Chuttakulaa tiga చుట్టాకులతీగ (Tel.) Tasa (Eng.)
Aspidopterys indica fruits

Galphimia gracilis Bartl.
Often found cultivated in the gardens.
Galphimia gracillis

Hiptage benghalensis Kurz

Woody climbing lianas, on the canopy of forests; branchlets  densely  covered with whitish hairs; leaves 2 ranked, ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous,margin entire. Flowers white or tinged with pink,1-2 cm across, on 10-15 cm long terminal racemes. Fruit 3 winged samara, with 1-3 rounded seeds.
bark leaf and flower are used as medicine in Ayurveda.
Common in dry forests.
Ver.name: Madhavi lathaమాధవీలత (Tel.) Hiptage, Helicopter Flower(Eng.)
Young fruit of Hiptage benghalensis
PASSIFLORACEAE Roussel, nom. cons. 
 Herbaceous or woody;plant with unpleasant smell; extrafloral nectaries often on petiole/base of lamina, stipules 0; K + C together forming a tube,deciduous,  corona or scales at the mouth of  tube, C contorted, deliquescent, nectary near base of tube, on sepals;or on filaments. 
  Turneroideae: 
Herbs to woody plants, often very hairy. Leaves serrate, exstipulate  with strong secondary venation. The flowers usu. yellow, calyx and corolla together forming a tube, contorted and deliquescent; parietal placentation, and often bifid, fringed stigmas, are distinctive. The fruit is a  loculicidally capsule; seeds arillate.
TURNERA L.
Turnera subulata Sm.
 Pubescent herbs. Leaves ovate-oblong,chartaceous, very distinctly dentate-serrate, base with discoid foliar glands. Flowers creamy yellow with brown yellow center.Capsule 5mm, pubescent.
Naturalised weed. 
Ver.name: White Alder, Politician's Flower, White Butter Cup(Eng.
Turnera subulata 

Turnera ulmifolia L.

Up to 1m tall dense, compact shrub; leaves dark green, clustered toward the tips of the branches,oblong- lanceolate, margins doubly serrate. Flowers bright yellow,petals clawed; capsule globose.
Naturalised weed, also planted for landscaping in gardens.
Ver.name: Yellow Alder, Yellow Buttercups, Sage Rose, Cuban Buttercup (Eng.)
Turnera ulmifolia
Passiflorae:
 Plants  herbaceous climbers with simple branch tendrils; supernumerary buds; Leaves simple, secondary veins often palmate; flowers in cymes; corona of (1-)2-several rows of filaments or membranes or 0, nectary may be on K/C tube, A basally connate, gynophore or androgynophore usu.+, stigmas capitate or divided [Adenia]; fruit a berry.
Adenia wightiana Engl.
Slender tendrillar climber, from a tuberous rootstock. Leaves 3-5 lobed or sub-triagular, glaucous green. Flowers  in axillary cymes; polygamomonoecious or dioecious; inflorescence peduncle tendrillar; with about 30-flowers;female flowers fleshy. . Fruits 1–2 per inflorescence, subglobose; bright red when ripe.
Common in hilly areas. fruits are poisonous.
Ver.name: Vidhariవిధారి (Tel.)
Adenia wightiana

Passiflora foetida L.

Perennial, tendrillar  viscid climbers. Leaves 3 lobed half way, base cordate, margin entire; glandular pubescent; give off unpleasant odor when crushed. The flowers are  axillary, solitary, white to pale cream. Corona 3-5-seriate, filamentous,base pinkish-purple; disc cupular; androgynophore stout. berry ovoid, orange-red.
Stems and leaves are suspected of  poisoning live- stock. Common on hedges and waste places through out the state. 
Ver.name: Juka malli,జూకామల్లి  gabbu donda గబ్బుదొండ(Tel.)  Love-in-a-mist, stinking passion flower(Eng.)
 for image:  http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/
Passiflora edulis Sims
Ever green climber;leaves deeply 3-lobed, glossy,coriaceous; the young stems and tendrils, tinged with red; bracts 3 leaf like; flowers solitary, fragrant; purple; berry yellow to purple with a sweet flavour. It is edible. Commonly cultivated plant. 
Ver.name: Payasam kayaపాయసంకాయ ; jumukiజుముకి (Tel.) Passion fruit, Edible Passion Flower(Eng.) 
Passiflora so-ha

SALICACEAE Mirbel, nom. cons. SynFlacourtiaceae 
Deciduous trees; leaves stipulate, alternate, serrate, with distinctive "salicoid teeth"; the teeth have a small vein proceeding, where it expands to variously coloured spherical gland or stout hair.The flowers have sepals and petals in two whorls  in regular alternating arrangement and the nectariferous disc or nectar glands are often outside the stamens. Stamens many spreading ; gynoecium three-carpellate  with parietal placentation and  styles seperate or a long persistent style; the fruit is often a capsule.
CASEARIA N.J.Jacquin
Casearia elliptica Willd.
small trees, bushy; leaves ovate, assymetrical at base, margin serrate; flowers greenish in dense axillary, capitate clusters; fruit 3 valved, succulent cluster.
Ver.name: Chilaka duddi చిలకదుద్ది(Tel.)
Casearia esculenta Roxb.
small trees; leaves ovate-lanceolate; flowers greenish-white in axillary clusters; fruit 3 valved capsule.
Rare in Sriharikota forests.
Ver.name: Kundajanjeru కుండజంగేరు(Tel.)
Casearia graveolens Dalz.
Small sized deciduous tree; leaves large turning red before falling; flowers green in axillary clusters; capsue orange-yellow, ellipsoid, 3 valved.
Common in deciduous forests of North coastal districts.
FLACOURTIA (L)Herit.
Flacourtia indica ( Burm.f. ) Merr. 
 3-5 m tall, small tree or a large armed shrub;leaves are red or pink when young, variable in size, oval to round, leathery, margin toothed. Flowers small, cream colored, unisexual or occasionally bisexual; male flowers in 5cm long racemes, female flowers in short racemes. Fruit globose berry, reddish-black or purple when ripe and fleshy.
Common in scrubs through out the state.
Ver.name: Nakka neredu,నక్క నేరేడు Kanregu కాన్రేగు(Tel.)  Governor's Plum, Batoka Plum, flacourtia, Indian plum(Eng.).
 
Flacourtia indica fruit.
Flacourtia ramontchi L. is tree in hilly areas.
Flacourtia jangomas Raeusch
Deciduous unarmed tree;young branches white-dotted by numerous circular lenticels. Leaves narrow, ovate-oblong; Flowers arise in few flowered clusters in leaf axils; smell of honey, and looks like small yellowish-white balls of stamens.  Fruit dark purple, 2cm across.
Rare in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Kaakibeera (Tel.) Coffee Plum, Indian cherry, Indian plum(Eng.)
HOMALIUM 
Homalium  zeylanicum(Gard.)Benth.
Large evergreen trees; Leaves simple, alternate, distichous;elliptic-oblong, margin crenate, coriaceous,shiny, glabrous. Flowers small, greenish white and crimson, in 10cm long drooping racemes.Fruit a capsule.
Rare in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Mantrala mukkiమంత్రాలముక్కి(Tel.) Lyian(Eng.)
Homalium zeylanicum
Scolopia crenata (Wt&Arn)Clos.
Medium sized armed trees; trunk with branching thorns, branches unarmed; leaves simple, alternate, elliptic, margin crenate-serrate, coriaceous; flowers small, white, bisexual, in axillary panicles. berry green.
In hills of Kadapa and Chittor.
Ver.name: Potato plum of Mysore(Eng.)
EUPHORBIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   

Herbs to trees ; leaves  spiral, 2 ranked; variable in size and/or shape, the secondary veins are often ± palmate, the margins are toothed, and there are sometimes glands of various kinds.Cauline stipules and latex are common, except in Acalyphoideae. The plants are mono- or dioecious, the flowers are small, the perianth usually inconspicuous, there are usually three carpels with prominent stigmas, and the fruits have a distinctive and persistent columella, large and often carunculate seeds (one per loculus), and explosive dehiscence. Euphorbiaceae are quite often poisonous.
ACALYPHA L.
Herbs or shrubs; leaves alternate, serrate or crenate; 3-5 ribbed or penninerved, petioles long; flowers in axillary or terminal spikes or racemes; bracts leafy and concave; flowers minute; P-3 0r 4, membranous, valvate, disc 0,A many on a concave receptacle; filaments short, free, anther cells twisted; G(3) styles long, filiform and lacinate, fruit a small capsule, crustaceous cocci;seed subglobose.
Acalypha poiretii Spreng Syn.Acalypha alnifolia Poir
Up to 1 m tall shrub; stems and leaves softly tomentose with grey silky hairs;leaves elliptic, margin crenate-serrate; male spikes 6-8cm,axillary flowers pink, ; female spikes few flowered, sub-terminal; styles with filiform hairs.
Common in in foot hill scrub jungles in dry slopes. 
Ver.name: Chiru kuppinta,చిరుకుప్పింట Mirapa kuppinta మిరపకుప్పింట(Tel.) Alder Leaved Cat Tail(Eng.) 
Acalypha poiretii
Acalypha indica L., 
Annual herb; plants glabrous; leaves broadly ovate, petioles longer than leaf bldes, lamina base cuneate, margin serrate; flowers sessile on erect axillary androgynous spikes longer than the leaf, bracts leafy, cupular, male flowers minute, clustered, female flowers scattered along the axis;capsule hispid.
Common through out the district. 
It has numerous medicinal uses.
Ver.name: Pippintaaku/kuppintaaku కుప్పింటాకు (Tel.) Indian acalypha, Indian nettle, 3 seeded mercury (Eng.)
Acalypha indica
Acalypha lanceolata Willd., 
Annual herbs; stems and leaves clothed with long silky deciduous hairs. Leaves lanceolate, margin crenate- serrate; flowers sessile on erect axillary androgynous spikes; bracts companulate, margin dentate; capsule globose, hispid.
Rare in the moist shady places in the foot hills in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Nugukuppinta nuuguనూగుకుప్పింట  (Tel.) Toothed Bract Indian Copperleaf(Eng.) 
Acalypha lanceolata
Acalypha malabarica Müll.Arg
Annual herbs, branchlets thinly pubescent; leaves elliptic-lanceolate; margin crenate-serrate; flowers sessile on erect axillary androgynous spikes bracts glandtipped near the edge; capsule thinly hispid.
Rare in the moist shady places in the foot hills in E.ghats.
Acalypha malabarica
Acalypha fruticosa Forssk.
Small shrub; petiole shorter than leaf blade, margin crenate-serrate, thinly pubescent, glandular below; flowers sessile on axillary short androgynous spikes;  male flowers many,on the upper part of the spike; female flowers few, at the lower end; capsule tomentose, with large yellow glands on the sinus.
In the foot hills of E.ghats in Kadapa, Chittoor dist.
Ver.name: Mabbaku మబ్బాకు(Tel.) 
Acalypha paniculata Miq.
Monoecious  pubescent herb; leaves broadly ovate, margin crenate-serrate; female flowers many in slender terminal panicles; male flowers in axillary spikes. capsule glandular, ciliate.
Occasional in moist hilly areas in coastal districts.
Ver.name: Adavi kuppinta అడవికుప్పింట(Tel.)
Acalypha wilkesiana Müll.
Ver.name: Cat’s tail(Eng.).
is a widely cultivated garden plant.
Acalypha wilkisia

BALIOSPERMUM Blume.
Baliospermum montanun (Willd.)Muell.
Annual herd, branches terete, striate, tomentose; leaves elliptic-ovaate, margun serrate, 2 glands at the base of lamina; flowers in axillary lax androgynous racemes; capsule obovate, pubescent.
Common along road sides in telangana districts, and in semi-moist places.
Ver.name: Kondamudam, కొండాముదము nelajediనేలజీడి (Tel.)red physic nut, wild castor, wild croton and wild sultan seed
Baliospermum montanum

CHROZOPHORA Jussieu nom.cons.

Herbs to trees. Branchlets tomentose; leaves with appressed hairs; 2 glands at leaf base; flowers in androgynous racemes; disc glands+, stamens >12; style bifid from base; capsule wall hispid.
 Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) A.Juss. ex Spreng
Syn: Croton oblongifolius Delile;
Small trees; leaves oblong-lanceolate, margin serrate; leaves crowded at the ends of branches.Flowers in 10-15 cm long terminal androgynous racemes; pedicels of flowers of variable length, flowers stout and very short;capsule subglobose, thinly pubescent Rare in E.ghats, the leaves give a pleasant odour.
Ver.name: Bhutankushamభూతాంకుశం;Bhutaala bhairi భూతాలభైరి(Tel.); Devil’Goad (Eng.)
Crozophota oblongifolia
Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng
Annual herbs; branchlets fulvous-tomentose; leaves broadly ovate-orbicular, rugose, margin undulate crenate; flowers in  compact androgynous racemes arising from upper leaf axils. capsule globose with stellate tomentum.
A weed in cultivated fields and moist soils.
Ver.name: Yerra miriyamఎర్రమిరియం, linga mirapa లింగమిరప (Tel.) Suryavarti, Rottler's Chrozophora(Eng.)
 Chrozophora rottleri

CROTON L.
Herbs to trees; hairs lepidote or stellate; 2 glands at the base of the lamina, stipules linear; flowers in terminal androgynous racemes; flowers at the base,flowers at apex, P 5+5 in flowers, A>20; disk glands 5 in both sexes; G(3) 1 ovule per cell, capsule subsessile, dehisces into 3 bivalved cocci; seed trigonous, caruncule +.
Croton bonplandianus Baill.,
Annual herb; young parts covered with white warty out growth, leaves ovate lanceolate, 3-5x1-5 cm; base acute, margin serrate; racemes 8-15 cm long; flowers 3-4 mm across, light yellow, outer tepals villous, A>15, exerted; flowers 2-2.5 mm across; capsule oblong.
Abundant in waste lands and weed in cultivated lands through out the state. 
Ver.name: Ban tulsi (Eng.); Gaali vaana chettuగాలివానమొక్క , Kukka mirapa,కుక్కమిరప  Kirasanoil chettuకిరసనాయిల్చెట్టు (Tel.).
Croton bonplandianus

Croton klotzschianus (Wight) Thwaites,
1-3 m tall shrub; leaves elliptic-oblong, margin serrate; flowers are in lax androgynous racemes.Capsule globose, green, fruit wall warty.
Less common in shady areas along streams in E.ghats in Rayalseema. 
Ver.name: Naragonjiనారగొంజి,nepalavemu నేపాలవేము(Tel.) Klotzsch's Croton(Eng.)
for image:  http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/
Croton scabiosus Bedd., 
small trees/shrubs;leaves ovate-rhomboid, base coradte, margin serrate, lepidote silvery scales on both surfaces, coriaceous, leaves turn orange before falling; male flowers densely arranged on the androgynous racemes. capsule wall warty.
Rare in dry rocky hills in Rayalaseema districts.
Ver.name: Chilla, verrichillaవెర్రిచిల్ల(Tel.); Silver leaved croton (Eng.).
Croton scabiosus
DALECHAMPIA L.
Dalechampia indica Wight,
Slender twining under shrub,leaves 3 foliate, leaflets sessile,middle one larger, margin serrate; flowers in dense axillary peduncled heads enclosed by a pair of large leafy bracts; perianth fimbriate, with stalked marginal glands;styles connate into a thick column terminating into a 3 lobed stigma; capsule 3 lobed.
Ocassional along the hedges in dry deciduous forests of e.ghats in rayalaseema districts.
Ver.name: Vrscikali;dushsparsa దుశ్స్పర్శ(San/tel)
Dalechampia indica 
DIMORPHOCALYX Thwaites
Dimorphocalyx glabellus Thwaites, 
5-8 m tall ever green tree; leaves elliptic oblong,  coriaceous, glabrous, margin entire. Flowers white, solitary or few flowered axillary or terminal cymes, perianth in 2 rows, outer sepaloid, persistent, inner whorl petaloid. Capsule 3 valved, hispid; fruiting calyx enlarged with a glandular pit near the tip.
Occasional in hilly evergreen forests in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Pachhavaపచ్చవ(Tel.) 

EUPHORBIA L.
Growth form various; herbs(erect, prostrate or diffuse), shrubs, trees, armed or unarmed, succulent, cactoid, with acrid milky latex. Leaves simple, caduceus in succulent forms, early deciduous in cactoid forms; alternate or opposite; stipulate. Inflorescence is a Cyathium, solitary or aggregated into cymes. Involucre companulate, turbinate or cupular; bracts usu.5, fimbriate; glands marginal usu. 4-5, alternating with bracts;appendages unilateral,entire;perianth 0 or scaly; florets 1-many, all fertile or few sterile; , each floret represented by a single anthor; floret 1, pendulous, ovary 3-locular, styles 3, bifid.Capsule of 3 bivalved cocci, seeds 4 angled or globose.
The genus contains phorbol esters and hence quite often poisonous, hydrocarbon-like materials are extracted from some cactoid members. 
Euphorbia antiquorum L.,
Shrub like small succulent armed leaf-less tree with milky latex; branches trigonous,spines blackish in pairs along the angles in rows with distance of about 2cm between 2 pairs. Cyathia in axillary cymes, thick, greenish-yellow; capsule red.
Common in scrub jungles and in hilly areas.
Ver.name: Bonthajemuduబొంతజెముడు(Tel.); Triangular Spurge, Square Spurge, Square milk hedge, Fleshy spurge(Eng.).

Euphorbia barnhartii Croizat

Up to 7m tall large succulent tree; looks similar to E.antiquorum, but branchlets exclusively 3 angled,wings less broad in propotion to the length of the joints; style simple.
Aggressive coloniser in rocky, barren rocks.
Ver.name: Bontha Jemuduబొంతజెముడు (Tel.) Triangular Spurge(Eng.)
Euphorbia caducifolia Haines,
Up to 2m tall succulent shrub, 1-2m wide, much branched, branches cylindrical. Leaves early deciduous; capsule trigonous, keeled.
common in scrub jungles and on rocky hills.
Ver.name: Kattejemuduకట్టెజెముడు(Tel.), Leafless Milk Hedge(Eng.)
Euphorbia caducifolia
Euphorbia chamaesyce L.,
Pubescent spreading succulent herb with milky latex;Stem sparsely pubescent; leaves elliptic-obovate, margin entire, capsule keeledangles with stiff hairs.
 A common weed of cultivated fields in black cotton soils.
Ver.name: Pala alumuపాలఅలుము(Tel.) Small spurge(Eng.)
Euphorbia chamaesyce
Euphorbia corrigioloides Boiss.

Prostrate herb; Leaves obliquely truncate; serrulate, opposite, blotched with red; Cyathia 7-10, in terminal clusters or in upper axils.
A common weed in cultivated soils.
Ver.name: Errapaala alumu ఎర్రపాలఅలుము(Tel.) 
Euphorbia corrigioloides

Euphorbia cyathophora Murray,
erect herb; leaves are very variable, lamina  mostly fiddle-shaped with 2 or 4 obtuse or cute lobes, uppermost leaves  are blotched with red towards the base. Cyathia in terminal cymes; receptacle green.
Introduced ornamental, now a weed;The latex and leaves are toxic.
Ver.name: Painted Leaf Poinsettia, Summer poinsettia, Mexican Fire Plant, Painted-leaf spurge, painted euphorbia, desert poinsettia, wild poinsettia, fire on the mountain, kaliko plant (Eng.)
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in


Euphorbia cattimandoo Elliot.
Succulent shrub; branchlets 5- angled; leaves oblanceolate, mucronate at apex; cyathia sessile.
Occasional in rocky areas of north coastal districts and Kurnool.
for image visit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euphorbia_cattimandoo.jpg
Euphorbia deccanensis V.S.Raju,
Prostrate or decumbent herb; many branches from a stout root stock; branches swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite,margin serrate. Cyathia solitary in upper axils;lobes fringed; glands 4 pinkish white.Rare in the hill slopes of E.ghats
Euphorbia deccanensis var. nallamalayana (J.L.Ellis) V.S.Raju.
Almost similar to E.deccanensis ; but a with purple patch in the centre of leaves. Cyathia  in clusters in upper axils.
Rare in Nallamala hills.
Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.
Dichotomously branched annual herb; leaves opposite, sessile,linear-lanceolate; Cyathia solitary, thinly pubescent;lobes short, triangular.
Common in waste lands and cultivated fields.
Ver.name: Tilla kada తిల్లకాడ(Tel.)Dragon spurge(Eng.)
Euphorbia heterophylla L., 
Erect annual herb. Stems hollow, usually with scattered hairs, milky sap oozes from damaged stems and leaves. Upper leaves never colored; Cyathia with a solitary terminal female flower surrounded by male flowers enclosed in a cup-shaped involucre with a solitary conspicuous gland.
A naturalised weed from S.America.
Ver.name: Bedi aaku బేదిఆకు(Tel.)Wild Poinsettia, Wild spurge, Lesser Green Poinsettia(Eng.) 
 
Euphorbia heterophylla

Euphorbia heyneana Spreng.,
Prostrate annual glabrous herbs; dichotomously branched;branches many from base, light red. Leaves opposite; margin entire; cyathia single or paired, axillary, peduncled; appendages of glands white, narrow.
Ver.name: Alumuఅలుము(Tel.) Heyne's Spurge(Eng.) 
Euphorbia heyneana
Euphorbia hirta L.,
Annual, erect  hispid herb; stems with milky latex; leaves elliptic, margin serrate; cyathia 20-25 in axillary clusters.
Common on roadsides and waste places.The plant is slightly poisonous; aso used as medicinal herb.
Ver.name: Reddivarinanubalu,రెడ్డివారినానుబాలు nanabala, guttimokka గుత్తిమొక్క(Tel.)Asthma Weed, Common spurge, Cats hair(Eng.).

Euphorbia hirta
Euphorbia hispida Boiss., 
Decumbent or prostrate, softly hispid annual herbs ; leaves opposite, leafblade elliptic;Cyathia solitary , up to 1.5 mm diam. at the top, glabrous; with prominent white  petaloid gland-appendages; capsule sparsely pilose.
Rare in dry localities of hilly areas.
Euphorbia hispida

Euphorbia indica Lam.,
spreading or erect, annual herb;  the whole plant,  sparsely pilose; often purplish tinged.Leaves ovate, base oblique, margin toothed. Cyathia in terminal or axillary cymes; subtended by a pair of small leaf-like bracts;
A common weed along the road sides.
Euphorbia indica

Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., 
Armed succulent, deciduous tree; branches with paws of sharp stipular spines; leaves sessile, alternate, oblanceolate; thick, fleshy. Cyathia axillary, reddish, arise in stalked cymes of 3 each, in upper axils of the branches.
Common in rocky or hilly areas in open dry forests.
 Ver.name:Aakujemudu ఆకుజెముడు(Tel.) Leafy Milk Hedge, Holy Milk Hedge, Dog's Tongue(Eng.) 
Euphorbia nivula
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, 
Decumbent or prostrate, softly hispid,annua; leaves opposite, stipules divided; lamina elliptic, margin serrate; Cyathia single or few on short leafy shoots .Capsule lobes sharply keeled, sparsely pilose.
coomon along roadsides.
Ver.name: Prostrate Sandmat, red euphorbia, Prostrate Spurge(Eng.)
Euphorbia prostrata
Euphorbia rosea Retz., 
Dichotomously branched prostrate herb, branches brittle; leaves oblong-obovate; Cyathia 1-9 in subterminal lax clusters.
Common in sandy areas along the coast.
Ver.name: Rosy Spurge (Eng.) Chinnamman paccharisi(Tel/Tamil.) 
Euphorbia rosea
Euphorbia serpens Kunth 
Dichotomously branched annual prostrate herb, rooting at nodes.Cyathia axillary, solitary, broadly companulate,lobes triangular, apiculate, 1 lobe serpent hooded.
Common in follow fields.
Ver.name: Matted sandmat(Eng.).
Euphorbia serpens
Euphorbia thymifolia L.
Decumbent or prostrate annual. Leaves opposite; stipules lanceolate; Cyathia reddish, single or few, axillary;ovary and fruit densely pubescent.
Common in dry areas along the road sides.
Ver.name: Reddyvarinaubaluరెడ్డివారినానుబాలు(Tel.); Thyme leaf spurge, chicken weed, Asthma palnt(Eng.

Euphorbia thymifolia
Euphorbia tirucalli L., 
Unarmed, succulent leafless tree with brittle branches which are often whorled, green, with white striations. Cyathia  2-6, terminal, congested.
Common in field hedges, and also in rocky areas.
Ver.name: Pullalajemudu,పుల్లలజెముడు Tirukalliతిరుకళ్లి(Tel.); Firestick Plants, Indian Tree Spurge, Naked Lady, Pencil Tree, Sticks on Fire or Milk Bush(Eng.)
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in
Euphorbia tithymaloides L.,
Syn.Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit., 
Shrubs, branches fleshy tubular, growing zig zag ;leaves simple, alternate, thick, dark-green or variegated, fleshy.Cyathia beak shaped  red, spurred, monosymmetric; in terminal clusters.
The plant makes a good hedge/border plant as it is is poisonous.
Ver.name: Kantapalaకంటపాల, seema chitramulam సీమచిత్రమూలం (Tel.) Devil's Backbone, Japanese Poinsettia, Slipper Spurge, Redbird Cactus, Christmas Candle (Eng.)
Euphorbia tithymaloides
Euphorbia milii var splendens -Orchid Crown of Thorns; 
Euphorbia mili

Euphorbia miliicrown of thorns,
Euphorbia lactea forma cristata / E.cristata;
Euphorbia trigonum Buch- Ham  are widely cultivated species
Euphorbia tortillus L.
Similar to E.antiquorum, but the stems are twisted.
Rare in Nellore, Chittor districts.
Euphorbia tortillus

EXCOECARIA L.
Excoecaria agallocha L.,
Evergreen monoeciuos trees with milky acrid juice; supra terranean lateral roots produce pegs instead of pneumatophores.Flowers unisexual, fragrantyellow, 3-7cm long spikes.Female flowers in 1-3 cm long, axillary racemes. capsule depressed globose.
Common in sandy soils along coast.
 Ver. name: Thillaతిల్ల (Tel.); milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove and river poison tree(Eng.)        
Excoecaria agallocha female
Excoecaria agallocha male plant.

GIVOTIA L.

Givotia moluccana ( L. ) Sreemadhavan,
A moderate-sized tree ;Leaves  alternate, cordate with a narrow sinus, wavy-toothed, leathery, hoary above, soft wooly beneath. Flowers  dicecious, in axillary and sub-terminal panicled cymes.Drupe globose.
Common in dry deciduous forests in hills.
Ver. Name: Tella poliki.తెల్లపొలికి (Tel.) White Catamaran Tree(Eng.)
Givotia moluccana
HOMONOIA Lour.
Homonoia riparia Lour., 
Rigid evergreen shrub; leaves linear-lanceolate;coriaceous, glabrous above, glandular scaly beneath.Plants monoecious; flowers reddish-brown, on 5-10 cm long  axillary spikes, with obovate bracts.Capsule globose hairy.
Along small streams at low and medium altitudes, on banks, and in stream beds.
Homonoia riparia
Ver.name: Adaviganneru,అడవిగన్నేరు tanikiతనికి(Tel.) Willow-Leaved Water Croton(Eng.)
JATROPHA L.
Shrubs or small trees; old branches with leaf scars; leaves 3-5 lobed, palmately nerved, base cordate or peltate, stipules persistent glandular; flowers in terminal or axillary dichasial cymes, laterals ,at center; P-5+5, outer sepaloid, inner petaloid; stamens 10, connate at base, anther cells parallel, contiguous; disk glands 5 free yellow;G(3) capsule smooth; seeds carunculate.Its sap is a skin irritant, and ingesting as few as three untreated seeds can be fatal to humans
Jatropha curcas L.,
small tree; leaves glabrous, coriaceous, shallowly 5 lobed; flowers greenish-yellow, in axillary dichasial cymes of 10-15 cm long; capsule 2-3 cm across, rugose when dry.
Often planted as hedge plant, and cultivated for the oil. 
 Ver.name: ; Adavi aamudam, అడవిఆముదముnepaalamనేపాళం(Tel.) Physic Nut, Jatropha, Barbados nut(Eng.)
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in
Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.
Shrubs; Leaves simple, alternate, broad-ovate,lobes shallow,triangular, glandular-pilose beneath, glabrous above, margins sparsely glandular-pilose; flowers yellow, in loose subterminal cluster or branched cymes;Capsule globose, shallowly 3-grooved.

Common in waste places through out the state.
Ver.name: Adaviaamudam అడవిఆముదము, Dundigamదుండిగం(Tel.) Glandular Jatropha(Eng.)  
Jatropha glandulifera
Jatropha gossypiifolia L.,
Shrubs; palmately 3 lobed, sticky glandular pilose on petiole, margin and on both surfaces; new leaves are greenish purple colored; Flowers maroon colored, appearing in clusters. Capsule 3-lobed.
Common in waste places.
Ver.name: Seema nepalam సీమనేపాళం; Nallaaamudamనల్లాముదం(Tel.); Bellyache Bush, Cotton-leaf physic nut(Eng.)
Jatropha gossypifolia
MALLOTUS Lour.

Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate or opposite; stipulate, often glandular beneath; flowers bracteate, borne on spikes or racemes;P-3-5 globose in flowers, spathaceous or valvate in flowers;disk 0; stamens >20, filaments free, anthers separated by a connective;G2-4, styles connate below, plumose; capsule schizocarp, each cocci 2 valved; pericarp hard, echinate or glandular; seed globose.
Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg., 
Tree; leaves elliptic-ovate, margin entire, rusty-velvety, coriaceous;Plants dioecious; flowers in cymes in  the axils of bracts, flowers in terminal lax spike like racemes; Capsule is trigonous-globular, covered with a bright crimson layer of minute glands, seeds black 4-5mm across.
Common in hilly areas.
Ver.name: Kumkuma chettu,కుంకుమచెట్టు veligarapuవెలిగారపు,sinduriసింధూరి, nagarakta, vasantham, adaviguba tadaఅడవిగూబతడ(Tel.) Kamala Tree, dyer's rottlera, monkey face tree, orange kamala, red kamala, scarlet croton(Eng.

Mallotus repandus (Willd.) Müll.Arg., 
Large straggling shrub;leaves broadly deltoid-ovate,thinly velvety with pale scatterd glands below;flowers in panicled racemes, stamens >40, yellow;  flowers in simple racemes, ovary clothed with glandular hairs;capsule fulvous tomentose.
often on the hedges of scrub forests at low elevations.
Ver.name:  Kondavettuకొండవెట్టు, adavinelliఅడవినెల్లి, peyyarottaపెయ్యరొట్ట(Tel.) Climbing Mallotus(Eng.)
 
Mallotus repandus male

Mallotus repandus fruit










MACARANGA Thouars
Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll
Resinous tree; branchlets stout, velvet hairy. Leaves simple, alternate,peltate, broadly ovate, entire;palmately 9-nerved radiating from the centre. Flowers doiecious, minute in axillary panicles or racemes; panicle branches zigzag;floral bracts broad and concealing.
Capsule echinate or glandular.
Common in hilly areas
Ver.name: Boddiబొద్ది/ palaka chettuపలకచెట్టు(Tel.);Macaranga, Chandada(Eng.) 
for image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/  
MICROCOCCA Bentham.
Micrococca mercurialis (L.) Benth
Annual herb, leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate; margin crenate; Flowers in androgynous filiform  interrupted racemes.
Common along waste lands and road sides.
Micrococca mercurialis
MICROSTACHYS
Microstachys chamaelea (L.) Müll.Arg., Syn. Sebastiania chamaelea (L.) Müll.Arg.

slender herb; branchlets striate, puberluos. Leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers in axillary spikes, many,solitary at base;Capsule subglobose, 5mm, 3 cocci armed with 2 vertical rows of spinules, red at maturity.
Common in forests.

Ver.name: Baapana buraakuబాపనబూరాకు(Tel.) Hound’s Tongue(Eng.)

Microstachys chamaelea

RICINUS L.
 Ricinus communis L.,
perennial shrub; stem not hard; leaves alternate, palmately 5-12 lobed, margin serrate.  Flowers on androgynous terminal panicles or spikes of 15 cm long. Capsule  spiny, greenish (to reddish-purple), dehiscing in to 3 cocci, seeds oval, shiny, bean-like.
Common along  the road sides, and waste places; also cultivated for seed.
Ver.name: Aamudam ఆముదము(Tel.) Castoroil plant (Eng.)
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in
Suregada lanceolata (Willd.) Kuntze, 
Syn: Suregada angustifolia (Müll.Arg.) Airy Shaw,
Small sized trees; leaves simple, oblanceolate, coriaceous, thick, shining; plants monoecious; male flowers small, creamy-yellow, in axillary clusters; female flowers soiltary; fruit globose capsule.
Common in hilly areas.

Ver.name: Kaaru guggilamకారుగుగ్గిలం(Tel.) Clustered croton(Eng.)
Suregada angustifolia male
Suregada angustifolia female
Suregada multiflora (Juss.) Bail.
Small tree; leaves elliptic-oblong; flowers in axillary clusters; capsule yellowish-red, slightly 3 lobed.
in semi evergreen forests of E.ghats.
Suregada multiflora

TRAGIA L.

Perennial, climbing, hispid herbs with stinging hairs; leaves alternate, simple or palmately 3 lobed; flowers in terminal or leaf opposed androgynous  racemes; P in obovoid, in pinnatifid, lobes enlarged, hardened and spreading in fruit; A-3, G(3) styles united into a column, spreading above, capsule 2-3 valved cocci, hispid, endocarp crustaceous; seed globose.
Tragia involucrata L., 
Twining hispid herb, leaves simple, linear lanceolate; flowers in leaf-opposed androgynous racemes; fruiting calyx lobes glabrous,with 8-10 short hispid teeth.
Common in waste places.

Ver.name:  Dula/durada gondiదురద గొండి(Tel.) Indian Stinging Nettle(Eng.)

 Tragia plukenetii Radcl.-Sm.,
Straggling herb; Leaves palmately 3 partite, base cordate, fruiting calyx linear with 10-12 teeth.Common on hedges in forest outskirts.
Ver.name: Peddaduradaguntaపెద్దదురదగుంట(Tel.) Indian Stinging Nettle(Eng.)
Tragia plukenetii
PHYLLANTHACEAE Martynov    
 Herbs to trees. Latex absent,bark finely cracked; leaves often 2 ranked, some branches looks like compound leaves-  . Monoecy is widespread, the flowers are small ; disc variously lobed; fruit usu. a capsule. 
ANTIDESMA L.
Antidesma acidum Retz.
Smal tree, dioecious;leaves elliptic-obovate;thinly pubescent below.Flowers greenish-white, small, in terminal spikes.Drupes prominently ribbed.
Common in dry hill forests near slopes.
Ver.nmae: Gummadipellaగుమ్మడిపెళ్ల, pulleruపుల్లేరు(Tel.)
For image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antidesma_acidum_Retz._03.JPG
Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.
Medium sized trees; leaves   alternate, oblong to obovate, leathery;Flowers yellowish-red , minute, on branched spikes;drupe globose,light green to deep purple.
Less common in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Polariపొలారి, Nallaballiనల్లబల్లి, tellapulseruతెల్లపులుసేరు, giridichettu(Tel.); Black Currant Tree(Eng.) 
Antidesma ghaesembilla
BRIDELIA Willd. 
Trees or shrubs; leaves simple alternate;red when young, shows craspedodromus venation. Flowers small, unisexual, monoecious, few to many flowers grouped into axile glomerules.flowers 5-merous; disk pulvinate/ saucer shaped. Fruit a drupe.
 Bridelia cinerascensGehrm.
Small trees; ; plants dioecious; leaves distichous; flowers in terminal/ axillary spikes with clusters of flowers at each node; greenish white, with a red disk.
Common in hill slopes.
Ver.name:Annemuఅన్నెము(Tel.)       
Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss., 
Medium sized deciduous tree with conical pointed thorns on stem, bark roughly cracked;flowers in axillary or spicate clusters;Fruit depressed globose drupe, smooth, glossy, light green .
Common in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Koramaddiకోరమద్ది, Putta karakaపుట్టకరక, Bontha vegisaబొంతవేగిస (Tel.)  Spinous Kino Tree (Eng.)
 
Bridelia retusa young leaves, flower
Bridelia montana (Roxb.)Willd.
Small trees; Leaves obovate, cuneate at base; flowers greenish-white in axillary clusters.
Drupe globose.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
Ver.name: Pantagiపంతగి, gundubigaaluగుండుబీగాలు(Tel.)Hamilton's bridelia, shrubby hillock blue-druped feather foil (Eng.)
Bridelia montana
BREYNIA J.R. Forster & G.Forster nom.cons.
Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch.
Glabrous shrub; leaves alternate, 2 ranked;lamina papery, or thin coriaceous. Flowers in small axillary cymes. Capsule sub globose, 4-6mm across, red.
Common through out the state.
Ver.name: Yellariఎల్లారి, yerrapuruguduఎర్రపురుగుడు(Tel.) Mountain coffee bush(Eng.)
Breynia vitis-idaea
Breynia retusa (Dennst.)Alston
Shrub, branchlets angular. Leaves ovate-elliptic,obtuse at base, apiculate at apex. Capsule globose, seated on accrescent calyx.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
CLEISTANTHUS Hooker.f.
Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hook.f., 
Small sized deciduous trees. Leaves simple,alternate, leathery, broadly-elliptic. Flowers greenish-yellow in axillary cymes. Capsule woody, spherical, obscurely 3-lobed.
Common in dry deciduous forests.It is a plant poison.
Ver.name:Vodisiవొడిసి, Korisiకొరిసి(Tel.)  Garari(Eng.
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in
FLUGGEA Willd.
Shrubs; armed or not; leaves alternate, entire, thin coriaceous; flowers dioecious, minute, greenish yellow, pedicellate; in axillary clusters; 1-3; P-5, disk in as 5 partite,  glandular, alternating with 5 stamens;stamens free, exerted; ovary 1-3 celled, styles free; capsule globose, coriaceous, seeds triquertus.
 Flueggea leucopyrus Willd.,Syn. Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell.
Shrubs, branches ending in thorns; leaves obovate; flowers creamy yellow in axillary clusters. Capsules pure white at maturity.
Common on roadsides and waste places.
Ver.name: Tellapuruguduతెల్లపురుగుడు (Tel.) Bushweed, cool pot, Indian snow berry, thermacole plant, white honey shrub(Eng.
Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle., Syn. Securinega virosa (Willd.) Bail.
Unarmed shrub; leaves variable, elliptic-ovate, Flowers creamy white in axillary clusters. Capsule dry, globose,white.
Common in scrub jungles through out the state.
Ver.name: Tellapurugudu, ballichettuబల్లిచెట్టు , Sulamunthaశూలముంత  (Tel.)Chinese water berry, common bush weed (Eng.)
Fluggea virosa


 GLOCHIDION J.R. Forster & G.Forster nom.cons.
Glochidion zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A.Juss.,
Small tree; branchlets zig-zag, striate; leaves broadly ovate-oblong, oblique at base, coriaceous. Flowers yellow in short axillary clusters. Capsule subglobose.
Common along the streams in dry deciduous forests.
Ver.name: Pageriపాగేరి (Tel.)Sri Lanka Glochidion, Hong Kong Abacus Plant(Eng.)
Glochidion zeylanicum
MARGARITARIA L.
Margaritaria indica (Dalzell) Airy Shaw,
Medium sized trees. Leaf blade thinly papery, elliptic;Flowers green, axillary. male flowers in clusters, female 1-3; Capsule depressed globose.
Rare in deciduous forests of E.ghats.
Margaritaria indica flowering branch

MEINECKIA 

Meineckia parvifolia (Wight) G.L.Webster, Acta Bot. Neerl. 14: 342 (1965).

Syn. Neopeltandra suberosa (Wight ex Müll.Arg.) Gamble, Fl. Madras: 1286 (1925).

Slender under shrub to 30 cm tall; base slightly woody, stems slender, angular, branches up to 15cm.Foliar leaves alternate, stipules 1-2mm long, triangular;Flowers in axillary short androgynous racemes with 4-5(-8) flowers; usu. 1 female in the axillary raceme; both male and female flowers with long pedicels(about 1.2-2cm).  Flowers 5-merous. Perianth lobes 5 in both sexes; green with a wide white scaly margins on either side.
 capsule, ca 3-5mm diam., globose, smooth. Seeds with longitudinal very slender ridges and minute cross lines.
 RARE IN UNDERGROWTH  OF HILLSIDE FOREST.
 PHYLLANTHUS L.
Herbs to trees; plagiotropic branchlets are pinnate leaf like, deciduous and flower bearing. Latex is absent. Plants dioecious, flowers monoecious (unisexual).Flowers axillary, solitary or in fascicles, bracteate, small, actinomorphic, white or light yellow or green or pink.  Perianth lobes 5 or 6, imbricate, characterized by a white scaly margin.Disk is present; stamens 3or 6; ovary 3 celled, superior.Fruit septicidal capsule or drupe with 3 crustaceous or 2 valved cocci. Seeds large, trigonous, rounded at back, seed coat hard, brown.  
Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels,
Small tree;leafy branches clustered at the upper part of woody branches; Flowers pink, clustered in leaf axils, or densely clustered axillary racemes.Drupe fleshy; pale yellow or greenish white, waxy.
Usu.cultivated for fruit.
Ver.name: Racha Usiriరాచఉసిరి (Tel.) Otaheite gooseberry; Star goose berry(Eng.)
For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., 
Annual herbs; Foliar leaves distichous, branchlets horizontal, pinnate leaf like; Perianth lobes-5, acute; Stamens-5. capsule smooth.
Common in plains, absent in hilly areas. a weed in cultivated fields.
Ver.name: Nela Usiriనేలఉసిరి(Tel.) Carry Me Seed, Black catnip, Stone breaker (Eng.)
For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd., 
Annual herbs. Leaves thin, stipules pinkish, pedicel thickened. Flowers rather large, male flowers in the lower part of the branchlets, P3+3; green with prominent scarious white margins, female flowers yellowish on the distal part of the branchlets.Capsule globose.
Common in hill side forests. 
Ver.name: Bhupatri(Sans)Niruri(Eng.)
Phyllanthus emblica L., 
Deciduous tree; Foliar branches with very many up to 100 leaves. Leaves linear oblong; sub-coriaceous. Flowers closely clustered in leaf axils, greenish yellow;drupe fleshy, green, 2-3 cm across.
Common in dry deciduous forests; also cultivated for fruit.
Ver.name:Usiriఉసిరి(Tel.) Emblic, Ambal, Amioki, Indian goose berry(Eng.)
For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/ 
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster, 
Annual herb, leaves elliptic-oblong;perianth lobes-6,obtuse; stamens-6. Seed segmented.
Common weed in moist localities and rice fields.
Ver.name: Bhu usiriభూఉసిరి (Tel.) Gulf Leaf-Flower(Eng.)
For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/ 
Phyllanthus indofischeri Bennet,
Plants look similar to P.emblica but smaller in size. Branchlets pale brown, leaves larger and thicker than that of P.emblica. Flowers in axillary clusters with filiform pedicels.  Drupes are smaller than that of P.emblica.
In hilly areas in high altitudes above 350m, in E.ghats.
Ver.name: Chittiusiriచిట్టివుసిరి (Tel.) 
Branch of P.indofischeri
Phyllanthus lawii Graham ex. Muell.
Shrubs; plants monoecious; leaves elliptic-oblong;female flowers solitary, male 1-few, in leaf axils. capsule depressed globose.
Occasional along river banks.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L., 
Annual herbs; branches, erect and ascending, (not horizontal and does not resemble pinnate leaves). Foliar leaves obovate; flowers yellowish-green. Perianth lobes-6; Calyx accrescent in female flowers.Capsule globose, smooth.
Common weed in dry areas.
Ver.name: Nalla Nelausiriనల్లనేలవుసిరి(Tel.) Madras leaf flower(Eng.)
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
Phyllanthus pinnatus (Wight) G.L.Webster, 
Small shrubs; foliar branches 8-15cm; leaf elliptic; flowers greenish yellow in axillary dense clusters; perianth lobes, stamens-6; capsule drooping.
Common in drydeciduous forests and rocky areas.
Ver.name: Takkedaతక్కెడ(Tel.) Sand potato bush(Eng.)

Phyllanthus pinnatus female

Phyllanthus pinnatus male
Phyllanthus polyphyllus Willd., 
Shrub; in vegetative phase it resembles P.emblica except the size of the plant. Flowers white or pale yellow in axillary cymes. Schizocarp, 4-6mm across, black when dry. 
Common on rocky boulders in E.Ghats.
Ver.name: Kondapachaariకొండపచ్చారి(Tel.)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. 
Straggling shrubs, branches not pinnate leaf like. Foliar leaves alternate, (not distichous) stipules spiny when dry;  leaf blade membranous or papery; Flowers in axillary fascicles,3-4mm across, and mixed,pedicellate. Berry sub-globose, dark purple when ripe.
Common among scrubs in moist deciduous and semi evergreen forests.
Ver.name: Nallapuruguduనల్లపురుగుడు (Tel.) Black-Honey Shrub, black-berried featherfoil(Eng.
Phyllanthus reticulatus
Phyllanthus rheedei Wight,
 Undershrubs;Stipules lanceolate; leaf elliptic. Flowers axillary,male flowers on upper axils; female flowers many on lower axils, solitary. Capsule globose.
Occasional on hills in Rayalaseema.
Ver.name: Kozhikode Leaf-Flower(Eng.)
Phyllanthus rheedii

Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd., 
Plant prostrate/suberect; leaves coriaceous, ovate-orbicular; stipules minute;flowers light yellow, in upper axils; perianth lobes and stamens 6 each; capsule ovoid. 
Common in sandy areas near coast.
Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook.f.,
Annual herbs, branchlets angular.Leaves distichous, stipules 2-3mm long, decurrent, auriculate at base, hairy.Male flowers solitary or in 3-4 in short clusters, limited to lower axils, many; ca 2 mm diam., sessile;Female flowers solitary, few limited to upper axils only,  on thickened  pedicel to 1mm; flower about 0.4cm across,(conspicuously much larger than female flower);Capsule, ca 4mm  in diam., globose. Seeds dark brown, with rather distant longitudinal very slender ridges ca 7,and minute cross lines.
Rare.  A new record to A.P.

Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

 Annual herbs,branchlets glabrous, 3-12 cm long, with 10-25 leaves; stipules lanceolate-acuminate, minute, reddish. Flowers minute, axillary,1-3, male and female separate or mixed.Female flowers 2 mm across, usu.solitary in the distal nodes; pedicels capillary,
 Capsule depressed-globose, 2 mm across, greenish, smooth; stalk 6-9 mm long, fruit not on the abaxial side; seeds trigonous, densely papillose.
Naturalised in India.
A new record.
Phyllanthus urinaria L., 
Suffruticose herbs; branches horizontal; Leaves linear-oblong,Stipules subulose. Flowers axillary, male flowers few, female flowers many in lower axils. Capsule verucose, seeds prominently transverselyridged and with cross-bars.
Common in the forest undergrowth  along moist shady localities . 
Ver.name:Tamalaki(Sanskrit) Nelausiriనేలవుసిరి(Tel.)
For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/                    
Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.,
Slender, branched, glabrous suffruticose herb;foliar branches not deciduous; Flowers axillary in androgynous fascicles; female long pedicellate, perianth purple; male flowers  light yellow, sub-sessile.Capsule slightly rugose.
Common in the drier areas along streams. 
Ver.name: Uchiusiriఉచ్చివుసిరి (Tel.)
Phyllanthus virgatus

Phyllanthus virgatus var. gardnerianus (Wight) Govaerts & Radcl.
Slender herbs; leaves elliptic-obovate, thin-papery, glaucous beneath. Flowers in androgynous fascicles, male and female  flowers with filiform pedicells.Capsule smooth, slightly 3 lobed.
Rare in hilly areas. 
SAUROPUS Blume
Herbs or shrubs ; stipules minute ; flowers monoecious, axillary, pedicellate ; P-6, disciform, the bases of the lobes with thickened folds; female larger; A-3, combined into a trigonous column,anthers seated on the angles of the column.G(3) ,2ovules per cell, fruit globose capsule, seeds trigonous.
Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.,
Shrubs; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2 ranked, thin; male and female flowers greenish-yellow; axillary, perianth disc shaped; disc incurved at upper part; capsule red,depressed globose.
Often cultivated as leafy vegetable.
Ver.name: Vitaminla kuraవిటమిన్లకూర(Tel.)Sweet leaf bush(Eng.)
Sauropus androgynus
Sauropus bacciformis (L.) Airy Shaw, 
Succulent semi erect herb, branchlets terete; leaves obovate; flowers light yellow, in axillary short, clusters, female flowers solitary. Capsule oblong-ovate.
Occasional along the marhy areas of the coast.
Ver.name: Nela tenkaayaluనేలటెంకాయలు (Tel.)
Sauropus bacciformis
Sauropus quadrangularis (Willd.) Müll.Arg., 
Much branched erect slender herb; branches quadrangular; leaves elliptic oblong;flowers greenish-yellow, disk scales short;drupe woody when dry, with a lobed rim.
Rare in the foot hills of E.ghats.
Ver.name: Tella vusirikaతెల్లవుసిరిక(Tel.); Triple nerved lizard’s foot(Eng.)
FABALES Bromhead

Includes Fabaceae and Polygalaceae
FABACEAE
Leaves are compound, stipulate;  leaflets are entire and  pulvinate; flowers are mono carpellary, free petals (or two may be connate), and stamens either all similar in length, or if dissimilar, not regularly alternating longer and shorter. The fruit is usually dry and elongated legume, seeds are borne in single rank.
This family is divided into 3 sub-families; Faboideae, Caesalpinioideae and Mimosoideae
Faboideae:( Fabaceae or Pailonaedeae): Herbs or vines, and trees; usu. once-compound leaves. The flowers are monosymmetric with the odd petal being adaxial and outside the others; the papilionoid flower consists of adaxial banner/ standard, paired wings and two connate petals forming the keel. The stamens are more or less connate basally. The fruit is often explosively dehiscent, simultaneously splitting down both sides and the two valves twisting.
ABRUS L.
Abrus precatorius L. 
Perennial, woody, prickly twiner; Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets 7-24 pairs; Flowers purple, pinkish-white, in fascicles in dense axillary racemes. Fruit 3 to 5-seeded; seed glossy, shining red with black blotch around the hilum.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
 Ver.name: Guruvindaగురువింద / guruginja గురుగింజ (Tel.) Jequirity, Bead Vine, Red bean vine; crab’s eye, Indian liquorice (Eng.).
For image:http://lalithambanlr.blogspot.in
AESCHYNOMENE L.
Diffuse or erect herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, paripinnate, 20- to many foliolate, often sensitive; leaflets opposite, subsessile. Flowers small to medium sized, in axillary racemes, with several flowers. Legume or lomentum which is compressed and stipitate.Seed 1per article.
Aeschynomene aspera L.
Perennial shrub, up to 3 m tall. Stems glabrous, soft, pith white spongy. Leaflets>60;Flowers yellow, 2-7 flowered racemes.Vexillum  purplish tinged pubescent externally.Legume 4-8 jointed, often indented on both sutures.
Common in ponds and on the edges of rice fields.
Ver.name: Neeti Jeelugaనీటిజీలుగ (Tel.) Sola, Sola pith plant, Pith plant(Eng.)
Aeschynomene indica L.
Annual herbs, rarely perennials, leaflets <50, linear-oblong;Flowers yellow, in leaf opposed or axillary, 1-6 flowered racemes;Pod slightly curved, up to 5 cm long,  5 to 13 jointed. seed dark brown.
Common in wet muddy places.
Ver. name: Jeeluga జీలుగ (Tel.) Indian joint vetch(Eng.)
Aeschynomene indica
ALYSICARPUS Necker ex Desvaux, 
Herbs, perennial. Stems erect or diffuse, branched. Leaves 1-foliolate, rarely pinnately 3-foliolate; stip­ules scarious. Flowers usu. Pinkish-yellow, in axillary or terminal racemes; usually binate at each node of rachis; bracts scarious. Standard broad, obovate or nearly orbicular; keel obtuse, adherent to wings. Stamens  (9)+1); anthers uniform;style, incurved. Legume cylindric, swollen, many jointed, 1-seeded per article, indehiscent.
Alysicarpus bupleurifolius ( L. ) DC
Prostrate glabrous herbs; leaves 1-foliate, not dimorphic; flowers yellow with pink tinge;pod 4-8 jointed, joints smooth.
Common among grasses in forests.
Ver.name: Sweet alys (Eng.) 
Alysicarpus hamosus Edgew.
Slender diffuse herbs, with long bristly hairs. leaflets orbicular; Flowers bluish purple in 6-10cm long axillary lax racemes; standard yellowish-pink with purple basal blotch.Pod curved, joints flattened.
Common in shaded hilly areas.
Ver.name: Latanga(San.)
 
Alysicarpus hamosus
Alysicarpus longifolius (Rottl. ex Spreng.) Wight & Arnott, 
Sufruticose glabrascent herbs; leaflets 5-10 cm long, 1-2 cm broad, oblong-lanceolate; Flowers purple with yellow tinge,in  dense spicate racemes. Pod 3-6 jointed; calyx much longer than first joint of pod.
A common weed in fields.
Alysicarpus longifolius
Ver.name: Peddakandikarku పెద్దకందికరాకు(Tel.); Long Leaved Alyce Clover (Eng.) 

 Alysicarpus monilifer ( L. ) DC.

Prostrate much branched, pilose herbs; leaves 1-foliate, oblong-elliptic; Flowers pink, in 4-10-flowered short axillary racemes;pod 3-8 jointed, distinctly moniliform, glabrous. Seed dimorphism is present.
A common weed in moist places.  Ver.name: Ameraఆమెర(Tel.)
Alysicarpus monilifer

Alysicarpus rugosus ( Willd. ) A.DC.

Erect pubescent herbs; leaflets oblong-below, linear-oblong above; flowers purplish-yellow in short racemes; pod monilifer, 3-5 jointed.
Common in dry areas through out the district.
Alysicarpus rugosus
Alysicarpus vaginalis ( L. ) DC.
Perennial spreading, glabrous herbs, but stems are in thick stands; leaves -1 foliate, lamina often ovate-oblong;Flowers purplish-blue, in 6-12-flowered racemes; binate at each node;pod not constricted between the joints.
Common in dry rocky soils.
Ver.name: Burmatal chettu,బర్మాతల్ చెట్టు  Nilasangalu (Tel.) ; Alyce Clove; one leaf clover(Eng.
Alysicarpus vaginalis

Arachis hypogaea L.

A low-growing annual herb; The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets. Flowers yellow in axillary clusters;, the flower stalk elongates causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy.
A widely cultivated crop through out the state.
Ver.name: Verusenaga వేరుశనగ (Tel.) Peanut, ground nut, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts (Eng.) 
Arachis hypogea
Butea monosperma ( Lam. ) Taub.
A deciduous tree; leaves 3-foliate, coriaceous; broadly ovate; Flowers bright orange-red, about 4 cm wide; in rigid racemes;pod 15-20x3-5cm,thick.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
Ver.name: Modugaమోదుగ (Tel.) Palash,  Flame of the Forest, Bastard Teak, Parrot Tree, (Eng.)
CAJANUS L.
 Cajanus cajan ( L. ) Millsp.
1-2m woody annual; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets oblong-lanceolate;Flowers yellow or striated with purple streaks in 5-10 flowered axillary or terminal racemes.Pods flat, with an acuminate tip, pubescent and of variable colour, with oblique furrows.
A widely cultivated crop throughout the state.
Ver.name:Kandiకంది ( Tel) Red gram; pegion pea(Eng.)
Cajanus cajan
Cajanus scarabaeoides ( L. ) Thouarssyn. Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth,
A perennial climber ; stems covered with ferrugenous pubescence; leaves 3-foliate;leaflets elliptic; laterals slightly oblique; flowers yellow, in axillary few flowered racemes.Pods oblong, compressed,3-6 seeded.
Common under forest growth.

Ver.name: Peanut grass, showy pigeonpea, tropical clover, Wild kulthi(Eng.)

Cajanus scarabaeoides
CANAVALIA 
Canavalia gladiata ( Jacq. ) DC.
Large climbing herbs; leaves 3-foliate; leaflets ovate; Flowers pink, in 10-20-flowered racemes, 2-3 clustered at each node; standard broadly elliptic; legumes thick, leathery, linear-oblong; sutures thick.
Widely cultivated and also run wild. fruits edible.
Ver.name:Thamba kaiతంబకాయ(Tel.) Jack bean, Scimitar bean, Jamaican horse beanSword bean(Eng.)
Canavalia gladiata

Canavalia cathartica Thouars; Syn. Canavalia virosa Roxb. ) Wight & Arn.

Perennial climber; stem oppressed pubescent; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets obovate,  pubescent; Flowers fragrant, pink in peduncled raceme.Legume 10-15 cm long, densely pubescent. Common over bushes and hedges in scrub forests.
Ver.name: Adavi thambakaayaluఅడవి తంబకాయ(Tel.) Wild bean (eng.)
CENTROSOMA
Centrosema pubescens Benth.
Perennial climber; finely pubescent; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets elliptic-ovate; Flowers large and showy, lilac, in axillary few flowered racemes. Pod linear with prominent margins, 15-20 seeded.
A new record in the state.
Ver.name: Butterfly pea; climbing centrosema, centro (Eng.)
Centrosoma pubescence
CICER
Cicer arietinum L.
Annual herb; leaves compound- imparipinnate, with 11- 13 leaflets, leaflets glandular, serrate. Flowers solitary, axillary, white or pink. Pod 1-2 seeded.
Widely cultivated pulse.
Ver.name; Sanagaపప్పు శనగ(Tel.) Indian peaChick pea; Bengal gram.(Eng.)
Cicer arietinum
CLITORIA
Clitoria ternatea L.
Perennial climber; leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7, ovate-elliptic; Flowers axillary, single or paired; colour ranges from white, mauve, light blue to dark blue. Pod linear oblong, 8-11 seeded.
Commonly cultivated for flowers, also run wild.

Ver.name: Vishnukranthi; Shanku pushpaaluశంకుపుష్పాలు (Tel.)Butterfly-pea (Australia);  Blue pea; Asian Pigeon Wings(Eng.)

Clitoria ternata
CROTALARIA L.
Herbs or shrubs, often short-lived, rarely small trees; Leaves simple or 3-foliolate,  stipulate;  flowers usually yellow,in racemes;stamens monodelphous, dimorphic; ovary stipate or sessile, with 2 to many ovules; pod oblong-cyllindric, usu. inflated.Seeds oblong-reniform, with a definite hilar sinus.
1. Crotalaria albida Heyne ex Roth.
Annual herbs; leaves simple, elliptic-oblong;thinly silky benearh; flowers yellow in terminal  lax racemes; lacyx teeth linear;pods 6-12 seeded.
Common in north coast and rayala seema districts.
2. Crotalaria angulata Mill.
Prostrate annual hispid herb, leaves simple ovate; flowers yellow in 2 flowered  inflrescence; pod almost orbicular hairy.
Common in dry areas of Rayalaseema and Telangana districts.
Ver.name: Rabbit bells(Eng.)
Crotalaria angulata
3.Crotalaria calycina Schrank
Annual, branchlets appressed tomentose; leaves simple, elliptic-oblong; flowers yellow in terminal 2-12 flowered racemes. pod black when ripe.
Common in most districts.
Crotalaria calycina
4.Crotalaria hebecarpa (DC.) Rudd/ syn.Goniogyna hirta ( Willd. ) Ali
Prostrate hispid herbs; branching  is pseudodichotomy. Leaves simple, cordate-ovate, margin ciliate; Flowers yellow, 4-5mm long, axillary, solitary. Pod flat, oblong, compressed, seed solitary.
Common in wetlands and open pastures.
Ver.name: Gorakh-Buntiగోరఖ్ బంతి(Tel.); Fuzzy Fruited Rattlepod(Eng.
Crotalaria hebecarpa 
5.Crotalaria hirsuta Willd.
Annual hispid herbs; leaves simple, ovate; flowers yellow in leaf-opposed 2-3 flowered racemes.Pods densely hirsute.
Common in all districts.
Crotalaria hirsuta
6.Crotalaria juncea L.
Laxly branched  annual herb; roots bear numerous nodules. Leaves simple, sparsely pubescent;lamina  linear-elliptic. Flowers yellow in lax  terminal raceme up to 30 cm long, Pod tomentose, cyllindric, grooved along upper surface.
Widely cultivated for crop rotation and as cattle fodder.
Ver.name: Janumu జనుము (Tel.); Brown hemp, Indian-hemp, Madras-hemp, Sunhemp(Eng.) 
Crotalaria juncea flower 

7. Crotalaria laburnifolia L.

Glabrous herbs; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets elliptic-ovate; flowers yellow in many flowered elongated racemes. Pod glabrous, stalk of the pod about 3 cm long.
Common in fields. 
Ver.name: Bird flower (Eng.)
Crotalaria laburnifolia
8. Crotalaria linifolia L.
Sub erect, pubescent herbs; leaves simple, oblong-oblanceolate; chartaceous. Flowers yellow in terminal racemes. Pod sub-globose. 
Rare in Some north coastal, rayalaseema and Telangana districts.
9.Crotalaria medicaginea bLam.
Diffuse herbs; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets oblanceolate. Flowers yellow with maroon streaaks in short leaf-opposed or terminal racemes. Pod sub-globose, 2-seeded.
A common weed in waste places.
Ver. name:  Nelagiligichaనేలగిలిగిచ్చ(Tel.) Trefoil Rattlepod (Eng.)
10. Crotalaria mysorensis Roth.
Erect herbs, branchlets grayish tomentose; leaves simple,sessile, linear-elliptic,densely tomentose. Flowers yellow with maroon streakes,in terminal racemes; legume obovoid.
Less common in hills of Rayalaseema.
11. Crotalaria pallida  Dryand
Glabrascent herbs; leaves 3-foliate; leaflets ovate, chartaceous;flowers yellow in terminal many flowered elongate racemes.legumes about 1cm, deflexed.
common in coastal districts.
Crotalaria pallida
Ver.name: Smooth crotalaria, smooth rattle pod(Eng.)
12. Crotalaria paniculata Willd.
Erect herbs, branches viscid,glandular pubescent. Leaves simple, obovate, chartaceous;Flowers yellow in lax panicles, Pod ellipsoid.
Common in dry areas in Rayala seema, Krishna to Nellore districts.
Crotalaria paniculata 
13. Crotalaria prostrata Willd;
 Prostrate hirtellous  herb; stipules absent; leaves sim­ple; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-oblong, 1-3 × 0.5-1 cm; flowers yellow in 2-8 flowered leaf-opposed racemes;Legume cylindric, about 1 cm long.
Common in grassy wetlands.
Ver.name: Serigillygitchaసిరిగిలిగిచ్చ(Tel.) Prostrate Rattlepod(Eng.) 
Crotalaria prostrata 
14. Crotalaria pulchra Andrews
Erect shrubs with golden pubescence; leaves simple, obovate, thin coriaceous; shining; flowers yellow in paniculate racemes; bracts often black when dry; pod oblong about 1 cm, exerted from calyx.
Common in forests of Velugonda, sehachalam hills.
Crotalaria pulchra 
15.Crotalaria pusilla Heyne ex Roth.
Diffusely branched pubescent herb; about 15 cm tall; leaves simple, linear-elliptic, appressed-siriceous; flowers yellow in terminal 4-8 flowered racemes.Pod0.5cm, ovoid.
Common in dry waste lands; it is the smallest plant of the genus.
16.  Crotalaria quinquefolia L.
Erect herbs, 1-2m tall; leaves long petioled, 5-7 foliate; leaflets lanceolate, puberulent dorsally; flowers yellow in terminal raceme; pod oblong, glabrous.
Ver.name:  Neerugiligichhaనీరుగిలిగిచ్చ(Tel.) Five Leaf Rattlepod, Wild wetland sunnhemp(Eng.)
Crotalaria quinquefolia

17. Crotalaria ramosissima Roxb. much branched erect pubescent herb. Leaves simple, linear-oblong; silky hairy on both sides; flowers yellow in axillary racemes.Calyx and bracts curled back, drying black; pod exerted.

Common in fields and waste places.

Crotalaria ramosissima
18. Crotalaria retusa L.
Sparsely pubescent herbs; leaves simple. flowers yellow in 10-20 flowered terminal racemes; standard sub-orbicular, with red stripes. pod 3cm, black at maturity.
Common in waste places and forests. 
Ver.name: Wedge leaf-Rattle pod(Eng.)
Crotalaria retusa
19. Crotalaria verrucosa L.
Erect herbs, stems 4 angled; Leaves ovate, or rhomboid; stipules foliaceous; flowers violet or purple in terminal racemes. Pod cylindric, about 3 cm.
Common weed on roadsides.
Ver.name: Giligitcha గిలిగిచ్చ(Tel.) Blue Andana, Cascavelle Bleu, Warted Crotalaria,Blue Rattlepod, Purple popbush, Shack-shack, Tooth-leaf rattlepod Ghelegherinta(Eng.) 
20. Crotalaria willdenowiana DC 
Annual sericeous herbs; leaves 3 foliate;leflets oblanceolate, 1-2x0-5cm; flowers yellow in 6-9 flowered terminal/axillary racemes. pod sessile, globose, pubescent.
Rare in few districts.
Crotalaria willdenowiana
Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik  syn.  Psoralea corylifolia L.
Pubescent herbs; leaves simple, ovate, margin dentate; flowers purplish-violet in  axillary racemes, flowers aggregated densey on apical part of the peduncle. Pod ovoid, seed black, solitary, reniform.
A weed in road sides.
Ver.name: Bavanchaalu బావంచాలు(Tel.); Babchi(Eng.)
Cullen corylifolium
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub
Annual glabrous herbs; branches conspicuously 4-angled; leaves3-foliate; Flowers pink, in ra­cemes of 4-10 cm long; 6-30-flowered; Leg­ume nearly linear, 4-7 x0.5-0.8 cm, erect, longitudinally ridged.
 Cultigen not known in the wild; cultivated for the gum from its seeds (guar gum), which is used as a stabilizer in processed food. Unripe fruits are used as vegetable.
 Ver.name: Goruchikkudu గోరుచిక్కుడు ; motikkayaమొటిక్కాయలు (Tel.) Cluster bean(Eng.).
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba
DALBERGIA
 Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; flowers small in  terminal or axillary, racemes or panicles, usually numerous flowered;Calyx campanulate,
 Corolla white, pale green, or rarely purple; petals clawed; keel boat shaped; Fruit an indehiscent legume, strongly flattened, translucent, raised over seeds ("samaroid"); (b) thick­er, ± leathery, often with lenticelsSeeds reniform, compressed.
Dalbergia sisso Roxburgh ex Candolle
Deciduous trees, with rough, gray bark. Leaves 12-15 cm; leaflets 3-5; apex shortly cuspidate, coriaceous, shining. Flowers creamy white in about 10 cm axillary panicles. Legume pale brown when dry, strap-shaped, 1-2 seeded.
Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Jun-Nov.
Widely cultivated for the wood.
Ver.name: yegisa ఏగిస (Tel.); Indian Rose wood(Eng.)
Dalbergia lanceolaria L.f.
Medium sized deciduous trees; bark whitish gray, smooth. Leaves 12-15 cm; leaflets 11-15; leaflets obovate-oblong, apex retuse; coriaceous. Flowers small, purlish-white, in dense axillary panicles.
Legume oblong stipate, 1-2, seeded.
Fl: May-june, Fr: Aug-Sept.
Uses: Timber is used for furniture.
Ver.name: yerra pastaruఎర్ర పస్తరు (Tel.)siras(Eng.)
Dalbergia lanceolaria

Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.
Large deciduous trees; bark grey, thin with irregular short cracks; exfoliating in fibrous longitudinal flakes. Leaves are odd-pinnate with 5-7 unequal sized leaflets; leaflets coriaceous, dark green above and pale below. Flowers are white in axillary panicles. Pods are oblong-lanceolate; 1-4 seeded.
Wood is highly valuable.
Ver. Name: Irugudu chettu, ఇరుగుడు చెట్టు Jittegiజిట్టేగి  (Tel.); Indian Rosewood; Bombay Blackwood; East India Blackwood; sisham (Eng.).
Dalbergia latifolia

Dalbergia lanceolaria L. f. subsp. paniculata (Roxb.)Thoth

Syn. Dalbergia paniculata Roxb.
Large deciduous trees; young branchlets pubescent; bark grey, thin with irregular short cracks.Leaves are odd-pinnate with 7-9 unequal sized leaflets; leaflets elliptic- obtuse, thin coriaceous. Flowers white in axillary short panicles. Pods brown oblong-lanceolate, with 1-2 seeds.

Fl: June; Fr: Aug

Wood is low quality timber.

Ver.name: Patsaru

DESMODIUM L.
Perennial herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees, pubescent with straight or uncinate hairs.  Leaves with 1 or 3 (5,7) leaflets. Flowers in terminal and axillary or rarely leaf-opposed, racemose, panicles. stamens 10, connate into a tube or the upper stamen distinct to middle or base. Pods compressed, (1) 2-jointed to many-jointed, forming 1-seeded indehiscent articles, faces reticulate-veined, usually pubescent.
Desmodium biarticulatum ( L. ) F.V.Muell.
Slender undershrubs. Leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets oblong 0.5-1x0.3-0.5cm.  Flowers reddish-pink in terminal lax racemes. Fruit with 2 articles.
Occasional in forest under growth.
Desmodium dichotomum (Willd.)DC.
Diffuse hairy straggling herbs. Leaves 3 foliate,3-5x1.5-3cm, ovate-elliptic; stipules large auriculate. Flowers in terminal/axillary racemes up to 30cm.pod moilform, 6-8 jointed.
Common in forest under growth.

Desmodium heterocarpon(L.)DC.
Scandent under shrubs. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaf lets elliptic-oblong.Flowers pinkish-violet in dense terminal racemes of about 20cm long. Pods 6 jointed.

Common in many districts.
Desmodium gangeticum ( L. ) DC.
Up to 70 cm tall woody coarse perennial  herb. Leaves 1-foliolate, elliptic-oblong. Flowers axillary and in terminal racemes; peduncle pubescent, primary bracts each usually subtending a fascicle of 3 or more pedicels. Flowers purple or white. Fruit sessile to shortly stipitate, up to 7-8-articled, upper suture essentially straight, lower one curved.
Occasional in forest under growth.
Ver.name: Pulladi పుల్లడి , gitanaramu గీతా నరం , (Tel.) shalaparni(San) Salwan; Sal Leaved Desmodium(Eng.)
Desmodium gangeticum

Desmodium heterophyllum(Willd.)DC
Procumbent hairy herbs.Leaves 3 foliate; leaflets cordate at base.Flowers pink or white in leaf opposed short racemes; 2 per node.Pod 4-6 jointed.
Rare in coastal areas.
Desmodium heterophyllum
Desmodium motorium(Houtt.)Merr.
Syn.Desmodium gyrans(L.f)DC.
Erect herbs; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets unequal, linear-lanceolate, terminal one 8-10x2-3cm; laterals 1-2x0.5cm; often moving in jerks.Flowers pink, solitary in the axils of cauducous bracts; pod oblong, pubescent, 8-10 indistinct jointed.
Rare in North coastal districts .
Ver.name: Telegraph plant(Eng.) 

Desmodium pryoni DC.
Erect hispd undershrubs, up to 1 m tall. Leaves 3 foliate, terminal one rhomboid, larger than laterals. Flowers pink in 10-15cm long terminal racemes.Pod 4-8 jointed.
Rare along ravines in hill side forests. Limited to Peninsular India.
Fl: Oct-Feb.
Desmodium pryoni

Desmodium triflorum ( L. ) DC.
Perennial, prostrate, pu­bescent herbs with woody taproot; frequently rooting at nodes.  Leaves 3-foliolate. Flowers purple, solitary or 2 or 3 in leaf axils. Legume slightly falcate, 3-5 jointed.
Common in cultivated lands and pastures.
Ver.name: Moordooమూరడూ , muntamanduముంతమందు (Tel.); Threeflower Beggarweed, Creeping Tick Trefoil, matty desmodium(Eng.)

Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC

Shrubs  to 1.5m tall. Young branches densely velutinous and shortly hooked hairy. Leaves 1-foliolate, ovate-lanceolate, rarely 3 foliate. Flowers purple-pink in terminal 10-20cm long panicles; peduncle hairy; 2-5-flowered at each node.Pod narrowly oblong.
Rare along ravines in hill side forests. Limited to Peninsular India.
Fl: Oct-Feb.

Ver.name: Chiva madu, Chimanduri చిమండురి (Tel.); Velvet-Leaf Desmodium, Villous leaf Desmodium(Eng.)
DOLICHOS
Dolichos trilobus L. syn. Dolichos falcatus Willd.
Twining herbs; stems slender slightly hairy. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; terminal leaf let shalowly trilobate, some times with whitish patches on the midrib region,  appressed pubescent on both surfaces.Flowers pink on slender racemes, 1-4-flowered. Legumes linear-oblong, falcate; 4-6 seeded.
Common in forest thickets.
Ver.name: Adavi chikkuduఅడవి చిక్కుడు (Tel.)
Dolichos trilobus

Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth.
Semi evergreen climbing shrub. Leaves odd-pinnate, 7-15 cm long; leaflets 9-19; leaflets elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers pinkish white in long axillary racemes that are twice as long as the leaf. Fruit strap shaped glabrous; 1-4 seeded.
Common in dry deciduous forests.Fl: Aug-Sep; Fr: Oct-Nov.
 Ver.name: Hog Creeper(Eng.); nalla teega నల్ల తీగ , chirutalibadu చిరు తాళి బొద్దు  (Tel.)
 For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/  
DUNBARIA
Dunbaria ferruginea Wight&Arn.
Stout tomentose climbers; leaves 3 foliate, terminal leaflet ovate-rhomboid, 12-15x10-12cm, laterals 3-5x3-6cm;thin coriaceous, pubescent. Flowers yellow, in 20-30 flowered racemes.pod oblong 4x1cm, pubescent, 3-5 seeded.
Common in Kadapa and Chittor districts.
ELEIOTIS DC
Eleiotis monophylla (Burm.f.)DC.

Prostrate annual herbs.Leaves 1-foliate, obovate-orbicular ;base cordate, apex retuse, pubescent beneath.flowers pink in lax axillary racemes.Pod boat shaped, 1 seeded.

Common in many districts. 
Eleiotis monophylla
ERYTHRINA
Erythrina indica Lam.
Medium-sized, armed, deciduous tree. Leaves  trifoliate,  leaflets 8-20 x5-15 cm, ovate; petiole and rachis are spiny.Flowers scarlet red on 15-20 cm long erect terminal racemes. Pod black, torulose, 10-15cm long.
Often cultivated as avenue tree. Fl&frt: and March to April
Ver.name: Badidaబాదిద (Tel.);Indian coral tree; Easter Flower, Thorny Dadap (Eng.)
Erythrina indica

Erythrina suberosa Roxb.

Medium sized deciduous armed tree. Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets about 7.5x15 cm , the terminal one rhomboid-ovate; densely pubescent below. Flowers bright scarlet-orange in color, tubular, in fascicles of 1-3 in racemes near the tip of the branches, peduncle short. Fruit stipitate, 12.5-15.0 cm long, torulose, 2-5-seeded.

Cultivated as an ornamental plant.
 Ver.name: Mullamodugaముళ్ళ మోదుగ , Balabhadrika (Tel.); Indian coral tree, Tiger claw (Eng.
Erythrina suberosa
Erythrina stricta Roxb.

Densely armed deciduous tres.Leaves thin coriaceous, 10-30cm; flowers deep red in 10 cm long dense racemes.pod 3-4 seeded.

Occasional in some districts.
GLIRICIDIA
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp SYN. Gliricidia maculata
medium-sized tree; branching is frequently from the base, Leaves about 30 cm long, imparipinnate, leaflets 5-20, ovate or elliptic, 2-7 cm long. Flowers bright pink to lilac, tinged with white, in dense racemes clustered near the apex of branches.Pod light yellow-brown when mature, narrow, 10-18 x 2 cm.
Extremely versatile plant, fulfil a number of roles.

Ver.name: Eruvaaku chettu, Madriమాద్రి (Tel.)Grow stick, quick stick, gliricidia ; Mexican lilac(Eng.
Gliricidia sepium
INDIGOFERA
Shrubs, shrublets, perennial herbs, or rarely annual herbs or small trees; trichomes typically medifixed (T-shaped), equally to very unequally 2-branched and sometimes crisped, or rarely simple multicellular hairs present with glandular tips. Leaves usually imparipinnate but for some species simple or reduced to 1 leaflet;Racemes axillary; bracts usually cadu­cous.Corolla usually reddish, base shortly clawed; Stamens 10, diadel­phous, only vexillary one free; anthers uniform, Seeds globose to rectan­gular; hilum small; 
 Indigofera aspalathoides DC.
Small stiff herb,  with appressed pubesens. Leaves 3-5 foliate, sessile, crowded; Flowers red, solitary, axillary, 3-5mm across;Pod linear, 1 cm long.
In rocky areas and in cultivated dry soils.
Ver.name: Shiva vemu, Nela vempali నేల  వెంపలి (Tel.); Wiry indigo(Eng.) 

Indigofera astragalina DC.

Erect annual, stem pilose;Leaf imparipinnately compound, Leaflets 5-11. Flowers red, in 5-10cm long racemes. calyx hirsute. Pod tetragonous; deflexed.
Common in hilly areas.
Ver.name: Nugu neeli నూగునీలి (Tel.);  Hairy Indigo, silky indigo(Eng.)
 For image:http://www.flickr.com/photos/45835639@N04/  
Indigofera colutea (Burm. f.) Merr.
Herbs; Stems with brown gland-tipped trichomes; leaves 2-4 cm, 5-11leaflets; flowers red in laxly flowered racemes of 2-6cm;pod 1-1.5cm.
Common in dry sandy areas.
Indigofera cordifolia B.Heyne ex Roth
Prostrate hary herb. Leaves simple, cordate,3-8x3-6mm; flowers in axillary short condensed racemes. Legume ellipsoid.
Ver.name: Gokhru, paapara alumu (Tel.); heart-leaf indigo(Eng.)
Indigofera cordifolia

Indigofera glabra L.

Annual diffuse herbs, stem reddish, leaf impari pinnate, leaflets 5, flowers reddish in axillary 2-5 flowered racemes.. Pods 3cm, sucyllindric.
Common in dry sandy soils. 
Indigofera hirsuta L.
Small shrubs, stems rufous,leaves 5-9 foliate, Flowers small, red in 10-20 cm, densely flowered racemes;calyx hirsute. Legume cylindric, straight,with spreading trichomes. 
Common in open hill slopes.
Ver.name: Nuguneeliనూగునీలి(Tel.); Hairy Indigo(Eng.)
Indigofera hirsuta

Indigofera linifolia ( L.f. ) Retz.
Much branched prostrate herbs. Leaf 1 foliate, linear; Flowers pinkish-red in axillary short racemes.Legume white, with dense hairs, ovoid.
Ver.name: Ratna mala(H) ; Gudlaku గుడ్లాకు 
Indigofera linifolia with pods.
(Tel.); Narrowleaf Indigo(
Eng.)

 Indigofera mysorensis Rottl.ex DC.
Erect viscid villous herbs. Leaves 5-7 foliate, leaflets charataceous, densely pubescent below. flowers red in axillary panicles.Pod oblong up to 1cm, angular.
Common in Rayalaseema.
Indigofera linnaei Ali
 Perennial prostrate herbs;leaves 1.5-3 cm, 5-9-foliolate;Flowers red, small in axillary, short racemes; Legume oblong, straight, spreading, 3-8 × 1.5-2 mm, densely hairy.
Ver.name: Yerra palleru, Cheragadam(Tel.);  Birdsville Indigo(Eng.)
Indigofera linnaei
Indigofera nummularifolia (L.) Alston
 Prostrate glabrous annual, rooting at nodes. Leaves simple; suborbicular; flowers in axillary 5-10 flowered racemes.Fruit lunate with hooked spines.
common in dry hill slopes.
Indigofera nummularifolia
Indigofera oblongifolia Forsk.
Woody undershrubs with silvery grey hairs.Leaves 3 foliate. elliptic-oblong.silky tomentose.flowers pale red in axillary racemes.Pod torulose, slightly curved upwards, 6-8 seeded.
Comon in many districts.
Indigofera prostrata Willd.
Prostrate, pubescent herbs. Leaves 3 foliate. leaflets appressed pubescent. Flowers pink in axillary few flowered racemes.
Common in many areas, in hilly regions.
Indigofera spicata Forsk. 
Trailing, strigose herbs. Leaflets 5 pairs, leaf-lets oblong-lanceolate, pubescent below, chartaceous. Flowers red in axillary racemes. Pod 4 gonous, deflexed. 
In hilly areas, in many districts.
Indigofera tinctoria L.
Woody shrub, branches angular, pubescent. Leaves 9 foliate, glabrascent. Flowers pink in axillary spike like racemes. Pods paired. faintly torulous.
rare in forests, gen. cultivated.
ver.name: Indigo(Eng.) Neeliనీలి మందు (Tel.)
Indigofera tinctoria
Indigofera trifoliata L.
Grey-pubescent under shrubs. Leaves 3-foliate, terminal leaflet sessile, larger than laterals. flowers red, small in 6-10 flowered short racemes. pod linear, deflexed, angular.
Common in many districts.
Indigofera trita L.
Grey-pubescent under shrubs. Leaves 3-foliate, leaflets obovate, appressed pubescent. apex mucronate.flowers pinkis-red in short axillary racemes.pod oblong straight.
Indigofera trita 

common in many districts.
Indigofera wightii Graham ex Wight&Arn.
Erect under shrubs upto 3 m tall.  silvery pubescent. leaflets 11-23, each 0.5x0.3cm; flowers purple in dense axillary 15-25 flowered racemes.pod linear, upto 3 cm long, erect, prominently striate.
common in many districts.
LABLAB Adanson


Continued.....
Thank you