Anamitra cocculus (L.) Wt.&Arn.
Large climbing shrub;leaves ovate-cordate,10-20x12-15cm; glabrous; flowers greenish in drooping panicles; drupes red globose.
Rare in Kadapa dist.
Ver.name: Indian berry, fish berry; levant nut(Eng.)
|Female plant -Cissampelos|
Cyclea peltata (Lam.)Hook.f.
pubescent, twining herbs; leaves cordate coriaceous;flowers greenish-yellow in paniccles; drupes white, ovoid.
Rare in Chittor and VSKP districts.
|Cyclea peltata vegetative|
Parabaena sagittata Miers.
woody climbers; leaves cordate, sagittate; young toothed, older entire.Flowers green, drupes green
Rare in VSKP district.
Stephania japonica (Thumb.)Miers.
Slender climbers; leaves peltate; glabrous; flowers grenish-white in small umbels of 3-5 heads. Drupes ovoid, red.
In hilly areas of North coastal districts.
Ver.name: Duvvateega దువ్వతీగ (Tel.)
|Stephania japonica vegitative|
Tinospora sinensis (Lour.)Merril
Looks similar to T.cordifolia but branches and leaves are clothed with white hairs.leaves are almost wooly beneath. Flowers greenish-yellow in axillary racemes. Drupes globose, red.
Rare in Rayalaseema.
Ver.name: Tippa teegaతిప్పతీగ (Tel.)
Bryophyllum pinnatum ( Lam. ) Oken
A common garden plant. Leaves 3-pinnate to simple leaves; succulent, the leaf margin on touch with soil produces new plants.
Ver.name: Ranapaala రణపాల
Climbing shrubs; leaves pedately 5-7 foliate.Flowers green in axillary branched corymbose cymes. Berry sub-globose, pink or pale yellow when ripe. Common over over hedges and bushes in hilly areas.
It is used as a medicine in traditional medical systems.
Rare, it is used in traditional medical systems for digestive problems.
A large tree, leaves opposite, leathery, shiny, ovoid with crenate-serrate margin;flowers small, green in divergently branched lax corymbose cymes; fruit dry ovoid 1 seeded drupe. Common in hill side forests.
The root is used as an antidote for snake bite.
Common in deciduus forests through out the state.
The leaf is used to treat gastric troubles.
Redspike thorn; thorny staff tree(
|Fruit of Maytenus emarginata|
PLEUROSTYLIA R.Wight et Arnott
Includes-Erythroxylaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Ochnaceae, Clusiaceae, Calophyllaceae, Violaceae, Hypercaceae,Putranjivaceae, Malpighiaceae, Elatinaceae,Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Linaceae
Common in Godavari, Krishna and Pennar estuaries.
Medium sized trees; with many geniculate pneumatophores. Flowers large, red, solitary; sepals erect in fruit. Hypocotyl angular, radical grooved, 15 cm long, 1-2cm in diam.
Common in Godavari, Krishna and Pennar estuaries.
|Carallia brachiata twig|
small trees or shrubs; stem base pyramidal; leaves elliptic-oblong; Flowers greenish-white, in dense condensed cymes, in several axils from the upper branchlets. Hypocotyl 12-14 cm long, 0.5cm in diam., sulcate, angular.
Rare along the edges of mangrove swamps in the river estuaries.
|Kandelia candel flower|
|Ochna obtusa var.gamblei|
Hypericum japonicum Thunb.
Annual slender herbs; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, gland dotted, margin entire; flowers yellow in terminal cymes; stamens many; capsule 3 valved.
|Flower Hypericum japonicum|
Aspidopterys indica ( Willd. ) W.Theob.
Climbing shrubs; branches rusty tomentose; leaves ovate-elliptic, entire; flowers minute, white, in 7-10cm long terminal panicles.Samaras elliptic-oblong, yellowish-brown.
Occasional in hill slopes.
Hiptage benghalensis Kurz
|Young fruit of Hiptage benghalensis|
Herbaceous or woody;plant with unpleasant smell; extrafloral nectaries often on petiole/base of lamina, stipules 0; K + C together forming a tube,deciduous, corona or scales at the mouth of tube, C contorted, deliquescent, nectary near base of tube, on sepals;or on filaments.
Herbs to woody plants, often very hairy. Leaves serrate, exstipulate with strong secondary venation. The flowers usu. yellow, calyx and corolla together forming a tube, contorted and deliquescent; parietal placentation, and often bifid, fringed stigmas, are distinctive. The fruit is a loculicidally capsule; seeds arillate.
Turnera ulmifolia L.
Plants herbaceous climbers with simple branch tendrils; supernumerary buds; Leaves simple, secondary veins often palmate; flowers in cymes; corona of (1-)2-several rows of filaments or membranes or 0, nectary may be on K/C tube, A basally connate, gynophore or androgynophore usu.+, stigmas capitate or divided [Adenia]; fruit a berry.
Passiflora foetida L.
Ever green climber;leaves deeply 3-lobed, glossy,coriaceous; the young stems and tendrils, tinged with red; bracts 3 leaf like; flowers solitary, fragrant; purple; berry yellow to purple with a sweet flavour. It is edible. Commonly cultivated plant.
Ver.name: Payasam kayaపాయసంకాయ ; jumukiజుముకి (Tel.) Passion fruit, Edible Passion Flower(
Casearia elliptica Willd.
small trees, bushy; leaves ovate, assymetrical at base, margin serrate; flowers greenish in dense axillary, capitate clusters; fruit 3 valved, succulent cluster.
Ver.name: Chilaka duddi చిలకదుద్ది(Tel.)
Casearia esculenta Roxb.
small trees; leaves ovate-lanceolate; flowers greenish-white in axillary clusters; fruit 3 valved capsule.
Rare in Sriharikota forests.
Ver.name: Kundajanjeru కుండజంగేరు(Tel.)
Casearia graveolens Dalz.
Small sized deciduous tree; leaves large turning red before falling; flowers green in axillary clusters; capsue orange-yellow, ellipsoid, 3 valved.
Common in deciduous forests of North coastal districts.
Flacourtia indica ( Burm.f. ) Merr.
3-5 m tall, small tree or a large armed shrub;leaves are red or pink when young, variable in size, oval to round, leathery, margin toothed. Flowers small, cream colored, unisexual or occasionally bisexual; male flowers in 5cm long racemes, female flowers in short racemes. Fruit globose berry, reddish-black or purple when ripe and fleshy.
Common in scrubs through out the state.
|Flacourtia indica fruit.|
Flacourtia jangomas Raeusch
Deciduous unarmed tree;young branches white-dotted by numerous circular lenticels. Leaves narrow, ovate-oblong; Flowers arise in few flowered clusters in leaf axils; smell of honey, and looks like small yellowish-white balls of stamens. Fruit dark purple, 2cm across.
Rare in E.ghats.
Baliospermum montanun (Willd.)Muell.
Annual herd, branches terete, striate, tomentose; leaves elliptic-ovaate, margun serrate, 2 glands at the base of lamina; flowers in axillary lax androgynous racemes; capsule obovate, pubescent.
Common along road sides in telangana districts, and in semi-moist places.
Ver.name: Kondamudam, కొండాముదము nelajediనేలజీడి (Tel.)red physic nut, wild castor, wild croton and wild sultan seed
| Chrozophora rottleri|
Euphorbia barnhartii Croizat
Prostrate herb; Leaves obliquely truncate; serrulate, opposite, blotched with red; Cyathia 7-10, in terminal clusters or in upper axils.
A common weed in cultivated soils.
Ver.name: Errapaala alumu ఎర్రపాలఅలుము(Tel.)
erect herb; leaves are very variable, lamina mostly fiddle-shaped with 2 or 4 obtuse or cute lobes, uppermost leaves are blotched with red towards the base. Cyathia in terminal cymes; receptacle green.
Introduced ornamental, now a weed;The latex and leaves are toxic.
Succulent shrub; branchlets 5- angled; leaves oblanceolate, mucronate at apex; cyathia sessile.
Occasional in rocky areas of north coastal districts and Kurnool.
for image visit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euphorbia_cattimandoo.jpg
Euphorbia deccanensis V.S.Raju,
Prostrate or decumbent herb; many branches from a stout root stock; branches swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite,margin serrate. Cyathia solitary in upper axils;lobes fringed; glands 4 pinkish white.Rare in the hill slopes of E.ghats
Euphorbia deccanensis var. nallamalayana (J.L.Ellis) V.S.Raju.
Almost similar to E.deccanensis ; but a with purple patch in the centre of leaves. Cyathia in clusters in upper axils.
Rare in Nallamala hills.
Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.
Dichotomously branched annual herb; leaves opposite, sessile,linear-lanceolate; Cyathia solitary, thinly pubescent;lobes short, triangular.
Common in waste lands and cultivated fields.
Ver.name: Tilla kada తిల్లకాడ(Tel.)Dragon spurge(Eng.)
Euphorbia heterophylla L.,
Erect annual herb. Stems hollow, usually with scattered hairs, milky sap oozes from damaged stems and leaves. Upper leaves never colored; Cyathia with a solitary terminal female flower surrounded by male flowers enclosed in a cup-shaped involucre with a solitary conspicuous gland.
A naturalised weed from S.America.
Ver.name: Bedi aaku బేదిఆకు(Tel.)Wild Poinsettia, Wild spurge, Lesser Green Poinsettia(
Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham.,
Common in dry areas along the road sides.
Syn.Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit.,
Euphorbia tortillus L.
Similar to E.antiquorum, but the stems are twisted.
Rare in Nellore, Chittor districts.
Common in sandy soils along coast.
|Excoecaria agallocha female|
|Excoecaria agallocha male plant.|
Givotia moluccana ( L. ) Sreemadhavan,
A moderate-sized tree ;Leaves alternate, cordate with a narrow sinus, wavy-toothed, leathery, hoary above, soft wooly beneath. Flowers dicecious, in axillary and sub-terminal panicled cymes.Drupe globose.
Common in dry deciduous forests in hills.
small tree; leaves glabrous, coriaceous, shallowly 5 lobed; flowers greenish-yellow, in axillary dichasial cymes of 10-15 cm long; capsule 2-3 cm across, rugose when dry.
Often planted as hedge plant, and cultivated for the oil.
Ver.name: ; Adavi aamudam, అడవిఆముదముnepaalamనేపాళం(Tel.) Physic Nut,
Tree; leaves elliptic-ovate, margin entire, rusty-velvety, coriaceous;Plants dioecious;♂ flowers in cymes in the axils of bracts, ♀ flowers in terminal lax spike like racemes; Capsule is trigonous-globular, covered with a bright crimson layer of minute glands, seeds black 4-5mm across.
Common in hilly areas.
Large straggling shrub;leaves broadly deltoid-ovate,thinly velvety with pale scatterd glands below;♂flowers in panicled racemes, stamens >40, yellow; ♀ flowers in simple racemes, ovary clothed with glandular hairs;capsule fulvous tomentose.
often on the hedges of scrub forests at low elevations.
|Mallotus repandus male|
|Mallotus repandus fruit|
Resinous tree; branchlets stout, velvet hairy. Leaves simple, alternate,peltate, broadly ovate, entire;palmately 9-nerved radiating from the centre. Flowers doiecious, minute in axillary panicles or racemes; panicle branches zigzag;floral bracts broad and concealing.
Capsule echinate or glandular.
Common in hilly areas
Ver.name: Boddiబొద్ది/ palaka chettuపలకచెట్టు(Tel.);Macaranga, Chandada(Eng.)
Annual herb, leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate; margin crenate; Flowers in androgynous filiform interrupted racemes.
Common along waste lands and road sides.
Baapana buraakuబాపనబూరాకు(Tel.) Hound’s Tongue(
Small sized trees; leaves simple, oblanceolate, coriaceous, thick, shining; plants monoecious; male flowers small, creamy-yellow, in axillary clusters; female flowers soiltary; fruit globose capsule.
Common in hilly areas.
|Suregada angustifolia female|
gondiదురద గొండి(Tel.) Indian Stinging Nettle(
Antidesma acidum Retz.
Smal tree, dioecious;leaves elliptic-obovate;thinly pubescent below.Flowers greenish-white, small, in terminal spikes.Drupes prominently ribbed.
Common in dry hill forests near slopes.
Ver.nmae: Gummadipellaగుమ్మడిపెళ్ల, pulleruపుల్లేరు(Tel.)
For image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antidesma_acidum_Retz._03.JPG
Medium sized deciduous tree with conical pointed thorns on stem, bark roughly cracked;flowers in axillary or spicate clusters;Fruit depressed globose drupe, smooth, glossy, light green .
Common in E.ghats.
|Bridelia retusa young leaves, flower|
Small trees; Leaves obovate, cuneate at base; flowers greenish-white in axillary clusters.
Common in dry deciduous forests.
Ver.name: Pantagiపంతగి, gundubigaaluగుండుబీగాలు(Tel.)
Glochidion zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A.Juss.,
Medium sized trees. Leaf blade thinly papery, elliptic;Flowers green, axillary. male flowers in clusters, female 1-3; Capsule depressed globose.
Rare in deciduous forests of E.ghats.
|Margaritaria indica flowering branch|
Meineckia parvifolia (Wight) G.L.Webster, Acta Bot. Neerl. 14: 342 (1965).
Syn. Neopeltandra suberosa (Wight ex Müll.Arg.) Gamble, Fl. Madras: 1286 (1925).Slender under shrub to 30 cm tall; base slightly woody, stems slender, angular, branches up to 15cm.Foliar leaves alternate, stipules 1-2mm long, triangular;Flowers in axillary short androgynous racemes with 4-5(-8) flowers; usu. 1 female in the axillary raceme; both male and female flowers with long pedicels(about 1.2-2cm). Flowers 5-merous. Perianth lobes 5 in both sexes; green with a wide white scaly margins on either side.
capsule, ca 3-5mm diam., globose, smooth. Seeds with longitudinal very slender ridges and minute cross lines.
Herbs to trees; plagiotropic branchlets are pinnate leaf like, deciduous and flower bearing. Latex is absent. Plants dioecious, flowers monoecious (unisexual).Flowers axillary, solitary or in fascicles, bracteate, small, actinomorphic, white or light yellow or green or pink. Perianth lobes 5 or 6, imbricate, characterized by a white scaly margin.Disk is present; stamens 3or 6; ovary 3 celled, superior.Fruit septicidal capsule or drupe with 3 crustaceous or 2 valved cocci. Seeds large, trigonous, rounded at back, seed coat hard, brown.
Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels,
Small tree;leafy branches clustered at the upper part of woody branches; Flowers pink, clustered in leaf axils, or densely clustered axillary racemes.Drupe fleshy; pale yellow or greenish white, waxy.
Usu.cultivated for fruit.
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.,
Annual herbs; Foliar leaves distichous, branchlets horizontal, pinnate leaf like; Perianth lobes-5, acute; Stamens-5. capsule smooth.
Common in plains, absent in hilly areas. a weed in cultivated fields.
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.,
Annual herbs. Leaves thin, stipules pinkish, pedicel thickened. Flowers rather large, male flowers in the lower part of the branchlets, P3+3; green with prominent scarious white margins, female flowers yellowish on the distal part of the branchlets.Capsule globose.
Common in hill side forests.
Phyllanthus indofischeri Bennet,
Plants look similar to P.emblica but smaller in size. Branchlets pale brown, leaves larger and thicker than that of P.emblica. Flowers in axillary clusters with filiform pedicels. Drupes are smaller than that of P.emblica.
In hilly areas in high altitudes above 350m, in E.ghats.
|Branch of P.indofischeri|
|Phyllanthus pinnatus female|
|Phyllanthus pinnatus male|
Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook.f.,
Annual herbs, branchlets angular.Leaves distichous, stipules 2-3mm long, decurrent, auriculate at base, hairy.Male flowers solitary or in 3-4 in short clusters, limited to lower axils, many; ca 2 mm diam., sessile;Female flowers solitary, few limited to upper axils only, on thickened pedicel to 1mm; flower about 0.4cm across,(conspicuously much larger than female flower);Capsule, ca 4mm in diam., globose. Seeds dark brown, with rather distant longitudinal very slender ridges ca 7,and minute cross lines.
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.Annual herbs,branchlets glabrous, 3-12 cm long, with 10-25 leaves; stipules lanceolate-acuminate, minute, reddish. Flowers minute, axillary,1-3, male and female separate or mixed.Female flowers 2 mm across, usu.solitary in the distal nodes; pedicels capillary,
Shrubs; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2 ranked, thin; male and female flowers greenish-yellow; axillary, perianth disc shaped; disc incurved at upper part; capsule red,depressed globose.
Often cultivated as leafy vegetable.
Abrus precatorius L.
Diffuse or erect herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, paripinnate, 20- to many foliolate, often sensitive; leaflets opposite, subsessile. Flowers small to medium sized, in axillary racemes, with several flowers. Legume or lomentum which is compressed and stipitate.Seed 1per article.
Aeschynomene aspera L.
Perennial shrub, up to 3 m tall. Stems glabrous, soft, pith white spongy. Leaflets>60;Flowers yellow, 2-7 flowered racemes.Vexillum purplish tinged pubescent externally.Legume 4-8 jointed, often indented on both sutures.
Common in ponds and on the edges of rice fields.
Annual herbs, rarely perennials, leaflets <50, linear-oblong;Flowers yellow, in leaf opposed or axillary, 1-6 flowered racemes;Pod slightly curved, up to 5 cm long, 5 to 13 jointed. seed dark brown.
Common in wet muddy places.
Alysicarpus monilifer ( L. ) DC.
Alysicarpus rugosus ( Willd. ) A.DC.
Arachis hypogaea L.
showy pigeonpea, tropical clover, Wild kulthi(
Canavalia cathartica Thouars; Syn. Canavalia virosa ( Roxb. ) Wight & Arn.
Perennial climber; finely pubescent; leaves 3-foliate, leaflets elliptic-ovate; Flowers large and showy, lilac, in axillary few flowered racemes. Pod linear with prominent margins, 15-20 seeded.
A new record in the state.
Vishnukranthi; Shanku pushpaaluశంకుపుష్పాలు (Tel.)Butterfly-pea
pea; Asian Pigeon Wings( ) Eng.
|Crotalaria juncea flower|
7. Crotalaria laburnifolia L.
Erect herbs, branchlets grayish tomentose; leaves simple,sessile, linear-elliptic,densely tomentose. Flowers yellow with maroon streakes,in terminal racemes; legume obovoid.
Less common in hills of Rayalaseema.
11. Crotalaria pallida Dryand
Glabrascent herbs; leaves 3-foliate; leaflets ovate, chartaceous;flowers yellow in terminal many flowered elongate racemes.legumes about 1cm, deflexed.
common in coastal districts.
12. Crotalaria paniculata Willd.
Erect herbs, branches viscid,glandular pubescent. Leaves simple, obovate, chartaceous;Flowers yellow in lax panicles, Pod ellipsoid.
Common in dry areas in Rayala seema, Krishna to Nellore districts.
Prostrate hirtellous herb; stipules absent; leaves simple; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-oblong, 1-3 × 0.5-1 cm; flowers yellow in 2-8 flowered leaf-opposed racemes;Legume cylindric, about 1 cm long.
Erect shrubs with golden pubescence; leaves simple, obovate, thin coriaceous; shining; flowers yellow in paniculate racemes; bracts often black when dry; pod oblong about 1 cm, exerted from calyx.
Common in forests of Velugonda, sehachalam hills.
Diffusely branched pubescent herb; about 15 cm tall; leaves simple, linear-elliptic, appressed-siriceous; flowers yellow in terminal 4-8 flowered racemes.Pod0.5cm, ovoid.
Common in dry waste lands; it is the smallest plant of the genus.
16. Crotalaria quinquefolia L.
Erect herbs, 1-2m tall; leaves long petioled, 5-7 foliate; leaflets lanceolate, puberulent dorsally; flowers yellow in terminal raceme; pod oblong, glabrous.
17. Crotalaria ramosissima Roxb. much branched erect pubescent herb. Leaves simple, linear-oblong; silky hairy on both sides; flowers yellow in axillary racemes.Calyx and bracts curled back, drying black; pod exerted.
Common in fields and waste places.
Dalbergia lanceolaria L. f. subsp. paniculata (Roxb.)Thoth
Fl: June; Fr: Aug
Dunbaria ferruginea Wight&Arn.
Stout tomentose climbers; leaves 3 foliate, terminal leaflet ovate-rhomboid, 12-15x10-12cm, laterals 3-5x3-6cm;thin coriaceous, pubescent. Flowers yellow, in 20-30 flowered racemes.pod oblong 4x1cm, pubescent, 3-5 seeded.
Common in Kadapa and Chittor districts.
Prostrate annual herbs.Leaves 1-foliate, obovate-orbicular ;base cordate, apex retuse, pubescent beneath.flowers pink in lax axillary racemes.Pod boat shaped, 1 seeded.Common in many districts.
Medium sized deciduous armed tree. Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets about 7.5x15 cm , the terminal one rhomboid-ovate; densely pubescent below. Flowers bright scarlet-orange in color, tubular, in fascicles of 1-3 in racemes near the tip of the branches, peduncle short. Fruit stipitate, 12.5-15.0 cm long, torulose, 2-5-seeded.
Densely armed deciduous tres.Leaves thin coriaceous, 10-30cm; flowers deep red in 10 cm long dense racemes.pod 3-4 seeded.Occasional in some districts.
Indigofera aspalathoides DC.
Small stiff herb, with appressed pubesens. Leaves 3-5 foliate, sessile, crowded; Flowers red, solitary, axillary, 3-5mm across;Pod linear, 1 cm long.
Indigofera astragalina DC.
Indigofera glabra L.
Indigofera hirsuta L.
Ver.name: Nuguneeliనూగునీలి(Tel.); Hairy Indigo(Eng.)
|Indigofera linifolia with pods.|
Indigofera mysorensis Rottl.ex DC.
Erect viscid villous herbs. Leaves 5-7 foliate, leaflets charataceous, densely pubescent below. flowers red in axillary panicles.Pod oblong up to 1cm, angular.
Common in Rayalaseema.
Prostrate glabrous annual, rooting at nodes. Leaves simple; suborbicular; flowers in axillary 5-10 flowered racemes.Fruit lunate with hooked spines.
Woody undershrubs with silvery grey hairs.Leaves 3 foliate. elliptic-oblong.silky tomentose.flowers pale red in axillary racemes.Pod torulose, slightly curved upwards, 6-8 seeded.
Comon in many districts.
Indigofera prostrata Willd.
Prostrate, pubescent herbs. Leaves 3 foliate. leaflets appressed pubescent. Flowers pink in axillary few flowered racemes.
Common in many areas, in hilly regions.
Indigofera spicata Forsk.
Trailing, strigose herbs. Leaflets 5 pairs, leaf-lets oblong-lanceolate, pubescent below, chartaceous. Flowers red in axillary racemes. Pod 4 gonous, deflexed.
In hilly areas, in many districts.
Indigofera tinctoria L.
Woody shrub, branches angular, pubescent. Leaves 9 foliate, glabrascent. Flowers pink in axillary spike like racemes. Pods paired. faintly torulous.
rare in forests, gen. cultivated.
ver.name: Indigo(Eng.) Neeliనీలి మందు (Tel.)
Grey-pubescent under shrubs. Leaves 3-foliate, terminal leaflet sessile, larger than laterals. flowers red, small in 6-10 flowered short racemes. pod linear, deflexed, angular.
Common in many districts.
Indigofera trita L.
Grey-pubescent under shrubs. Leaves 3-foliate, leaflets obovate, appressed pubescent. apex mucronate.flowers pinkis-red in short axillary racemes.pod oblong straight.
common in many districts.
Indigofera wightii Graham ex Wight&Arn.
Erect under shrubs upto 3 m tall. silvery pubescent. leaflets 11-23, each 0.5x0.3cm; flowers purple in dense axillary 15-25 flowered racemes.pod linear, upto 3 cm long, erect, prominently striate.
common in many districts.