By DCS RAJU & A.L
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh); the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795).
JGKoenig described many plants used in Indian Medicine. He is considered as the founder of Indian Botany. Many plant species are named in his honour, Eg., Chionachne koenigii
The Flora Andhrica is the title of the book by Walter Elliot FLS who spent five years in Telugu districts of
Colonel Richard Henry Beddome (11 May 1830 – 23 February 1911) extensively surveyed several remote and then-unexplored hill ranges in India and Sri Lanka, which include Eastern Ghats, he explored Nallamala Hills, and Visakha patnam hills in A.P. Many plant species were named after him as an honour. Eg. Cycas beddomei is endemic to Seshachalam Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
He acted for Roxburgh on leave at Gdn. He became Buchanan Hamilton and retired in 1815.), Wight, Cleghorn, Beddome, Lushington and many pioneers studied our plant wealth leading to publication of Plants of the Coast of
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at
Photographs of the champions of Indian Taxonomy are collected by DCS Raju
With the efforts of many naturalists, scientists a lot of work is done. This is a simple effort.
The compilation of list of plant species, and the vernacular/local names are given for the entire flora including cultivated, exotic species for the benefit of researchers as well as common man who is interested in plants.
Description of some species and images are posted in my flickr post which is linked here
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao; Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,Flora of Chittoor district,
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008,
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
For regional/ Telugu names http://envis.frlht.org, district floras of Andhra Pradesh, Medicinal plants by R.S.Rao, K.Hemadri, research papers on ethno medicinal plants of Eastern Ghats published by different authors in many scientific journals, my survey, Forest plants published by Department of Forests A.P and Flora Andrica by T.S.Elliot, A.W.Lushington -Vernacular list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency, are scrupulously followed. Slang, pronunciation variations, local variations are solved with my desecration, for example మల్లి / మల్లె is written as malli, malle in english are solved .
2350 plant images(1500Plant species) are given in the following flickr post.
for images visit https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/?
2.Nymphaea pubescensWilld., Looks similar to N.nouchali, but flowers are white., changaluvaచెంగలువ, kaluvaకలువ,chandovaచందోవ, chitti kaluvaచిట్టి కలువ , errakuluva ఎర్ర కలువ, thellakalava తెల్ల కలువ
Trees/shrubs; branches are not strictly axillary. Leaves are distichous, aromatic, entire. The flowers are nearly always pendulous and their development is more or less open. The tepals are usually in three whorls of three. Stamens are numerous, enclosed in some sort of bowl-shaped structure; they are short with a tough, truncate connective extending over the apex of the anthers. The seeds are quite large and most have a regularly ruminate endosperm. Protoberberidine alkaloids are reported from Annonaceae (Wink 2008). Largely tropical in distribution. Pollination is by small insects.
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair, barre dudduga, బర్రెదుద్దుగ,gaadidalotta, గాడిద లొట్ట , budda dudduga, బుడ్డదుద్దుగ, duddugaదుద్దుగ, kamarakoru కమరకోరు , nalla chika duddi నల్లచిలకదుద్ది, pedda chiluka duddugaపెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ, Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms., nalla dadduga, నల్ల దుద్దుగ , pedda chiluka dudduga, పెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ,
Polyalthia fragrans (Dalzell) Benth. & Hook. f., chilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ
Myristica attenuata Wall ., Rare in E.Godavari dist., Myristica dactyloides Gaertn., adavijaajikaaya అడవి జాజి కాయ ; Myristica fragrans Houtt., jajikaya,జాజి కాయ& జాపత్రి jajipattiri, జాజిపత్రి jatipatri,జాతిపత్రి/జాపత్రి Myristica malabarica Lam.,
Compsoneura sprucei (A.DC.) Warb.,syn. M.laurifolia, Except M.attenuata remaining are not found in A.P, but products widely used.
Trees or lianas; branching is from previous flush; lamina venation ± palmate; inflorescence thyrsoid/ cyme; flowers very small ; 4-5-merous; Perianth 3-10 uniseriate; stamens 3-5(-7), nectaries outside the stamens, or 0 ; ovary inferior, stigma peltate ; ovules variable; fruit samara; cotyledons much folded. Pantropical in distribution. Aporphine alkaloids are common.
NOTE: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) PRESL, karppooramuకర్పూరము ,hemavyayamu హేమవ్యయము , himavalukaహిమవకుళ , candrasanguyamu చంద్ర సాంగుయము , chandramu చంద్రము ,gamuburamu గంబూరము , ghanasaramu ఘనసారము ,Cinnamomum zeylanicum BL.,/ C.verum Presl., dalchinachekka, దాల్చిన చెక్క dalcini,దాల్చిని lavanga-pattaలవంగ పట్ట ,Cinnamomum tamala NEES & EBERM.,talisha-patri,తలిశపత్రి,tamala తమాలవృక్షము, biryaani aaku బిర్యాని ఆకు
These species are not available in A.P, but products are widely used.
Phoebe wightii Meisner (VSKP)
Herbaceous plants (they are quite often vines) prophylls adaxial; secondary thickening odd; leaves exstipulate with palmate venation and entire margins; flowers 3-merous, monosymmetric( resupinate); stamens extrorse (inserted in Aristolochia). The ovary is usually inferior and the perianth is uniseriate and connate; fruit septicidal schizocarp. Seed winged or arillate. World-wide. Flavonols and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are present in the family.
Piper attenuatum Buch.-Ham. ex Miq., Piper betle L.,tamalapakuతమలపాకు,akumadupu,ఆకుమడుపు, kammeraku,కమ్మేరాకు nagavalli,నాగవల్లి, phanirajavalli,ఫణి రాజవల్లి, vitikaవితిక ,(Cultivated as commercial crop),Piper cubeba L.f., chalava-miriyalu, చలవ మిరియాలు thokamiriyaalu, తోక మిరియాలు ; Piper longum L.,pippalluపిప్పళ్లు, modi,మోది, pippali-katteపిప్పలి కట్టె , (Cultivated for medicinal purpose) Piper hymenophyllum Miq.,(Kurnool, Chittor dist), Piper nigrum L., (Cultivated) miriyaalu,మిరియాలు,nalla miriyaalu నల్లమిరియాలు maarichamu, మారీచము, miriyalatige,మిరియాల తీగ, miriyamu, మిరియము moloovookodi,మోలోవూకోడి , paluka,పలుక savyamuసవ్యము, ; Piper trioicum Roxb.(In E.Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool and VSKP dist)pamu miriyaalu పాము మిరియాలు
Rhizomatous herbs, leaves sweetly-smelling, two-ranked, isobifacial. Flowers are small, perfect and pentacyclic in densely spikes overtopped by lateral leaf-like spathe. Bracts and bracteoles 0, P persistent; anther thecae hooded, intra ovarian trichomes +, style broad. Fruit berry.
Acorus calamus L., vasa, వస, vadaja,వడజ,vaja వజ
Araceae are herbs with leaves that are usually divided into a petiole and expanded blade. They have a distinctive inflorescence of a more or less petal-like spathe plus a spadix made up of densely-packed, sessile, ebracteate flowers; in many taxa the spadix has a large, terminal, sterile part. The fruit is a berry.
Scindapsus officinalis enugapippalu,ఏనుగు పిప్పళ్లు gaja-pippalluగజపిప్పళ్లు
Scindapsus officinalis Schott,Enugu tippali ఏనుగుతిప్పలి
Alismataceae are laticiferous, aquatic herbs. Leaves floating or aerial; petiolate, leaf-blade elliptic to sagittate, midrib prominent, and parallel veins linked by fine transverse veins. Plant mon- or dioecious, inflorescence branches whorled; Their petals are crumpled in bud; stames 3-many, anthers extrorse; carpels 2-many, free; embryo is strongly curved.
Hydrocharitaceae are aquatic plants with petiolate or (usually) undifferentiated leaves. The inflorescence often has two fused (sometimes free) bracts at the base and the ovary is inferior, often with laminar or more or less strongly intruded parietal placentation, and the stigma lobes are bifid.
Water plants with short rhizome or corm; leaves spiral, pseudopetiolate, the sometimes fenestrate leaf blades have a midrib, parallel veins, and strong cross veins; the finest veins are reticulate. The inflorescence is densely spicate, coloured and has a long scape. Flowers are small, monosymmetric, often with less conspicuous tepals. Staminate flowers have more than 10 stamens. Carpellate flowers have G 2-9, free; ovules 1-12 per carpel. Seed coat mucilaginous.
Often freshwater plants, leaves spiral, 2-ranked or opposite. inflorescence spicate, flowers sessile 4-merous; tepals clawed, adnate to stamens; stamens 1-4; G 4, carpels stipitate, stigma expanded. Fruit a drupelet, tepals persistent.
Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
Herbaceous climbers; leaves petiolate, with broad blades and pulvini at both ends of the petiole; the leaf base does not surround the stem; lamina has several strong longitudinal veins and transverse secondary veins, or reticulate fine venation. Flowers small and not very brightly coloured; 3 merous, the ovary is inferior and often ridged or winged in fruit. Tropical in distribution.
Dioscorea hispida Denns., pulidumpaపులిదుంప, tellaagini-geddaluతెల్లగిణి గడ్డలు, kolli, కొల్లి pedda anem,పెద్ద అనెం pedumpaపేదుంప , thandrabisalathigeతాండ్రబిసలతీగ, Dioscorea oppositifolia L.,yella gaddaయెల్ల గడ్డ,tella gaddaతెల్లగడ్డ, adavidumpathige, అడవిదుంపతీగ,adaviyatagatigeఅడవి యాట తీగ, aretegalu, ఆరె తీగలు, atyaga,అత్యాగ, avathengathige,అవతెంగ తీగ, chenchu dumpaచెంచు దుంప , ganuga గానుగ , karrapendalamu కర్రపెండలం, naarabadluనారబడులు , tsuntsugaddaత్సు-త్సు గడ్డ, Dioscorea pentaphylla L.dukka pendulamu దుక్కపెండలం,adavi-ginusu tiga,అడవిగినుసు తీగ adavigummaditiga,అడవిగుమ్మడి తీగ chenchu gadda,చెంచుగడ్డ , kaaruchembaకారుచెంబ , kanta aluకంటాలు, moyyakku-pendalam మొయ్యా క్కుపెండలం, mullupendalamu ముళ్ల పెండలం, nuludumpa నూలు దుంప , pandi mukku dumpa పంది ముక్కు దుంప , pandigadda పందిగడ్డ, Dioscorea pubera Bl.,Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng., teega dumpaతీగ దుంప, subbadumpa సుబ్బ దుంప, Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f., kummara baddu,కుమ్మరబద్దు verrichaada, వెర్రి చాడ
Plant woody, shrubs, or climbers with roots from leaf axils, not rhizomatous; leaves spirally three- or four-ranked, M-shaped when mature, spiny, plant di-(mon)oecious; inflorescence bracts usually colored; staminate flowers: A 2-many, carpellate flowers: G 1-several, free to connate, fruit baccate or drupaceous; primary root branched.
Local names:mogili,మొగలి,ketaki,కేతకి, gajangi, గజాంగి, gedangimogaliగెడంగిమొగలి , gojjangi,గొజ్జంగి
Prickly climbers. The leaves are spirally-arranged and petiolate, there are paired petiolar tendrils, and the blade has several strong longitudinal veins and reticulate fine venation. Plant dioecious. The flowers are rather small, "typically monocot", and are borne in umbels; the fruit is a berry.
For images please visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157666493612996
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schlt.,
Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K.Gupta, riddhiరిద్ధి
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume
Vanilla wightii LINDL.EX WIGHT, naaga naleru నాగ నల్లేరు
Hypoxis aurea L.,
Bulbous herbs. Leaves fleshy, two-ranked; inflorescence scapose, umbellate, or cymose, inflorescence bracts 2 or more, scarious, internal bracts small; flowers large, pedicels not articulated; tepals free ; stamens 6, connate basally; style long, ovary inferior.
Plants rhizomatous or bulbous, never cormous; flowers small, inflorescence umbel or raceme; bracts 4 or more; tepals connate, corona may be present, ovary superior.
Aloe vera L., kalabandaకలబంద,kumaari కుమారి, chinnakalabanda చిన్నకలబంద, chinnaraakasimattaచిన్నరాక్షసిమట్ట, errakalanbandaఎర్రకలబంద, kunthi kalabandaకుంతి కలబంద,, manchikatthaaliమంచి కత్తాలి , musambaramuమూసామ్బరం , ASPARAGUS L.,
Dipcadi krishnadevarayae B.R.P.Rao, Dipcadi montanum (Dalzell) Baker, (New addition)
Yucca gloriosa L., goli gulaabi గోలీగులాబి
ASPHODELACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons., (Xanthorrhoeaceae)
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., seema vulli సీమఉల్లి
Areca catechu L., vakkalu,వక్కలు, pokachekkaపోక చెక్క
For images please visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157666496943885
Carex speciosa Kunth, Carex stramentitia Boott. ex Boeck.,
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla, Schoenoplectus litoralis
For images please visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157664133510104
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.,kaaruchodi, కారుచోడి kurorకుర్రో
Eulalia trispicata (Schult.)Henry(Nallamal hills)
Hackelochloa granularis (L.) O. Ktze.,nali poonukuనాళిపూనుకు, Guru singu gaddi, గురుసింగుగడ్డి, kuru jedanai gaddiకూరు జెడనై గడ్డి
Ophiuros exaltatus (L.) Kuntze,
Rosette plants that often have two-ranked, isobifacial leaves; they can be recognised best by their inflorescences and flowers. The inflorescences normally bear one or more pairs of bracts along the inflorescence stalk; the flowers are borne in heads and have a conspicuous but ephemeral corolla.
BROMELIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Rosette plants, the leaves always being tough, spirally arranged, lacking a distinct sheath, and often with spiny-toothed margins; the indumentum is scaly (lepidote); and the terminal inflorescence is predominantly bracteate, the bracts sometimes being coloured. The flowers have a calyx and corolla, and the petals, although free, are erect and form a tube. Fruit a septicidal capsule, K persistent; seeds caudate.
Maranta arundinacea L., pala gunda పాలగుండ
Plants large herbs; cormose; glabrous; buds not axillary; leaves spiral, petiole short, secondary veins depart more or less at right angles from the midrib.Plant monoecious; inflorescence bracts deciduous, flowers ebracteate, monosymmetric flowers, which are at right angles to the main axis; tepals 5, five tepals connate except the adaxial petal, that is deeply concave. staminate flowers: Stamens 6, median [adaxial] anther of inner whorl absent. carpellate flowers: staminodes +, stigma capitate; loculii mucilaginous. Fruit a berry.
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, adavipasuvu,అడవిపసుపు kachoeramu, kachoramకచోరము, kasthooripasupu,కస్తూరి పసుపు, kichhiligaddalu,కిచ్చిలిగడ్డలు
Large and often aromatic rhizomatous herbs with two-ranked, ligulate leaves that have open sheaths; inflorescence branched, flowers pedicellate, monosymmetric, with single stamen, filament short, median A of outer whorl 0, lateral staminodes petal-like; fruit fleshy.
Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f)Roscoe (Visakapatnam, Godavari dist.,)Alpinia galanga (L.) WILLD., dumparaashtrakamu, దుంపరాష్ట్రకము kachoramu,కచోరము , peddadumparashtrakamu పెద్దదుంపరాష్ట్రకము;Alpinia chinensis ROSCOE, sanna-dumparashtrakam,సన్నదుంపరాష్ట్రకము sannarastramసన్నరాష్ట్రము
Zingiber officinale Rosc., allamu,అల్లము ardrakamu, ఆర్ద్రకము mahaushadamuమహౌషధము, sonti,శొంఠి, sringaberamu,శృంగబేరము Zingiber capitatum Roxb., Zingiber purpureum Rosc.,kaaru pasupuకారు పసుపు, Zingiber roseum (Roxb.)Rosc., bomma kachikiబొమ్మ కచికి ,adavi pasupu,అడవి పసుపు kaarallamu,కారల్లము koorapasupu, కూర పసుపు,
Anamirta cocculus (L.)Wight&Arn., kakumaanu కాకుమాను
Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Rare in north coastal dist.,
Nigella sativa L., is known as Black caraway నల్ల జిలకర it is used as substitute to షాజిరా . ఇది మన రాష్ట్రంలో పండదు. కానీ ఆయుర్వేద మందులలో వాడతారు.
For images please visit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/albums/72157666359363796
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
|Grevillea robusta flowers|
Evergreen herbs to small trees; monoecious; leaves opposite, exstipulate; flowers small with an inconspicuous perianth. The stamens are opposite the perianth members, and the styluli, stigmatic their entire length, are conspicuous. Fruit has no columella.
Dillenia indica L., peddakalinga,పెద్దకళింగ,revadi chettu,రేవడి చెట్టు, chalta,చల్త , kalinga,కళింగ, uvva వువ్వ ; Elephant apple(Eng.)
Dillenia pentagyna Roxb., chinna kalinga, చిన్నకళింగ, raevadi,రేవడి, parateku,పారాటేకు, parudu,పరుడు, rath-eggi,రాథేగ్గి, uvva kaya వువ్వకాయ
Plants woody, succulents, flowers 4 merous; Calyx tubular, lobes 4, Corolla connate; stamens 4, with spherical connective prolongation; carpels 4, free and have nectariferous scales at their bases. The fruits are usually follicles.
Small herbs; usually monoecious. Leaves opposite or whorled, small, lamina margin serrate or deeply lobed. Flowers small, solitary or in dichasial cymes or in fascicles; 4-merous; K valvate, C deciduous; A 8, opposite sepals, anthers much longer than filaments; ovary inferior, ovule 1/carpel, styluli with swollen bases, stigmas capitate. Fruit nut-like, indehiscent, exocarp often ornamented.
Often vines, nodes are often swollen; tendrils usually leaf-opposed; leaves palmately compound, or lobed or veined; leaf blades are very brittle when dry, with coarse teeth; stipules caduceus. Flowers small in leaf-opposed paniculate or umbellate cymes; petals valvate. The stamens are equal in number to and opposite the petals, Gynoecium bicarpellate, 4-ovulate, stigmas sessile, berry often has ruminate seeds.
Fagonia cretica L., cittigara చిట్టి గార
Tribulus subramanyamii P.Singh etal., Tribulus terrestris L., palleru,పల్లేరు, chirupalleru,చిరు పల్లేరు cinnapalleru,చిన్న పల్లేరు nirunji,నీరుంజి , pallerumullu,పల్లేరు ముళ్ళు sannaneggilugidaసన్ననెగ్గిలుగిడ
Trees to herbs (vines); leaves spiral, compound leaves with pulvinate leaflets; the leaflets are entire and often have sub-palmate venation; Flowers either cymose or has cymose branches, pedicels articulated; petals contorted, often clawed; anthers extrorse; nectaries often as glands, opposite to petals; G [(3-)5], stigmas spathulate/capitate; ovules (1-)2-many/carpel, the flowers are heterostylous; fruit a ribbed/angled loculicidal capsule.