Friday, November 16, 2012

Flora Andhrika-Plant wealth of Andhra Pradesh

Taxonomy has a major role in interpreting the knowledge base of Globosphere. The aim of this attempt is to make information very accessible and flexible. Preparation of Floristic accounts and databases are also vital for providing taxonomic knowledge to the people. The role of taxonomist   is crucial in the identification of the biological diversity. With fast depleting biological resources and increasing habitat changes from national level down to  the micro level of ecological  niches of fragile environments  there is an immediate need for application of newer tools to aid traditional methods. It is useful in storaging the morphological repositories which are essential for universal availability of raw data of descriptive taxonomy.With  advent television, remote sensing, mobile communication etc and mapping of our resources it  has become easy to digitize information.  The digital libraries through out the world take advantages of computers in the form of desktop or tablets to map any plant or animal of smallest area and provide information to every one at any place in shortest time. An attempt is made is here to explain the benefits of using computers in botanical studies particularly in utilization of data for the conservation of plant resources of Andhra Pradesh.
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh);  the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where  Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795). W.Roxburgh is considered as the father of Indian Taxonomy, began his work in A.P only.
The  Flora Andhrica is the title of the book by Walter Elliot FLS who spent five years in Telugu districts of Northern Circars of erstwhile Madras Presidency.
He consulted Sabdartha Kalpataruvu by Mamidipudi Venkayya Sreshti of Masulipatam and compiled the Telugu names of flowering plants  and their Latin names following binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus adopted in India by Koenig. The British Surgeons William Roxburgh ,Buchanan-Hamilton, Wight, Cleghorn, Beddome, Lushington and many pioneers studied  our plant wealth leading to publication of  Plants of  the Coast of Coromandel in 1795 and Flora Indica in 1820 followed by Hookers Flora of British India in 1872-97. Botanical Survey of India brought out Flora of India vol-1 in 1993 coinciding with bicentenary of Col Robert Kyd the founder of Botanic garden at Calcutta.
An English Index to plants of India by H.Piddington in 1832 gives names of plants in Bengali, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Cyngalese and Nawar languages known at the time of publication of 3rd vol of Flora  Indica by Roxburgh posthumously. Sir Walter Elliot,F.R.S.
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at Visakhapatnam, he learnt Telugu names of plants, so he named Andhrica. He mentioned Yanadi of Nellore, Chenchus of Guntur, Koyas of Rajamandry and Konda Doras of Vizagpatam as ancient people of Gondwana land with fossils, fuels and primitive cultures. Ayurveda and Herbal folklore  and traditional usage of plants in Eastern Ghats, Coramandel Coast and Deccan Plateau with common script for over 13 centuries since the visit of Huensong and Telugu usage enabled the European Physicians to describe our native plants and their uses known to world in modern languages.
 Rampa agency in Rajahmandry became the  source for Garden of East India Company and included in Flora Indica. Dr.J.G.Koenig, Dr Roxburgh and Dr.Patrick Russel are  visitors to Pulicat lake, Nagari Hills, Tirupati, Kakinada, Annavaram and Simhachalam temples too and so made plant collections as pioneers in plant science. These European surgeons had good friendly relations with local land-lords and indeed much liked by some ancient families leading to progress of English usage.
The formation of linguistic states in  Indian Republic and adoption of Telugu as official language and making it compulsory for communication it is obvious  that digital applications for use of desirable botanical data is made accessible to common man and students in particular to know our plants with help of images and simple easily understandable documents.Hence the Flora Andhrika  as title for Blog/Page/Docs for Google users is chosen here with a view to revise old classics with updated information and wide field of the area of study for practical purposes.
From this part the exercise is revised by A.Lalithamba;
 We are following APG system of classification only. Date:16-11-2016
Rewritten of this blog is taken up with some changes; The notes for some plants is given in flickr with images; all the plant species given in floras is listed here to facilitate location of plants. The exercise is taken up to facilitate easy access. 
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah 
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao; 3. Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008, 
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
 For images and description link is given, other species will be briefly described.
For regional/ Telugu names, district floras of Andhra Pradesh, Medicinal plants by R.S.Rao, K.Hemadri, research papers on ethno medicinal plants of Eastern Ghats published by different authors in many scientific journals, my survey, Forest plants published by Department of Forests A.P are scrupulously followed. Slang, pronunciation variations, local variations are  solved with my desecration, for example మల్లి / మల్లె  is written as malli, malle in english . 
note: Local names in bold are common and popular/well known/widely used names.     
Gymnosperm flora is very poor with least diversity. The following are native and cultivated species
Native: Cycas beddomei Dyer,  (పేరీత , మదన కామాక్షి)  pereetha, madana kamakshi (Tel.) It is endemic to Tirumala hills of Chittoor distict. ; Cycas circinalis L.(Queen sago), Cycas sphaerica Roxb. Syn. Cycas circinalis Haines var. Orixensis- (అర్జున చెట్టు, నాసి చెట్టు)  Arjuna chettu, Naasi chettu(Tel.)It is also endemic to Srkiakulam district. 
 Gnetum montanum Markgraf,  Gnetum ula Brongn.అపజట్లీ , లోలుఁగ ,కాలోయ్ , లులితి (In North coast)
cultivated:  Cycas rumphii Miq., Cycas revoluta Thunb., Callitris cupressiformis F. Muell., Callitris glauca Mirb., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.)D.Don, , Juniperus communis L., Thuja occidentalis L., Platycladus orientalis (L.)Franco,Pinus roxburghii Sarg., , Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui , Pinus hartwegii Lindl. 
Aquatic herbs, plant rhizomatous; 4-celled uniseriate secretory trichomes with a large terminal cell; diaphragms in root aerenchyma; mycorrhizae 0; primary stem with ± scattered vascular bundles; protoxylem lacunae +; vascular cambium 0; P persistent; fruit maturation underwater. Pollination by wind or aquatic beetles.
Only Nymphaea Linn. is available.
Aquatic rhizomatous herbs;lamina on on the surface of water, peltate, upper surface waxy; flowers large, haplomorphic;Perianth and anthers many, staminodes showy; fruit baccate, fruit maturation under water.
List of species:
1.Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f; Syn.N.stellata Willd., alli taamara అల్లితామర  alli kaada, allikada,అల్లి కాడ  indeevaramu,ఇందీవరము  indivara, kalava puvvu, kaluvva poovu, కలువ పువ్వు nalla kalava,నల్ల కలువ  nallani padmamuనల్లని పద్మము , neeti tamara నీటి తామర , tellakaluvaతెల్ల కలువ,, kaluvaకలువ,kumudaకుముద,vutpalamuఉత్పల,     2.Nymphaea pubescensWilld. Looks similar to N.nouchali, but flowers are white. chandovaచందోవ , changaluvaచెంగలువ , chitti kaluvaచిట్టి కలువ , errakuluva ఎర్ర కలువ , kaluvaకలువ , thellakalava తెల్ల కలువ(Tel.). 
3.Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex. Andrews.erra kaluva,ఎర్రకలువ   thaamaraతామర 
 4. Nympahea caerulea Savigny ; the blue lotus(నల్లకలువ) is cultivated in coastal areas.నీలోత్పలము n.stellata indeevaramu,ఇందీవరము  kalva puvvu,కలువ పువ్వు  neeti kaluva, nitikulavaనీటి కలువ 

N.caerulea నల్లకలువ  
Victoria amazonica(Poepp.)Sowerby Gaint water lilly is also cultivated in some coastal areas as ornamental plant. 
2.MAGNOLIALES Bromhead  
Vessels in multiples; secondary phloem stratified; pith septate; leaves two-ranked; "bract" sheathing; P whorled; G occluded by fusion and secretion;  irregularly ruminate endosperm. 
MAGNOLIALES Bromhead ;  
Magnolia champaca (L.)Baill. ex Pierre,campakamu,చంపకము, campangi, campangipuvvu, campeyamu, canbakam, champakam, champakamu, champakmu, champeyamu,చాంపేయము  gandha-phali, gandhaphali గంధ ఫలి , gangaraavi, gangaravi గంగరావి , hemaangamu, hemangamu, హేమాంగము hemapushpamu హేమ పుష్పము , kaanchanamu, kancanamu, kanchanamu, kanjanamu,కాంచనము  sampage, sampagiya, sampagnipuvvu, sampanga,సంపెంగ   sampangi, sampangi-puvvu, sampega, sampenga, vandanamalaiవందన మలై  
ALPHONSEA Hook.f.& Thoms. 
Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thw., pulusu maamidi పులుసు మామిడి 
 Annona muricata L.,lakshmana phalamuలక్ష్మణ ఫలము  Annona reticulata L.,raamaphalamu,ramaphalamu,రామ ఫలం raamaseethaphalamu,  ramasitaphalamu,రామసీతాఫలము  tam-seetapandu  Annona squamosa L.,ganda gaathramu, ganda gathram, gandagatramu,గండ గత్రము  seetapandu, seethapandu సీత పండు , seethaphalamu, sitapandu, sitaphalamuసీతాఫలం    
 Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.)Bhandari, manoranjithamu,మనోరంజితం, muddasampengaముద్దసంపెంగ , phalasampangaఫలసంపెంగ, sakalaphalasampanga సకలఫలసంపెంగ, sampengaసంపెంగ, thiga sampangi తీగసంపెంగ   
 Hubera korinti (Dunal) Chaowasku Syn. Polyalthia korintii (Dunal) Thw., elli dabba, ఎల్లిదబ్బ, nella gutti నెల్ల గుత్తి, korintiకోరింటి 
Huberantha cerasoides (Roxb.) Chaowasku, Syn. Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Bedd.,chilakadadduga, chilakaduddi, chilakadudug, chilakadudugaచిలకదుద్దుగ, chilkadadduచిలకదుద్దు, chilkaduddam, chilkaduddi, chilkaduduga, chilukadudduga, chittaduduga, chittidudduga, chittiduduga చిట్టిదుద్దుగ, cilukaduddi, cilukaduddu, cilukadudduga, cittidudduga, doodooga, dudduga, dudugaదుద్దుగ , dudugu, govaగోవ , guthi, gutti chettu గుత్తిచెట్టు 
MILIUSA Lesch. ex A. DC.,
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair,

barre dudduga, barre duduga,బర్రెదుద్దుగ, budda dudduga, buddadudduga,బుడ్డదుద్దుగ duddugaదుద్దుగ, gaadidalotta, gadidalotta గాడిద లొట్ట , kamarakoru కమరకోరు , nalla chika dudi నల్లచిలకదుద్ది   , pedda chiluka, pedda chiluka duddugaపెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ, Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms.,nalla dadduga, nalla dudduga, nalladaduga, nalladudduga, nalladudugu,నల్ల దుద్దుగ  pedda chilkadudi, pedda chiluka dudduga, peddacilukaduddugaపెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ,
Monoon longifolium (Sonn.) B. Xue & R. M. K. Saunders Syn. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw., ashoka, ashokamu, asodham, asoka, asokam, asokamuఅశోకము, asvattamu, asvatthamu అశ్వత్థము , daevadaaru, devadaru దేవదారు , nara mamidi, naramaamidi,రమామిడి nettlingum నెత్తి లింగం,  
Polyalthia fragrans (Dalzell) Benth. & Hook. f., chilkaduduga, chilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ 
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw., buddadadduga, buddadudduga,బుడ్డదుద్దుగ chilaka duduga, chilakadudug, chilkadoodooga, chilkadudduru, chilkadudu, chilkaduduga, cilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ etidudduga ఏటిదుద్దుగా  
 Uvaria hamiltonii Hook. f. & Thoms., 
Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. &Thoms.apoorvachampakamu అపూర్వ చంపకము 
The plants are cultivated in gardens and houses for fragrant flowers.
3.    LAURALES Berchtold & Presl  
 leaves opposite; inflorescence ± cymose; hypanthium +, P spiral; inner staminodia +; receptacle ± concave, stylulus long, (extragynoecial compitum +); megaspore mother cells several; fruits indehiscent, hypanthium persistent
LAURALES Berchtold & Presl 
Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq.,(Syn.G.asiaticus Willd.,G.jacquini Gardner.)kumaara ponaku, kumaari polikiకుమ్మరిపొలికి , nallaponakuనల్ల పొనుకు , papurapu kaayaపావురాయి కాయ, ponaku పొణుకు , tanuku తణుకు  
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd. ex Hook.f. (Nallamala forest)mungiliముంగిలి,nette నెట్టె 
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees,(Cultivated), Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.,(E.Godavari)
Cassytha filiformis L.,antaravallitige, antharavallithigeఅంతర వల్లితీగ , nooluthige, nulutegaనూలు తీగ , paachithige, pachatige, pachitiga, pachitige, pacitige, paunchtiga, punchatigeపచ్చ/పచ్చి తీగ, seethammaavaari jadaalu సీతమ్మవారి జడలు , seethammapogunoolu, seethammavaarupogulu, sitammapogunulu, sitammavarupoguluసీతమ్మనూలుపోగు, teegapaachiతీగ పాచి
CINNAMOMUM Scheaffer.,
Cinnamomum caudatum Nees (Rare, in VSKP)
NOTE: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) PRESL, karppooramuకర్పూరము ,hemavyayamu హేమవ్యయము , himavalukaహిమవకుళ , candrasanguyamu చంద్ర సాంగుయము , chandramu చంద్రము ,gamuburamu గంబూరము , ghanasaramu ఘనసారము ,Cinnamomum zeylanicum BL.,/ C.verum Presl., dalchinachekka, దాల్చిన చెక్క dalcini,దాల్చిని  lavanga-pattaలవంగ పట్ట ,Cinnamomum tamala NEES & EBERM.,talisha-patri,తలిశపత్రి,tamala తమాలవృక్షము   
Litsea deccanensis Gamble.,నరమామిడి   Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., (E.ghats of Nallamala, sehachalam, velugonda)నారనలికె; కానుగనలికి,నర్ర అలిగి (Tel.).
 Litsea monpetala (Roxb.) Pers., చిరుమామిడి (rare, VSKP)  Litsea laeta (Wall, ex Nees) Hook. f.(Rare, E.Godavari)
NEOLITSEA (Benth.) Merr.
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. (Chittoor) (Syn.N.zeylanica (Nees)Merr. (VSKP), Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble
Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm., (Rare in VSKP)

Phoebe wightii Meisner (VSKP)
Trees or lianes;  branching from previous flush; lamina venation ± palmate; breeding system very variable;inflorescence dichasial, ebracteate; flowers very small, P uniseriate;
  flowers (3-)4-5-merous; P 3-10; A 3-5(-7), ovary inferior, usu. facing abaxially, stigma peltate; ovules variable, fruit  samara.
The twigs are ridged. Leaves spiral, entire, thick, coriaceous, with steeply ascending secondary veins, glaucous below; often aromatic, with long-petiole. The flowers are rather small, trimerous, and have valvate anthers; the fruit has a single, large seed that lacks endosperm and the pedicel - and sometimes also tepals and hypanthium - is often swollen and conspicuous. distribution
pantropical. Flavones, 5-O-methyl flavonols, polyketides [acetogenins],are present.
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd.ex Hook.f
Evergreen pubescent trees, dioecious; leaves nearly verticillate;flowers creamy on naked branches; perianth tube short; fertile stamens 9 in 3 whorls; fruit seated in shallow cup shaped perianth tube.Found in Nallamala and Seshachalam hils, and Vishaka, Srikakulam districts.
Evergreen trees or shrubs;terminal buds mostly conspicuous; leaves thick leathery. Flowers small, bisexual; inflorescences short, mostly cymose-paniculate; perianth tube short; 6 almost equal. Fruits baccate; perianth in fruit  deciduous.
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees
Leaf blade abaxially glandular;glossy,  alternate,  subleathery, elliptic, at both ends obtuse; flowers in axillary racemes, pubescent; fruits elliptic-oblong.
Wood is moderately hard.
Rare in Rampa hill forest.common name:not known.
Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.
Young branches tomentose; leaves elliptic-oblong, acute, nerves more prominent beneath; fruit elliptic tomentos,
Rare in the forests of East Godavari district.
Wood soft used for construction.
Cinnamomum caudatum Nees.
Evergreen aromatic trees; leaves subopposite, leaf blade 1-3 veined, papery to leathery; inflorescence appearing when mature leaves are present, in axillary panicles; flowers bisexual;stamens 9+3 staminodes; anthers sagittate or cordate; fruit bluish black berry, seated on small cupule.
Rare in Vishakapatnam hills.
common name not known.
Moderate sized trees; leaves alternate; flowers in umbels or umbellate cymes in leaf axils; flowers unisexual; perianth 3+3;anthers 4-celled; fruit seated on enlarged perianth tube.
Litsea albicans(Kurz.)Hook.f.
A glabrous moderate sized tree; leaves sub coriaceous, glaucous beneath; flowers in sessile-subsessile pedunculate umbels; fruit a berry, seated on the perianth tube.
Rare along the ghats of Rampa hills.
Litsea deccanensis Gamble
Moderate sized pubescent tree, bark thin, smooth;leaves coriaceous, finely tomentose beneath; flowers pubescent, pale yellow, perianth lobes incomplete;stamens >20.Berry blackish purple when ripe.
Common in hilly areas of Chittoor and Godavari districts.
Common name: నరమామిడి  
Litsea decanensis
Litsea monopetala Pers.
Moderate sized ever green tree; bark dark gray, smooth; branchlets pubescent; leaves chartaceous, fulvous, pubescent below;flowers in sessile clusters in umbellate heads; perianth saucer shaped in fruit.
Frequent in shady moist places along hill slopes in Godavari and Vishakapatnam districts.
Common name: చిరుమామిడి ; 
4.PIPERALES Dumortier  
Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; primary stem with distinct bundles; wood with broad rays, interfacicular cambium lacking fusiform initials; nodes often swollen; leaves two-ranked, lamina heart-shaped, secondary veins palmate; inflorescences/flowers terminal; A in 3's.
PIPERALES Dumortier  
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.,ఈశ్వరి, గాడిదగడప, కడపార (Tel.). Aristolochia indica L.,తెల్లఈశ్వరి, ఈశ్వరి వేరు Aristolochia elegans Mast., is cultivated as ornamental.
Peparomia dindygulensis Miq.,  Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott, 

Piper betle L.,తమలపాకు,ఆకుముడుపు,నాగవల్లి(Cultivated as commercial crop),Piper cubeba L.f తోక మిరియాలు ; Piper longum L.,పిప్పళ్లు (Cultivated for medicinal purpose) Piper hymenophyllum Miq.,(Kurnool, Chittor dist), Piper nigrum L., (Cultivated)నల్లమిరియాలు Piper trioicum Roxb.(In E.Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool and VSKP dist) page no-9
Plants woody climbers; usually epiphytic on trees, vascular bundles in two rows, cambium storied, mucilage canals +, axillary bud prominent, racemose inflorescence, bracts peltate or clavate, A 1-2 or less than 10, G 2-5,ovules 1 per carpel, 16 celled tetra sporic embryosac. Fruit a berry, outer seed wall well thickened, nuclear endosperm. Mainly insect pollinated; bats also involve in pollination and seed dispersal.
Succulent herbs,usu.epiphytic, leaves opposite or whorled.Flowers monoecious.
Peparomia dindygulensis Miq.
Erect succulent herb; leaves opposite, membranous;hairy, flowers green, in long slender spikes, in terminal panicles.

Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott, 

Epiphytic tufted herb;leaves usually coriaceous, orbicular, nearly sessile, and wrinkled when dried;
Rachis of inflorescence densely pubescent; dried stems deeply sulcate.
common name: 4 leaved peperomia
Aromatic scandent shrubs with swollen nodes.Leaves alternate. Spikes congested, opposite to leaves. Flowers minute, dioecious; arise in the axils of bracts; T-0; stamens 2-4;  filaments short. Ovary one celled, ovules solitary;stigmas2-5; fruit a small ovoid globose 1 seeded berry. 
Inflorescence scaposedensely spicate [spadix], with large associated bract [spathe], flowers sessile, weakly monosymmetric [abaxial member of outer T whorl precocious and large]; ovules straight; endosperm copious,perisperm +, derived from nucellar epidermis, not starchy;
Rhizomatous herbs, the members are recognisable by their sweetly-smelling, two-ranked, isobifacial leaves and their densely spicate inflorescence overtopped by, and appearing lateral to the leaf-like spathe. The flowers are small, perfect and pentacyclic. Bracts and bracteoles 0, P persistent; anther thecae hooded, intra ovarian trichomes +, style broad. Fruit berry.
Acorus calamus L.వస 
Starch grains pteridophyte-type, amylophilic; inflorescence scapose; anthers extrorse; tapetum amoeboid [?here], cells uninucleate; carpels with completely unfused canals, styles +,  embryo (chlorophyllous), large, cotyledon large; seedling with hypocotyl and root well developed, collar rhizoids +. The root stele is often tri- to pentarch; When the leaves are petiolate, the vascular bundles are in an arc; inverted bundles are also common.
ARACEAEJussieu, nom. cons. 
ALOCASIA (Schott) G.Don.,
Alocasia decipiens Schott, Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott,  Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don, Alocasia montana (Roxb.) Schott.,
AMORPHOPHALLUS Blume ex Decaisne,
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume(Rare in hills of E.Godavari) , Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth,Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, (Cultivated as vegetable)
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume(Reported in1970 by B.S.R.)Now not tracedout)
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott(Godavari and VSKP dist)
Caladium bicolor (Aiton)Vent., (ornamental)
Colocasia esculenta (L.)Schott,
Dieffenbachia bowmannii Carrière, (Cultivated)
Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.)Engl.
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Rare in north circars)
Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., Lemna gibba L.,
Monstera deliciosa Liebm;
Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. .(cultivated)
PISTIA L.,     
Pistia stratiotes L.,
Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott
Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott, Rhaphidophora pertusa  (Roxb.) Schott 
Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott, (Cultivated as ornamental)
SPIRODELA Schleiden,
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.,
Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott,
 ALISMATACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.)Miq., 
Sagittaria guayanensis subsp.  lappula (D.Don) Bogin, Sagittaria sagittifolia L., 
HYDROCHARITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
BLYXA Noronha ex Thouars, 
Blyxa aubertii Richard, , Blyxa echinosperma (C. B. Clarke) J. D. Hooker,  Blyxa octandra (Roxb.) Pl. ex Thw.,
Halophila beccarii Ascherson, Halophila ovalis (R. Brown) J. D. Hooker,
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, 
Najas marina L., (Nellore); Najas minor Ali.,(E.Godavari)
Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. ex Wight) Thwaites,
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.,
Vallisneria spiralis L.,
APONOGETONACEAE Planchon, nom. Cons
Aponogeton crispus Thunb. (It is an auarium plant with crispy or wavy leaves)
 Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl. & K.Krause నత్త నాచు 
POTAMOGETONACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. Cons
Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton nodosus Poir., Potamogeton perfoliatus L.,

Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
ARACEAEJussieu, nom. cons. 
ARACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Araceae are herbs with leaves that are usually divided into a petiole and expanded blade. They have a distinctive inflorescence of a more or less petal-like spathe plus a spadix made up of densely-packed, sessile, ebracteate flowers; in many taxa the spadix has a large, terminal, sterile part. The fruit is a berry. 

Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott,
Tuberous geophytes;tuber renewed seasonally, tubers ovoid; Spathe deciduous, tubular, widely spreading outward,spathe limb occasionally with a long tail at apex. Spadix sessile,neuters at the apendix; flowers filiform, subulate. Infructescence upright or nodding. Berries reddish, several seeded.
Arisaema leschenaultii Bl. 
Leaf solitary, radiatisect; leaflets 5-13;spathe 15 cm, with longitudinally white stripes; berries 1-few.
Rare in Nellore district.
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.)Schott&Endl. Leaves 2; sortly pediatisect, sheaths mottled with purple;spathe green, apex gradually dilated into acuminate incurved limb;berries orrange red.
Occassional in mooist forests of North circars. Whipcord cobra lilly(Eng.) For images
Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook.f., Adavi chema(Tel.) Gaint Elephant Taro(Eng.)
Common in Kadapa and rare in Nellore districts.
Pistia: page no-11
Plesmonium margaritiferum(Roxb.)Schott.Syn. Arum margaritiferum Roxb.
Tuberous geophyte;leaf solitary;panicle as long as petiole;spathe leathery, green, deep purple at base within; spadix very stout,neuters large; berries ovoid 2-3 celled.
Rare in Nalla malai and E.Godavari, VSKP districts. for images
Raphidophora decursiva (Roxb.)Schott.
A lofty climber; leaf large,pinnately divided to midrib;peduncle up to 20cm long,; spathe yellow, berry pulp orange, fragrant.
Rare in north circars
Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott.
Climbing shrub; leaves ovate;petiole broadly winged;peduncle shorter than petiole, solitary, terminal; spathe green; greenish yellow in fruiting stage.
Rare in the forests of VSKP. The dried inflorescence is used as medicine in Ayurveda. Gajapippaliగజపిప్పలి (Tel.)Scindapsus(Eng.)
Theriphonum minutum (Willd.) Baill.
A carmous acaulescent herb; leaves with slender petioles;spthe 5-10cm long, greenish to purplish green with purplish wavy margins.
Through out the state.
Plants < 50 cm, leaves sagittate, spadix exerted from spathe.
 ALISMATACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Alismataceae are laticiferous, aquatic herbs; leaves two-ranked to spiral, involute,  whether floating or aerial,with pseudopetiole,prominent midrib, cross veins and an apical subepidermal pore;  inflorescence branches whorled; C more or less crumpled in bud;  staminate flowers usually have many extrorse anthers and their carpellate flowers have many free carpels; the embryo is strongly curved.
Limnophyton obtusifolium (Linn.) Miq.
Erect tufted herb with long-stalked leaves, sagittate, with spreading, acute triangular lobes and inflorescences with spongy peduncles about 2 ft. high; flowers white; 5-10 in each whorl ;stamens basally flattened and thickened filaments; anthers oblong; Achenes obovate, minutely stipitate, reticulately ribbed, shortly beaked
Common at the margin of ponds in mud.
Ver. Name: Blunt arrow head (Eng.) Gurrapu dekka గుఱ్ఱపుడెక్క (Tel.)
Aquatic stolaniferous herbs. Leaves sagittate; flowers monosexual, stamens many;pistils>1000 inserted on a large globose receptilcle.Achenes laterally compressed.
Sagittaria guayanensis Kunth
Leaves broadly ovate, flowers white.Seeds toothed and winged.
Rare in Khammam and Warangal districts.
Sagittaria sagittifolia L.Leaves radicle and sagittate; flowers white with purple claw; scape with3-5 flowers in each whorl;achenes obliquely ovate.
Rare in Vishakhapatnam.
HYDROCHARITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Branched submerged aquatic herbs; vessels 0; endodermis obscure or thick-walled; leaf base sheathing inflorescence subtended by 2 often connate bracts; (A introrse); pollen inaperturate nectaries 3, staminodes (0); G inferior, placentae [= carpel walls] much intruded, style single, short, stigmas usu. divided; ovules 1-many/carpel. Pollination by entomophily or anemophily or hydrophily and selfing.
Halophila ovalis (R.Br.)Hook.f.
Rhizomatous salt water herbs; leaves 2 at each node;Flowers unisexual, solitary or 2 in the axils of sessile bract/spathe in between the two petioles.
found in the backwaters of Bay of Bengal
It is used as feed for fishes and sea prawns. Paddle weed, sea grass (Eng) Samudrapu gaddiసముద్రపుగడ్డి  (Tel.)
Halophila ovalis
APONOGETONACEAE Planchon, nom. Cons
Water plants with petiolate leaves; they have often densely spicate inflorescence has a long scape and the rather small flowers nevertheless often have more or less conspicuous tepals; the whole inflorescence is coloured.
POTAMOGETONACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons
Aquatic plants;leaves petiolate with midrib and cross veins; there is usually a conspicuous basal ligule. The inflorescence is densely spicate and the flowers have small tepals appearing to be borne on the backs of the stamens. The carpels are stipitate, .Wind pollination.
Potamogeton crispus L.Potamogeton nodosusPoir., Potamogeton perfoliatus L.,
 Aquatic submerged herb; leaves heterophyllous, 7-9 nerved, stipule keeled;spike leaf opposed, flowers 4-merous; drupelets ovoid beaked.
Common in ponds and ditches through out the state. American pond weed(Eng.)
Potamogeton nodosus
Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
Branches well developed, adaxially grooved vascular bundles in rings; vessels also in stem and leaf; flowers or inflorescence with glandular hairs; styles free early in ontogeny; T persistent in fruit; embryo at most short.
Less herbaceous climbers, tubers +,leaves spiral/ two-ranked (opposite), pulvini at both ends of the petiole; the leaf base does not surround the stem. The lamina has several strong longitudinal veins and transverse secondary veins, or reticulate fine venation. Serial buds common; plant dioecious, inflorescences two or more together, flowers small, not brightly colored; fruit capsular, baccate, or samaroid; seeds not winged.
Climbing herbs. Flowers unisexual; in ♂ P with 6 short lobes; stamens 3 or 6 alternating with staminodes. ♀P-6 short; G-(3) inferior; 3 celled, styles 3. Fruit loculicidal, 3 winged capsule. Seeds 2 in each cell, compressed.
List of species: Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines,(E.Godavari, VSKP) , Dioscorea bulbifera L. , Dioscorea esculenta L., Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.,
 Dioscorea hispida Denns. , Dioscorea oppositifolia L.,  Dioscorea pentaphylla L., Dioscorea pubera Bl.,Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng., Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f.
  Dioscorea bulbifera L.: Leaves simple, leaves dark green, base cordate; tubers 1-3 sessile in axils; bulbils warted;♂ flowers variable in size, greenish purple;♀ sessile axillary  on pendulous spikes; capsule recurvedquadrately oblong. yam, Air potato, Air yam, Bitter yam, Cheeky yam, Potato yam, Wild yam(Eng.) పెండలం (Tel.)
 Common through out the state.
TACCA J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze 
Syn. Tacca pinnatifida J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
 Leaves radicle, 2or3pinnate,leaf rachis groved in uppersurface; about 20 flowers greenish purple on 1.5m tall peduncle arising from the underground tuber, in an umbel subtended by many filifom green-purple bracts; fruits ovoid ribbed with many seeds.
Common through out the state. The tubers are edible and used as medicine to treat stomach ailments. Fiji Arrowroot, batflower, East Indian arrowroot, Polynesian arrowroot, Tahiti arrowroot (Eng.); adavidumpa, అడవిదుంప (Tel.)
PANDANALES Berchtold & J. Presl
Nucellar cap +; endosperm with reserves starch, embryo minute.
PANDANACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Plant woody, shrubs, or climbers with roots from leaf axils, not rhizomatous; leaves spirally three- or four-ranked, M-shaped when mature, spiny, plant di-(mon)oecious; inflorescence bracts usually colored; staminate flowers: A 2-many, carpellate flowers: G 1-several, free to connate, fruit baccate or drupaceous; primary root branched [Pandanus].
Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze; Syn. Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.,
Much branched shrubs, several basal proproots +. Leaves <2m x 10cm, midrib and margins are sharply spiny. Male inflorescence of several spikes with creamy large bracts; pollen white, spinulose. Female inflorescence solitary terminal, pendulous in fruit. In a mature fruit head 7-15 celled phalanges are present with fleshy vermillion margins.  Found along the streams near coasts.
  Flowers creamy yellow, fragrant. Flowers are used to prepare perfumes. Leaves are used to make for thatching, textiles/ bags making. Mogiliమొగలిపువ్వు (Tel.) Ketaki(Sanskrit)Screw pine(Eng.)
Pandanus male flower 
STEMONACEAE Caruel, nom. cons.
Stemona tuberosa Lour
COLCHICACEAE de Candolle, nom. cons.
DISPORUM Salisbury,
Disporum calcaratum D.Don, Disporum pullum Salisb.,(E.Godavari, VSKP )
Gloriosa superba L.
Iphigenia indica (L.) A.Gray ex Kunth, Iphigenia  mysorensis Arekal&Swamy;
 Iphigenia pallida Baker,(Rare in Godavari, VSKP)
SMILACACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons. 
Smilax aspera L.,(VSKP), Smilax perfoliata Lour., (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP), Smilax zeylanica L.,ఫిరంగి మొక్క 
 Plants geophytes; ); leaves elliptical, (main veins seven or fewer), fine venation reticulate, (leaf base not sheathing); inflorescence terminal; T large (small), free, (spotted), tepal nectaries +anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap +; P deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls.
STEMONACEAE Caruel, nom. cons.
 Leaves petiolate, lamina have conspicuous cross veins between the very close to distantly longitudinal veins; when dry, the leaves are often very thin. The inflorescences are axillary and the Plant monopodial, (tuberous), with scale leaves, stem erect (twining); plant glabrous; leaves two-ranked or opposite, petiolate, not sheathing, midrib simple, cross veins between the very close to distantly longitudinal veins scale leaves +, sheathing; inflorescences axillary, cymose or flowers single; pedicel articulated; flowers 4- or 5-merous.T 4(-5), perianth tube short; A adnate to base of T, ± connate, (apex of anther sterile), connective expanded, (apiculate); G 1 to [3], (inferior), placentae apical or basal, style branches ± separate; ovules 2 to many/carpel.
Stemona tuberosa Lour.
Tuberous climbing geophyte; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, membranous, Perianth segments greenish with purplish veins, Stamens purple, slightly shorter than perianth; capsule ovoid-oblong, seeds many.
Common through out the state.
Stemona tuberosa  

COLCHICACEAE de Candolle, nom. cons.
Leaves two-ranked to ± verticillate, inflorescence various; T towards base U-shaped and folded around each stamen in bud, nectaries median on tepal or on stamen base (0); pollen operculate; G ([2, 4]), style branched or not, stigma with recurved lobes, ovules 2-many/carpel, seeds rounded. protoalkaloid colchicine +,raphides 0.

SMILACACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons. 
Prickly climbers with short woody rhizomes; flavonols +, stem bundles in a ring; mucilaginous cells +; leaves two-ranked, midrib and lamina, with 5-7 main veins, paired lateral ligules and/or spines or tendrils +; plant dioecious; staminate flowers: A 3-12, pollen inaperturate, spinulose,  carpellate flowers: staminodes +; style short/0, stigma dry; ovule 1/carpel.
Smilax aspera L.,(VSKP), Smilax perfoliata Lour., (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP), Smilax zeylanica L.
Smilax zeylanica L.
Prickly twiners. Leaves oblong-ovate, 3-5 nerved, glabrous, coriaceous, petiole twisted, stipules modified to tendrils.
Very rarely found in wild.A potent Ayurvedic medicine used as tonic. Vanamdhunashini,Phirangi teegaఫిరంగితీగ(Tel.); Indian Smilax, catbriers, greenbriers, prickly-ivys  (Eng.
Smilax in vegetative state
Dimorphic root, hypodermal cells +;(velamen +);  anthers longer than wide; tapetal cells bi- to tetranuclear; microsporogenesis simultaneous; seeds exotestal, tegmen not persistent; endosperm helobial;Chelidonic acid +, steroidal saponins 0
ORCHIDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
ACAMPE Lindl.,
Acampe carinata (Griff.)Panigrahi; Acampe ochracea (Lindl.)Hochr., Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.)Blatt.&Mc Cann,
Aerides multiflora Roxb., Aerides odorata Lour., Aerides ringens (Lindl.)C.E.C Fisch.,
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.
Cleisostoma tenuifolium(L.)Garay.
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
 Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr, Dendrobium aquem Lindl., Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl., Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl., Dendrobium ovatum(Willd.)Kranz
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
ERIA Lindley
Eria bambusifolia Lindl.
EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindley
Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch, Eulophia explanata Lindl., Eulophia graminea Lindl., Eulophia ochreata Lindl., Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh
Gastrochilus calceolaris  [Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.] D. Don 
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schlt.,
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook.,  
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f., Habenaria digitata Lindl., Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell, Habenaria furcifera Lindl., Habenaria longicorniculata J.Graham, Habenaria marginata Colebr. , Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra, Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., Habenaria ramayyana Ram.Chary & J.J.Wood, Habenaria rariflora A.Rich., Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, 
Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl.,
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl.,
LUISIA Gaudich.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudich,
 Nervilia aragoana Gaudichaud , Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden, Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schlechter, 
Oberonia arnottiana Wight, Oberonia brunoniana Wight., Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley, Oberonia falconeri J. D. Hooker, Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenfaden
Paplionanthe teres (Roxb.)Schltr.
Pecteilis gigantea (J.E.Smith)Rafin
PERISTYLUS Blume  nom cons
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley, Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley,
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.
Pomatocalpa mannii(Rchb.f.)J.J.Smith., Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.,
Rhyncostylis retusa(L.)Blume,
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume 
VANDA W.Jones ex.R.Brown.
Vanda tessellata Hook ex. G.Don
HYPOXIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. Cons
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.,నేలతాడి 
AMARYLLIDACEAE J. Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.  
Allium cepa L., ఉల్లి, ఉల్లి పాయ, నీరుల్లి , యెర్ర గడ్డ   Allium sativum L.తెల్ల గడ్డ, వెల్లుల్లి, వెల్లుల్లిపాయ   
Crinum asiaticum L., Crinum latifolium  L., Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J.Nair,
Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss,(Ornamental)
Pancratium longiflorum Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.,తొండతోకచెట్టు  
Scadoxus multiflorus  (Martyn) Raf., 
Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb., Zephyranthes citrina Baker,  Zephyranthes rosea Lendl.,
ASPARAGACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Agave angustifolia Haw., Agave americana L., Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck,కిత్త నార,
Aloe vera L.,కలబంద, కుమారి    
Asparagus aethiopicus L.,Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop, cultivated; Asparagus gonoclados Baker,Asparagus racemosus Willd.శతావరి, పిల్లి తీగలు, పిల్లి పీచర   
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker, (North Circars,Kurnool), 
Chlorophytum glaucum Dalzell, (rare in W.Godavari), Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.,
Chlorophytum malabaricum Baker,(Chittoor), Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, 
Dracaena marginata hort. ;(Cultivated); Dracena reflexa (Cultivated) Dracaena terniflora Roxb., (Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP)
DRIMIA Jacq., 
Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop, Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar,
Drimia congesta (Wight)Ansari&Raghavan
FURCRAEA  Ventenat,
Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw.,
Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop,కాచుగడ్డ 
Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, 
Polianthes tuberosa L.,నేలసంపంగి, గడ్డసంపంగి  
Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook.,(Ornamental), Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f., Sansevieria trifasciata Prain,(Ornamental)
URGINEA Steinh.,

Urginea coromandeliana Hook.f.,
      ORCHIDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Mycorrhizal herbs, protocorms mycoheterotrophic, root hairs often lacking, vascular bundle sheaths with fibres, (also fibre bundles in leaves); flowers monosymmetric, resupinate; T free, median inner T forms a labellum; A 3 basally adnate to style; ovary inferior, septal nectaries 0, placentae branched, style solid, stigma wet; ovules > 1500carpel, fruit dehiscing laterally by six valves, seeds minute, dust-like, endosperm 0, fruit splitting down its sides, T deciduous in fruit; embryo minute. There is a wide diversification of pollination mechanisms. Mimicry is very common.Butterfly, moth, bees and even birds serve as pollinators
ACAMPE Lindley.
Epiphytes; coriaceous; flowers non resupinate,small, fleshy fragile; sepals and petals yellow with maroon bands; lip with a short spur.
1.      Acampe carinata (Griff.)Panigrahi; Syn. Saccolabium papillosum Hook.f.  Leaves strap shaped; flowers white tinged with yellow and purple steaks.
On road side trees near coffee plantations in Visakha district.
2.      A. ochracea (Lindl.)Hochr.Peduncles leaf opposed; middle lobe of lip with a fleshy tooth on either side of the base.
In Chintapalli area forests along the streams.
3.      A.praemorsa (Roxb.)Blatt.&Mc Cann, Peduncles axillary, midlobe of lip entire; flowers yellow with white and red stripes.
In moist deciduous forests of Rampa and Chittoor districts.
Epiphytes; flowers resupinate, medium sized showy, white or purple; lip with a forwardly curving spur.
Aerides multiflora Roxb. Leaves crowded, obtuse, deeply channeled and keeled; flowers rose-purple; or spotted; lip3-lobed, violet-red; spur upcrved;capsule sub clavate.
In hill forests of E.Godavari.
Aerides multiflora courtesy image by  Bimal Sarkar
Aerides odorata Lour.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate; flowers purple-white;petals obovate, lip white, violet blotched; spur uncinately incurved, capsule oblong- clavate.
In moist deciduous forests of North Circars.
Aerides odorata; courtesy, photo by Bimal sarkar's symbiosis collection
Aerides ringens (Lindl.)C.E.C Fisch.
Leaves thick loriform; flowers whitish pale pink, lip as long as sepals; spur subclavate, mid lobe rounded; capsule fusiform.
Rare in cool moist forests of W.Godavari
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.
Terrestrial leafless saprophyte; stem sheathed and tubular; raceme up to 10-20cm, flowers sraw colored with purple strips; lip broader than sepals; column very slender.
Rare in undisturbed hills of Chittoor district.
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons
Epiphytes; Column prolonged into a foot, lip erect, articulate on foot;.
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f.
Rhizome creeping, plant caespitose; slender pseudobulbs aggregating; leaves 2 subsessile; flowers yellowish green, lip toungue shaped.
In shady semi evergreen forests of Vishakha patnam.
Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.
1-leaved psuedobulb;leaves linear oblong, scape slender; umbels many flowered; column very short.
In  semi evergreen forests of Tirumala .
Cleisostoma tenuifolium(L.)Garay.
Epiphyte, stem slender, pendulous; flowers deflexed in racemes; yellow with red margins; lip creamy with violet  triangular side lobes, midlobe incurved, spur conical, column short.Rare in Tirumala
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Terrestrial leafy herb up to 1.5m; leaves thick up to 30cm long; flowers greenish white in axillary panicles; lip lanceolate, dialated, recurved; rostellum atlength bifid; pollinia granular and attached to gland.
Rare in moist forests of Kadapa district. 
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
Tufted epiphyte; stem fleshy, clothed in membranous sheaths; leaves linear, lorate; racemes pendulous; flowers creamy stained reddish purple down middle of the sepals,lip sessile purple blotched; midlobe hairy, column incurved; polinia 2 ovoid.  
Common in deep forests of N.Circars.
Cymbidium intermedium courtesy image by Bimal Sarkar
Epiphytes; lip not articulated, pubescent, erect from the base; column prolonged into foot;
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr
Stem slender, pendulous; flowers pale rose; 2-3 on short peduncles; spur conical,lip broadely deltoid, yellow streaked with purple at the base,cuculate pubescent.
In moist deciduous forests of Chinthapalli
Dendrobium aquem Lindl
Stem stout thick, flowers 2-3 from axils; creamy white, lip with yellowish disc; spur short;midlobe of lip triangular.
Rare in moist hill forests of E.Godavari
Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl
Pendulous with much branched stem; racemes terminal; flowers yellow, pedicels filiform; spur minute, lip oblong; fruit ellipsoid.
Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl
Stem slender, pendulous; flowes pale green tinged with pink, in short lateral racemes;lip longer ovate-oblong, long clawed, finely pubescent.
In moist deciduous forests through out the state.
Dendrobium ovatum(Willd.)Kranz
Stem tufted; flowering shoots leaf less; flowers cream colored; spur conical, lip flat;disk pubescent,column green, anhers white.
Rare in moist forests at Papavinasam of Tirumala
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
A small saprophytic herb; rhizome brownis-white; scape glossy, slender; flowers white, glabrous, sepals often nerveless; labellum glabrous; free from the column.
Rare in hill forests of W.Godavari district
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
Epiphyte;roots flattened; flowers pink-rose,crowded towards the end of branches;lip ovate, 2 spurred,disc fleshy,spurs collateral, short,incurved; column stout, clavate,anther 2 celled, pollinia 2, small.
Rare in chittoor district.
ERIA Lindley
Eria bambusifolia Lindl.
Epiphyte; stem pseudobulbous; racemes axillary, many flowered;rusty pubescent, petals narrower, lip ovate oblong;anthers imperfectly 4-8 celled, pollinia 8, pyriform.
Rare in Visakha patnam district.
EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindley
Pseudobulb geophyte; leaves appearing or after anthesis;  flowers <2cm,  many on lateral scape; resupinate; lip 3 lobed; spurred;anther incompletely 2 locular, pollinia 2. 
Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch
Flowers ash-green with membranous sterile bracts. Petals lanceolate; lip small, mid lobe recurved; spurs purple dotted,parallel to ovary.
In hilly forests of North Circars and Kadapa and Chittor districts.
Eulophia explanata Lindl.,
Pseudobulbs3, ovoid, annulated; scape lateral; flowers yellow;lip sessile,3 lobed,shorter than Kand C;spur broadly conical, column short.
Rare in Visakhapatnam district.
Eulophia graminea Lindl., 
Pseudobulbs conical; flowers greenih, with white lip on panicles; petals elliptic-lanceolate, tasellate,lip obovate, erect,lateral lobes embracing the column, mid lobe obovate; discwith ridges and hooked processes; spur short, incurved, column short.
Rare in Kadapa hill forests.
Eulophia ochreata Lindl., 
Roots tuberous, fleshy;flowers membranous, greenish, in densely flowered racemes with ochreate sheaths below; lip ovate,side lobes0; spur saccate; nerves all fringed.

Rare in Visakhapatnam hill forests.
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh
Pseudobulbs globular, pseudostems formed from the leaf sheaths; peduncle of the raceme is thick and fleshy, with 10-30 resupinate flowers; dorsal petal white with green and red stripes at base; lip is slightly 3 lobed, with 5 ridges, with brown and mauve veins, column slender and incurved.
Gastrochilus calceolaris  [Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.] D. Don 
Epiphyte, leaves narrow, with unequally bilobed apex, flowers greenish-white with pink patches;lip adnate to base of column,  with a subglobose-saccate or conic hypochile with lateral lobes reduced to often fleshy edges of sac; epichile fan-shaped, often broadly triangular, often hairy or papillose, margin entire to fimbriate. Column short and thick, footless; rostellum short, 2-lobed; anther subglobose, apex narrowed; pollinia waxy, 2, subglobose.
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr
Medium sized leafy, rhizomatic geophytes, with pseudobulbs; pseudostem formed with petioles; flowers medium sized, pinkih-white, not opening widely, not resupinate, on racemes;Sepals and petals similar though petals usually slightly broader, free, not spreading; lip with a central yellow callus and crimson-purple venation and streaks.
lip unlobed or obscurely 3-lobed, base usually saccate, without a distinct spur; disk usually with a callus composed of ridges or wartlike projections. Column short, with a short column foot; anther terminal, 1-locular or incompletely 2-locular, with cap; pollinia 2, usually cleft, waxy, attached to a broad stipe and a large viscidium
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook.,  
Rhizomatic geophyte; flowers greenish white, slightly fragrant on terminal spikes; floral bracts irregularly serrate,glandular pilose;lip brownish-white,when spread out cymbiform with infolded margins;rostellum bifid.

Rare in Kadapa, Sashachalam and Visakhapatnam hills.

Perennial tuber or rhizomatic geophytes, rarely epiphytes; leafy, leaves often reduced to scale leaves; leaves distichous or opposite, glabrous; flowers small to large, often showy, on racemes or spikes; zygomorphic,bisexual, resupinate;sepals and petals almost similar;  lip entire, variously lobed or 2- or 3-partite, ornamented or not with calli, ridges, hair cushions, or crests, with or without a basal spur or nectary, margins entire to laciniate. Column short to long, with or without a basal foot, occasionally winged or with lobes or arms at apex or ventrally; anther mostly 1, less often 2 or 3, terminal or ventral on column, caplike or opening by longitudinal slits; pollen usually forming distinct pollinia, less often loose, pollinia 2, 4, 6, or 8; stigma 3 lobed,mid lobe often modified into rostellum. Fruit a capsule. 
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f.,
Terrestrial geophyte.Leaves 3-5;racemes 5-10 flowered; flowers white, sepals ovate; petals broader, bearded, lip scabrid-pilose,linear at base, 3-lobed, segments subulate, spur as long as the ovary.
Moist deciduous forests of Venkatagiri and Tirumala.
Habenaria digitata Lindl., 
Terrestrial geophyte. Flowers white on about 10 cm racemes; sepals greenish white, with 3 nerves,petals 2 partite, upper segment sub falcate,3-nerved, lowershorter; lip 3 lobed;spur elongate, sub clavate,with an erect ligule at the mouth.
Rare in moist hilly slopes of Godavari and Nellore districts.

Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell
Terrestrial geophyte; stem slender; leaves appressed to the ground, orbicular; flowers greenish white on spikes;petals linear subfalcate;lip longer than sepals,lobes filiform,laterals spreading; spur as long as ovary, inflated.
Rare in moist hilly forests of Visakhapatnam.

Habenaria furcifera Lindl., 

Syn. Habenaria ovalifolia Wight

Terrestrial geophyte; leaves variable in shape, upper leaves amplexicaul; flowers creamy green on lax slender racemes;lip3 lobed from the base, side lobes filiform, divergent incurved;middle one straight, spur longer than ovary; stigmatic process 2.

In moist deciduous forests of Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts.

Habenaria longicorniculata J.Graham, 
Terrestrial geophyte; stem leafy near the base; flowers white, jasmine scented, few on short lax racemes; petals subfalcate,lip3lobed, clawed, oblong, spur very long,thickned from below, anther tubes long slender, pollinia narrowly pyriform; stigmatic processes thick.
Rare in Visakhapatnam district.

Habenaria marginata Colebr. 

Terrestrial geophyte;leaves few subradical; flowers yellow, numerous on cyllindric spikes; dorsal sepal cucullate; petals oblng-lanceolate, falcate from the broad base;closely appressed to the dorsal sepal;lip3 lobed, with a broad claw, spur thick and curved,clavate at the tip;anther lobes funnel shaped, spreading,stigmatic process adnate to the lip; rostellum triangular.

In moist deciduous forests of Araku and nallamala forests.
Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra,
Tuberous geophyte, 20-30 cm tall. Tuber globose, 1-2cm across. Leaves alternate, lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 5-10 × 1.5-3.5cm, margin entire. Flowers greenish, 1.5-2cm long, on 15-20 cm long terminal lax spike. Bracts ovate-lanceolate. Sepals 3, oblique, similar attached to the top of the ovary. Petals 6, greenish, entire, linear, lip spurred, 3 lobed, mid lobe narrow and longer than laterals. Pollinia enclosed in tubes. Ovary inferior, 3 lobed, oblong. Capsule curved and beaked; seeds many, dusty.  

Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., 

Terrestrial geophyte;tubers oblong,flowers greenish-white, on spikes;sepals subequal,laterals falcately oblong; petals linear lanceolate, lip much longer,flabelliform, 3 lobed,midlobe longer,linear, spur very slender; column short, rostellum broad, triangular,stigmatic process clavate; anthers clavate fused to column, 2 loculed.

In moist areas along the coast.

Habenaria ramayyana Ram.Chary & J.J.Wood
Terrestrial geophyte; leaves narrowly elliptic, margin pilose;flowers purplish-white on terminal rcemes;petals bipartite, lip 3 lobed, laterals filiform, mid lobe deflexed; spur narrowly cyllindical, column short.
Rare in moist deciduous forests of Mahaboobnagar.

Habenaria rariflora A.Rich., 
Terrestrial geophyte;leaves usu.3;flowers white, 1-3 in short racemes; lateral sepals subfalcate; petals 2 partite,lip 3 lobed,laterals filiform;spur longer than the ovary,upcurved; anther large,theca parallel, upcurved; rostellum erect slender, stigmatic processes clavate.
Common in Chittor district.

Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, 
Tuberous geophyte; leaves  2-3 in a rosette, orbicular, flat appressed on the ground, fleshy, waxy, glaucous.Flowers white on a simple spike;petals linear, lip 3 lobed, mid lobe narrower; spur slender and linger,clavate at tip; anther cells divergent; stigmatic processes subglobose; rostellum short, triangular.

Common through out the state.

Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
Epiphtye; stem stout; leaves 1-4, margins subundulate; flowers small, ochacceous marked with purple on a slender scape; petals broader than petals, lip with a saccate spur; sidelobes longer, large;midlobe obovate, emarginated; with a ligule, and forked2-awned; column elongate with a narrow wing.
In semi evergreen forests of coastal districts.
Pseudobulb geophyte or epiphyte; leaves >1,often jointed on the sheath;flowers mnute, resupinate on terminal racemes; sepals recurved;petals very slender;lip adnate to the base of the column; deflexed from the base,or recurved; column incurved, margins winged; anthers terminal, pollinia 4.
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl., 
Pseudobulb geophyte; leaves 2-5, lanceolate; flowers greenish pink, on angular scapes, with racemes; lip subquadrate, recurved,tip truncate with minute apiculus,column incurved with 2 small rounded wings.
Rare on moist forest floor of SriSailam.
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl., 
Pseudobulb epiphyte;  pseudobulbs close together in a cyllindric; leaves2; elliptic lanceolate; flowers pale yellowish green, on racemes; sepals linear-oblong, subacute, petals linear, reflexed, lip as long as sepals, recurved, column short incurved.
In moist deciduous forests of Visakha patnam.
LUISIA Gaudich.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
Tufted epiphyte; sheathed roots vermiform; leaves spotted with purple; flowers greenish-yellow, in 2-3 flowered spikes; dorsal sepal linear-oblong; petals linear-oblong; lip green, spotted with purple, epichite dark purple,lip 3 lobed, deflexed, fleshy; column stout.
Rare in moist deciduous forests of Visakha patnam, Srikakulam districts.
NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudich
Tuberous geophytes; tubers cormlike, fleshy with ±short rots; stem gives rise inflorescence and a leaf in succession; horizontal, cordate, orbicular, often plicate; Flowers erect or nodding; medium-sized; resupinate or not; pedicel elongating in fruit in 1-flowered species; lip 3-lobed or occasionally simple, base spurless or spurred, apex entire or fimbriate. Column elongate, clavate, slender, not winged; anther terminal, incumbent, usually ovoid, 2-locular; pollinia 2, cleft, granular-farinaceous, sectile; caudicle absent; viscidium reduced or prominent; rostellum broad, entire, sometimes absent; stigmatic surface shield-shaped to orbicular, lying below rostellum.
Nervilia aragoana Gaudichaud 
Leaf broadly cordate, margin undulate; peduncle green or purple, with 3-5 tubular sheaths; floral bracts reflexed; raceme  4-15-flowered; flowers yellowish green; resupinate, usually opening widely, emitting an unpleasant odor; lip villous on purplish veins;  column white, apex dilated; stigma suborbicular.
Rare in hills of E.Godavari
Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden
Leaf cordate, with 7 main veins, with fine white reticulate venation, inflorescence 1-flowered; flower not resupinate; lip with a yellowish patch at the centre, apical margin irregularly lacerate.
Rare in hills of E.Godavari
Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schlechter

Leaf cordate, sometimes with purple or yellowish blotches,  pubescent on main veins; raceme 2-flowered; flowers nodding, resupinate, usually opening widely;lip 3 lobed,  brownish tinged yellow at center and with purplish brown venation; mid lobe longitudinally folded at apex, slightly emarginated.
In hills of E.Godavari and Visakhapatnam.
Epiphytic herbs. Stems clustered, enclosed in leaf bases; . Leaves iridiform and unifacial, rarely terete, often fleshy, distichous, usually equitant,; Flowers on unbranched racemes; often in whorls on peduncle; not resupinate, flat, very small, usually only 1-2 mm in diam.; ovary glabrous or papillate; lip usually spreading, sessile, entire or lobed, margin sometimes erose or fimbriate, occasionally concave at base, with or without calli, spur absent; lateral lobes often embracing column. Column erect, short, lacking a foot, wings usually absent; anther cap terminal, firmly attached to column apex, 2-locular; pollinia 4, cohering in 2 unequally sized pairs, waxy; viscidium absent or abbreviated; stigma transversely reniform to ovate; rostellum protruding.
Oberonia arnottiana Wight
Leaves linear, ensiform; scape terete, raceme slender;flowers pale yellowish green, short pedicelled;lateral lobes of lip large, midlobe narrow with diverging lobes;
Rare, in moist hills of E.Godavari, and VSKP
Oberonia brunoniana Wight.
Leaves linear, oblong; scape adnate to the upper leaf, 2 edged;flowers pale yellow in dense stiff spikes; Lip brown, cordate at base,apex 2 lobed; not toothed.
Rare in semi-evergreen forests of E.Godavari.
Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley,
Tufted, pendulous; leaves coriaceous, acuminate; flowers yellow, minute, in dense interrupted spikes; petals reflexed, gland dotted; pubescent with blackish stiff bristles; lip with a callus at either side of sinus
Frequent in moist deciduous forests in Eastgodavari and VSKP and VJN districts.
Oberonia falconeri J. D. Hooker,
 Leaves falcate; flowers greenish yellow,in dense racemes; petals oblong-ovate, falcate;floral bracts with a long apical awn; lip greenish yellow 3 lobed, column yellow.
Rare in Rampa hills of E.Godavari and VSKP districts.
Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenfaden
Raceme densely flowered, flowers reddish brown, with several hundred flowers borne less than 1 mm apart from each other; lip broadly ovate or suborbicular base decurrent backward, inconspicuously 3-lobed, margin irregularly incised or fimbriate.
Frequent in moist deciduous forests in Eastgodavari and VSKP and VJN districts.
Paplionanthe teres (Roxb.)Schltr.
Epiphyte;stem slender;leaves teret,slender; flowers white or rose in 2-6 flowered ,axillary, racemes; petals large; lip yellowish-brown,spotted and lined with red and purplish brown; side lobes elliptic, mid lobe clawed,deeply bifid; spur funnel shaped;anther 2 celled; pollinia 2, didynamous.
Rare in VSKP district
Courtesy  image by Bimal Sar kar
Pecteilis gigantea (J.E.Smith)Rafin
Geophyte; stem leafy up to inflorescence; leaves ovate, upper sheathing; bracts leafy; flowers white, fragrant, in 3-6 flowered racemes;petals linear, acute;3 lobed, side lobes flabellate, deeply pectinate,midlobe linear;spathulate, spur twice as long as ovary; anther very broad, pollinia linear.
In moist hill slopes of East Godavari district.
PERISTYLUS Blume  nom cons
Tuberous geophyte; Leaves basal, clustered midway along stem or widely spaced; Flowers spirally arranged, resupinate, small; ovary and pedicel usually erect and held close to rachis, twisted,;  Sepals free; mid one erect, lateral spreading; petals white, slightly fleshy; lip 3 lobed, connate with column at base; column very stout, erect; anther with 2 parallel or slightly divergent locules; pollinia 2; stigmatic lobes 2, adnate to the base of lip.
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley
Geophyte; stem stout, covered with sheaths below; leaves elliptic-oblong, flowers yellowish green in dense spikes;sepals unequal; petals obovate rounded; strongly nervedlip without a claw, 3 fid; pollinia clavate, rostellum erect toothed.
In moist deciduous forests of Nallamali hills.
Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley
Tubers cylindric oblong; roots fleshy;stem covered by loosesheaths; leaves oblong-lanceolate;flowers greenish white, in racemes; petals and lip white; petals broad,obliquely orbicular;  nerves branched;tips recurved;lip 3 lobed;rostellum short, stout.
In moist hill forests of E.Godavari.
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Pendulous epiphytic herb; pseudobulb aggragated; leaf solitaryelliptic-lanceolate;flowers small  pinkish in terminal drooping racemes; floral bracts pale brown; sepals and petals free; lip entire with ornamental callus; column winged, stigmatic lobes 3,  surface funnel shaped.
Rare in hilly tracts of Godavari, VSKP, and Srikakulam district.
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
Epiphyte;leaves narrowly oblong; scape compressed, rachis angular; Flowers small, purple on racemes;petals much smaller, very narrow, lip broadly oblong,3 lobed, mid lobe tongue shaped;column short.
Rare in moist deciduous hillforests of VSKP.
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.
Small epiphytes; leaves many distichous, narrow, leathery; flowers small, ±resupinate; Lip firmly attached to column, immovable, fleshy, shortly spurred or saccate, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, deltoid, small; mid-lobe often recurved; Column short, stout, foot absent;  rostellum large, hamulate, ± bifid; pollinia 4.
Pomatocalpa mannii(Rchb.f.)J.J.Smith.
Flowers yellow, flushed with red;bracts minute; side lobes of lip indistinct; spur saccate;slightly inflated at apex;
Rare in semi evergreen shaded hilly  forests of VSKP
Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.
Floral bracts acuminate; flowers yellow, paillose;lip mid-lobe narrower than spur; rostellum beaked.
Rare in semi evergreen shaded hilly  forests of Palakonda.
Rhyncostylis retusa(L.)Blume,
Small epiphyte; lower parts leafless; leaves strap shaped; recurved; flowers white tinged with violet pink; on drooping racemes; bracts cordate; lip 3 lobed, clawed,middle lobe elongated; cuneiform;spur saccate;rostellum shortly beaked.
Rare in E.Godavari and VSKP 
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tuberous, unbranched geophyte; leaves few, very variable; flowers pink and fragrant  on many flowered dense spikes;  bracts much larger than the flowers; lip broadly oblong, keeled, variable; spur is also variable; column erect, terete.
Rare in the hills of E.Godavari
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume
Geophyte; leaves elliptic ovate; flowers small, white on peduncled spikes; bracts linear spreading;sepals enclosing the spur and lip; lip oblong, spur cylindric, column short.

Rare in hilly tracts of E.Godavari

VANDA W.Jones ex.R.Brown.

Vanda tessellata Hook ex. G.Don

Epihytes; leafy monopodial stems. Inflorescence axillary, racemose. Flowers brownish, showy, ; P 3+3, similar, clawed, brown; spur conical 3 lobed, blue; column cyllindric, short, pollinia 2. 

In almost all districts.

The roots have medicinal properties. Vega badanika,వేగబదనిక  kodikalla chettu కోడికళ్ళచెట్టు    (Tel.) 
I thank Bimal Sar kar for providing excellent images of Orchids for the blog
Vanda tasellata
HYPOXIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons
Stem ± cormose to rhizomatous, leaf bases persisting, contractile roots common; velamen +, leaves 3-ranked, vernation plicate;sheaths also closed; inflorescence various, scapose, axis compressed; (flowers 2-merous),A 3+3;ovary inferior, (apical beak +), septal nectaries 0, (placentation parietal - Empodium), stigmas commissural, ± 3-radiate, dry or wet; ovules few to many/carpel, apotropous, (micropyle zigzag), fruit dehiscing laterally,; seeds globose n = 6-9, 11, embryo short, ± undifferentiated.
AMARYLLIDACEAE J. Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.  
 Leaves two-ranked; inflorescence scapose, umbellate, construction cymose, with scarious spathe, inflorescence bracts 2 (or more - external); pedicels not articulated; (T free); (A connate basally), (tapetal cells uninucleate); style long; lectins +.

Yucca gloriosa L. Spanish dagger, Adam’s needle, Mound lily.(Eng.)
Dracena varieties are cultivated as ornamental plants through out the district in Offices and houses for the attractive shapes and colors of the leaves
Plant woody, unbranched, growth monopodial; vessels also in stem and leaf; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets, stomata tetracytic; leaves spiral,massive, vernation reduplicate-plicate, pinnately pseudocompound, petiolate, with closed sheath; flowers ± sessile; septal nectaries +; ovule 1/carpel, apotropous, sessile, attachment broad; seeds large [>1 cm long].
ARECACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons.//Palmae Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   
Arecaceae can be recognised by their woody stems, large, tough, petiolate leaves with plicate and often apparently compound blades,plant often monoecious; axillary inflorescences, with bicarinate prophyll,with numerous flowers,   and 1-seeded fruits.
Borassus flabellifer L.,తాటి, తాడి, తాళము   
Calamus rotang L., పేము Calamus viminalis Willd.,
Caryota urens L.,జీలుగ 
Cocos nucifera L.,కొబ్బరి, టెంకాయలు  
DYPSIS Noronha ex Mart.,
Dypsis lutescens (Wendl.) Beentje & Dransf.,(cultivated)
Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Palm oil tree)
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth,కొండీత  Phoenix pusilla Gaertn.,చిట్టీత  Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb., ఈత 
Sub family: Calamoideae Beilschmied
Plant spiny; flowers in dyads;pollen equatorially disulcate - Calameaestyle branched; fruit covered by reflexed scales, seeds 1-3.
Calamus rotang L.,
Armed scandant shrub in marshy areas, stem ringed at nodes; Spadix  axillary, elongate up to 1m, branched, polygamodioecious flowers.
As large mats in drier coastal areas.It is used to make cane furniture and leaflets for making mats. Fruit pulp is edible. Pemu పేము (Tel.) Rattan’s palm(Eng.) 
Calamus thickets
Calamus viminalis Willd.
A stout scrambling and climbing plant; basal leaflets fascicled near base; fruit beaked.
Common in North coastal districts. 
Sub family: Coryphoideae Burnett

Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermalraphides 0; P = K + C; style well developed, stigmas small,endosperm nuclear, ; cotyledon hyperphyllar.
TYPHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Typha domingensis Pers.,
ERIOCAULACEAE Martinov, nom. cons.
Eriocaulon sollyanum Royle, Eriocaulon minutum Hook.f., Eriocaulon ritchieanum Ruhland(Seshachalam Hills)
CYPERACEAE Juss. nom.cons.
ACTINOSCIRPUS (Ohwi) R. W. Haines & Lye,
Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh. & D.A.Simpson, (syn.  Schoenoplectus grossus(L.f.) Palla; Scirpus grossus L.f.);  
BOLBOSCHOENUS (Aschers.) Palla,
Bolboschoenus glaucus (Lam.) S.G.Sm., Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, BULBOSTYLIS Kunth.,
Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke, Bulbostylis densa (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz., 
Courtoisina cyperoides (Roxb.) Soják(Rare in Kurnool, Ananthapur, VSKP)
Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb.,Cyperus alulatus Kern, Cyperus alternifolius L., Cyperus arenarius Retz., Cyperus articulatus L., Cyperus bifax Clarke, Cyperus bulbosus Vahl, Cyperus castaneus Willd.,  Cyperus clarkei T.Cooke, Cyperus compactus Retz., Cyperus compressus L., Cyperus corymbosus Rottb., Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth, Cyperus difformis L., Cyperus diffusus Vahl,  Cyperus digitatus Roxb., Cyperus distans L.f., Cyperus dubius Rottb., Cyperus elatus L., Cyperus esculentus L., Cyperus exaltatus Retz., Cyperus fuscus L., Cyperus haspan L., Cyperus imbricatus Retz., Cyperus iria L., Cyperus javanicus Houtt., Cyperus laevigatus L., Cyperus leucocephalus Retz.,Cyperus meeboldii Kuk., Cyperus michelianus subsp. pygmaeus (Rottb.) Asch. & Graebn. Cyperus niveus Retz., Cyperus nutans Vahl, Cyperus pangorei Rottb., Cyperus paniceus (Rottb.) Boeckeler, Cyperus pilosus Vahl, Cyperus platyphyllus Roem.&Schult., Cyperus platystylis R.Br., Cyperus procerus Rottb., Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperus rubicundus Vahl, Cyperus squarrosus L., Cyperus stoloniferus Retz., Cyperus strigosus  L., Cyperus tenuispica Steud., Cyperus tuberosus Rottb.,
Eleocharis  acutangula (Roxb.)Schult., Eleocharis  atropurpurea (Retz.)Presl., Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis swamyii Govind.,
Fimbristylis acuminate Vahl, Fimbristylis aestivalis (Retz.) Vahl, Fimbristylis argentea (Rottb.) Vahl, Fimbristylis bisumbellata (Forssk.) Bubani, Fimbristylis cinnamometorum (Vahl) Kunth(Seshachalam hils), Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link, Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br., Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl, Fimbristylis eragrostis (Nees) Hance,  Fimbristylis falcata (Vahl) Kunth, Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl,Fimbristylis ferruginea subsp. sieberiana (Kunth) Lye, Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich., Fimbristylis nutans (Retzius) Vahl,  Fimbristylis ovata (Burm.f.) J.Kern, Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retzius) R. Brown,  Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth, Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl, Fimbristylis tenera Schult., Fimbristylis tetragona R. Brown, 
Fuirena ciliaris (L.) Roxb., Fuirena umbellata Rottb., Fuirena uncinata (Willd.) Kunth,
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Kyllinga bulbosa P.Beauv., Kyllinga melanosperma Nees
 Kyllinga nemoralis (J. R. Forster & G. Forster) Dandy ex Hutchinson & Dalziel, Kyllinga odorata Vahl, Kyllinga tenuifolia Steud.,
Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J.Kern, Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G. C. Tucker, Lipocarpha squarrosa (L.) Goetgheb.,
Pycreus diander (Torr.) C.B.Clarke, Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama, Pycreus polystachyos (Rottb.) P.Beauv., Pycreus pumilus (L.) Nees, Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees, Pycreus stramineus C.B.Clarke 
Remirea maritima Aubl.
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton,
Queenslandiella hyalina (Vahl) Ballard,
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla, Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla,
Schoenoplectiella juncoides (Roxb.) Lye, Schoenoplectiella supina (L.) Lye
SCLERIA P. J. Bergius,
Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw., Scleria corymbosa Roxb., Scleria oblata S.T.Blake ex J.Kern , Scleria terrestris (L.) Fassett 

POACEAE Barnhart, nom. cons.//GRAMINEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   Leaves long, sheaths open and ligules at the sheath-lamina junction; often hollow stems/culms, basic unit is a spikelet in the inflorescences . Individual flowers are small, lacking an obvious perianth and with a gynoecium that usually has two plumose stigmas and a single ovule. In the dry, achenial fruit (often called a caryopsis), embryo large, lateral, lying next to the seed coat.
ACRACHNE Wight&Arn. ex Chi.,
Acrachne racemosa (Heyne ex Roem.&Schult.)Ohwi,
Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Thw.,
ALLOTEROPSIS J.S.Presl ex C.B.Presl,
Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf,
Andropogon pumilus Roxb.,
Apluda mutica L.,
Apocopis courtallumensis (Steud.)Henry, (Godavari), Apocopis vaginata Hack.,
Aristida adscensionis L., Aristida funiculata Trin. &Rupr., Aristida hystrix L.f., Aristida mutabilis Trin. & Rupr., Aristida setacea Retz.,చీపురు గడ్డి 
Arthraxon hispidus  (Thunb.)Makino, (Godavari, VSKP),Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst., Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. Var. echinatus(Nees)Hack., Arthraxon lancefolius (Trin.)Hochst.,
Arundinella  benghalensis (Spr.)Druce,(VSKP), Arundinella  ciliata (Roxb.)Nees ex Miq., Arundinella pumila ( Hochst.) Steud.,Nallamala, Godavari dist.,  Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud.,(Rare in Nallamala), Arundinella setosa Trin., Arundinella setosa Trin. Var. lanifera Fischer, Arundinella nervosa (Roxb.) Nees ex Hook. & Arn.(Seshachalam hills)
Arundo donax L.,కాకి వెదురు 
Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.,(Chittoor, E.Godavari)
BAMBUSA Schreber nom.cons,
Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss,ముళ్లవెదురు   Bambusa tulda Roxb.,
Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A.Camus,
Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf, Brachiaria  eruciformis (J.E.Smith)Griseb, Brachiaria kurzii (Hook.f.)Camus, Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf, Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf, Brachiaria remota (Retz.) Haines, Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb.,
Cenchrus biflorus Roxb., Cenchrus ciliaris L., Cenchrus echinatus L.,  Cenchrus setigerus Vahl,
Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.,
Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) Thw.,
Chloris barbata Sw.,ఉప్పుగడ్డి   Chloris bournei Rang. & Tadul., Chloris gayana Kunth, Chloris montana Roxb. , Chloris roxburghiana Schult., Chloris virgata Sw.
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.)Trin., Chrysopogon asper B.Heyne ex Blatt. & McCann, Sci. Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf, Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov.,  Chrysopogon lancearius (Hook.f.) Haines (Godavari), Chrysopogon orientalis (Desv.) A.Camus, Chrysopogon polyphyllus (Hack. ex Hook.f.)Blatt &McCann, Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin.,(E.Godavari), Chrysopogon velutinus (Hook.f)Bor., Chrysopogon verticillatus (Roxb.)Trin. ex Steud., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty,
Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight &Arn. ex Steud.)Munro ex Benth.,(Only in VSKP)
COELACHYRUM Hochst. & Nees, 
Coelachyrum lagopoides (Burm.f.) Senaratna,
Coix aquatica Roxb.,(Kurnool), Coix lacryma-jobi L.,(Godavari, VSKP)
Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Stapf, Cymbopogon citratus (Hook.f.)Stapf,(Cultivated)నిమ్మ గడ్డి  Cymbopogon coloratus (Hook.f.) Stapf, బోదగడ్డి  Cymbopogon flexuousus (Nees ex Steud)Stapf, Cymbopogon gidarba (Ham. ex Steud.)Haines,  Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W.Watson, Cymbopogon nardus (L.)Rendle,(Cultivated)
CYNODON Richard,
Cynodon barberi Rang.&Tad.,  Cynodon dactylon (L.) Persoon,గరిక 
Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf, Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.)Camus,
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.,
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.)Nees,వెదురు 
Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf,దర్భగడ్డి  
Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Dichanthium  aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb., Dichanthium  caricosum (L.)Camus, Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty, Dichanthium glabrum (Roxb.)Jain, Dichanthium pseudoischaemum (Nees ex Steud.)Jain,
Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, Digitaria  longiflora(Retz.) Pers.,  Digitaria stricta Roth ex Roem. & Schult., (Rare), Digitaria tomentosa (Willd.)Henry,
Dinebra retroflexa(Vahl) Panz.,
Dimeria lehmannii (Steud.)Hack.,(Seshachalam hills)
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv., Echinochloa frumentacea Link,ఊదర్లు  Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) Beauv.,
Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.,రాగి, తైదలు   Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.,
ENNEAPOGON Desv. ex P.Beauv.,
Enneapogon persicus Boiss.,
Enteropogon dolichostachyus (Lag.) Keng,
Eragrostiella bifaria (Vahl) Bor, Eragrostiella brachyphylla(Stapf)Bor,  
Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn., Eragrostis aspera (Jacq.) Nees,  Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud., Eragrostis  cilianensis (Ali.) Vign., Eragrostis ciliaris (L.)R.Br.,  Eragrostis ciliata(Roxb.) Nees,  Eragrostis coarctata Stapf,  Eragrostis deccanensis Bor.,  Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult.) Steud.,   Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.)Steud.,  Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.)Trin.,  Eragrostis minor Host, Eragrostis nigra Nees ex Steudel, Eragrostis  papposa(Roem. & Schult.,) Steud., Eragrostis patula (Kunth) Steud., Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv., Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees, Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Eragrostis  tremula (Hochst.) Steud., Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin., 
Eremopogon foveolatus (Del.) Stapf,
Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C. E. Hubb.,
Eulalia phaeothrix (Hackel) Kuntze, Eulalia trispicata (Schult.)Henry(Nallamal hills)
Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.)C.E.Hubb., (Rare in Godavari, VSKP, Srikakulam)
Garnotia tenella (Arn. ex Miq.) Janowski,
 Hackelochloa granularis (L.) O. Ktze.,
Hemarthria compressa (L.f) R.Br.,
Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.,
Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees,
Hymenachne pseudointerrupta C.Muell.,
Ichnanthus  vicinus (Bailey)Merr.,
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.,
Isachne globosa (Thunb.)O.Ktze., Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schult.,(Godavari, VSKP)
Ischaemum  indicum (Houtt.)Merr., Ischaemum  pilosum (Klein ex Willd.)Wight, Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.,
Iseilema anthephoroides Hack., Iseilema laxum Hack., Iseilema venkateswarluii Satyavathi, (Endemic)
LEERSIA Solander ex Swartz nom.cons.,
Leersia hexandra Sw.,
Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth, Leptochloa neesii (Thwaites) Benth.,  Leptochloa  panacea (Retz.) Ohwi,
Lophopogon tridentatus (Roxb.) Hack.,
Manisuris myurus L.,
Melanocenchris jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach, Melanocenchris monoica (Rottl.)Fischer,
Microchloa kunthii Desv.,
Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.)Camus,
Mnesithea grannularis(L.)Koneing &Sosef,  Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth,
MYRIOSTACHYA (Benth.)Hook.f.,
Myriostachya wightiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.f.,
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka,
Oplismenus  burmanii (Retz.) Beauv., Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv.,కొండ గడ్డి 
 Oropetium  roxburghianum (Steud.)S.M.Philips (Very rare), Oropetium thomaeum(L.f.) Trin.,
Oryza  meyeriana (Zollin. &Mor.) Baill, Oryza  officinalis Wall ex  Watt. (Restricted to Gundla Brahmeswaram),, Oryza  rufipogon Griff.,ఎర్రవడ్లు ,Oryza sativa L.,వరి 
Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy,
Panicum brevifolium L., Panicum fischeri Bor, Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum miliaceum L.,కొర్రలు  Panicum notatum Retz.,  Panicum  paludosum Roxb., Panicum psilopodium Trin., Panicum repens L., Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult.,  Panicum trypheron Schult., Panicum walense Mez.,   
Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus, Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) Camus,
Paspalum distichum L., Paspalum scorbiculatum L.,  Paspalum vaginatum Sw.,
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., సజ్జలు  Pennisetum hohenackeri Hochst. Ex Steud.,  Pennisetum pedicellatum  Trin., Pennisetum  polystachyon (L.) Schult., Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Pennisetum setosum Schum.,
Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze,
Phalaris minor Retz.,
Phragmites karka (Ret­z.) Trin. ex Steud.,
Pogonatherum crinatum(Thunb.)Kunth, Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.)Hack.,
Pommereulla cornucopiae L.f.,
Pseudanthistiria heteroclita (Roxb.) J. D. Hooker,(New record) Pseudanthistiria umbellata (Hack)Hook,
Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Bor.)Camus,
Pseudoraphis spinescence (R.Br.)Vickery(Aqatic grass)
Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) Camus,
ROTTBOELLIA L.f.,        
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton,
Saccharum officinarum L.,చెఱకు  Saccharum spontaneum L.,రెల్లుగడ్డి  
 Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase,  Sacciolepis interupta (Willd.) Stapf,
Sehima nervosum (Rottler) Stapf, Sehima  sulcatum (Hack.)Camus,
SETARIA P. Beauv.,
Setaria  intermedia Roem. & Schult., Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., Setaria palmifolia (Koen.)Sapf.,  Setaria  paniculifera (Steud.)Fourn. ex Hemsl., Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv.,
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench,జొన్నలు  Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., Sorghum nitidum  (Vahl) Pers.,
Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr.,రావణాసురిడిమీసాలు  
Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P. Beauv., Sporobolus capillaris Miq., Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.)Kunth, Sporobolus maderaspatanus Bor, Sporobolus pilifreous (Trin.)Kunth, Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl)Kunth, Sporobolus tremulus (Willd.)Kunth, Sporobolus virginicus (L.)Kunth, Sporobolus wallichi Munro ex Trin,
 THEMEDA Forrsk.,
Themeda  arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl., Themeda laxa (Anderss.)Camus, Themeda quadrivalis (L.) O.Ktze., Themeda tremula (Nees ex Steud) Hack., Themeda trianda Forrsk., Themeda cymbaria Hack.(Seshachalam Hills)
Tetrapogon tenellus (Roxb.) Chiov., Tetrapogon villosus Desf.,
Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O.Ktze., (E.Godavari, VSKP)
Trachys muricata (L.)Pers., ex Trin.,
TRAGUS Heller nom.cons.,
Tragus roxburghii Panigrahi,
Tripogon  bromides Roem. & Schult., Tripogon jacquemontii Stapf, Tripogon wightii Hook.f ,
Tripsacum laxuma Nash, (Rare in Araku valley)
Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv., Urochloa setigera (Retz.) Stapf,
Zea mays L.,మొక్క జొన్న 
ZOYSIA Willd.,
Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.,
Xyris capensis  Thunb., Xyris pauciflora Willd., (Visakha patnam and Chittoor dist)
Juncus prismatocarpus R.Br., in Araku valley.

COMMELINACEAE Mirbel, nom. Cons
Commelina attenuata K.D.Koenig ex Vahl, Commelina benghalensis L.,సహదేవి,వెన్నదేవి కూర    Commelina caroliniana Walter,( Syn. Commelina hasskarlii C.B.Clarke), Commelina clavata C.B.Clarke, Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Commelina ensifolia R.Br., Commelina erecta L., Commelina hirsuta (Wight)Clarke, (Rare in Kurnool), Commelina maculata Edgew., Commelina paludosa Blume,  Commelina petersii Hassk.,( Syn. Commelina jacobii C.E.C.Fisch.Commelina persicariifolia Wight ex C.B.Clarke)
Cyanotis D. Don,
Cyanotis arachnoidea C. B. Clarke, Cyanotis arcotensis Rolla Rao,   Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D. Don ex Sweet, Cyanotis cristata (L.) D. Don, Cyanotis cucullata (Roth)Kunth, Cyanotis fasciculata (B.Heyne ex Roth) Schult. & Schult.f., Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult.f.,
Floscopa scandens Lour.,
Murdannia Royle,
Murdannia  dimorpha (Dalz.)Brueckner, Murdannia nudiflora (L.)Brenan, Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn., Murdannia striatipetala Faden, Murdannia vaginata (L.) G.Brückn.,
Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden
Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt, Tradescantia spathacea Sw.,( Syn. Rhoeo discolor (L'Hér.) Hance.
PONTEDERIACEAE Kunth, nom. cons. 
Eichhornia Kunth,
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms,గుఱ్ఱపుడెక్క,   
Monochoria C. Presl,
 Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) C.Presl,

Rhopalephora scaberrima (Bl.)Faden
Puberulous,stout herb;leaves scattered;lanceolate, hispid above, glabrous below, sheaths with a hispid mouth; panicles with long slender peduncles, and branches, bracts persistent; corolla white;capsule globose pubescent.
Flower of Rhopalephora 
VSKP and E.Godavari districts.
Costus speciousus (Koen.) Smith.కోష్ఠము  
MUSACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman.(Rare in VSKP)
 Musa paradisiaca L.,అరటి  Musa rosacea Jacq., (Rare in E.Godavari)
Ravenala madagascarensis Sonn., Cultivated as ornamental.
CANNACEAE A. L. Jussieu,
Canna indica L.,మెట్టతామర  
Curcuma amada Roxb.(Cultivated)మామిడల్లం  
Curcuma aromatica Salisb., (Rare in E.Godavari distకస్తూరి పసుపు, అడవిపసుపు   , Curcuma decipiens Dalz., (Rare in Godavari), Curcuma neilgherensis Wight,  Curcuma longa L.,పసుపు 
Alpina malaccensis (Burm.f)Roscoe (Visakapatnam, Godavari dist.,)
Globba marantina L., Globba ophioglossa Wight, Globba racemosa Smith., 
Hedychium coronarium Koen., Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe,

Zingiber officinale Rosc.,అల్లము  Zingiber capitatum Roxb., Zingiber purpureum Rosc., Zingiber roseum (Roxb.)Rosc.
Heliconium pendula Cultivated 

Musa rosacea Jacq. is rarely found in high altitudes in E.Godavari dist.
Stem slender, cyllindric;leaves linear oblong, thick;flowers in erect or drooping spikes; bracts lilac or reddish;basal flowers pistillate, upper staminate;fruit linear oblong,in the size of a finger, slightly incurved, 4-5 angled;seeds many black; fruit not edible.

Ravenala madagascarensis Sonn. is grown as an ornamental. 
Ravenala madagascarensis

Heliconiaceae are large herbs with two-ranked leaves and inflorescences with large, colored bracts in the axils of which are fascicles of flowers with petal-like tepals; the drupaceous fruit is borne on a stout, elongated pedicel and has a single hard stone per loculus.
Heliconium pendula is cultivated as an ornamental.
Heliconum flower

Curcuma amada cultivated for the rhizome
It is used as spice, edible. ginger(Eng.) Maamidi allamమామిడిఅల్లం(Tel.)
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Rhizomes palmately branched; deep yellow inside, aromaic; leaves often variegated; flowers pink, fragrant, shorter than bracts; corolla lip yellow deflexed. Wild turmeric(Eng.), Kasthuri pasupuకస్తూరిపసుపు (Tel.)
The tubers are used as medicine in Ayurveda for its antibacterial activity.
Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP districts and cultivated for the rhizomes in some medicinal plants gardens.
Curcuma aromatica inflorescence.

Curcuma longa L. Rhizomes orange and bright yellow; coma bracts white and green, sometimes tinged reddish purple; labellum yellowish with central, yellow band. Turmeric (Eng.); Pasupu పసుపు (Tel.) 
Used as spice,condiment, and medicine.
Widely cultivated in many districts for the rhizomes.
Globba marantina L., 
A slender  herb with creeping rhizome; leaves distichous, pubescent beneath;spikes terminal orange yellow,fragrant;buds some times replaced by bulbils;corolla yellow, tubular slender, longer than calyx, labellum bifid;lateral staminodes petaloid, stamen with a long 2 appendaged filament;style filiform
Occasional in moist localities through out the state. Dancing girl ginger, yellow dancing girl ginger(Eng.) 
Globba marantina -image from wickipedia; coutesy JMGarg.
Tuberous geophytes or epiphytes;Pseudostems erect, leafy. Ligule conspicuous;Inflorescence a terminal spike, densely numerous flowered, 1 flower per bract;bracteoles tubular;. Calyx tubular, usually split on 1 side; corolla slender tubular;. Lateral staminodes petaloid, larger than corolla lobes. Labellum suborbicular, large, apex usually 2-cleft; claw long or short. Filament usually long, rarely absent; anther dorsifixed, base divaricate; connective appendage absent. Ovary 3-loculed; placentation axile. Capsule globose, 3-valved. Seeds numerous; aril lacerate.
 Hedychium coronarium Koen
Tuberous hemicryptohyte; rhizome fleshy jointed. Flowers  white, fragrant in spikes; bracts imbricate;labellum broadely orbicular/subcordate, corolla lobes linear, equal;stamens shorter than lip, staminodes petaloid.
In moist localities in hilly areas of E.Godavari dist. Butterfly Ginger Lily, White Ginger Lily, Garland Flower(Eng.), Vasanthi,వాసంతి  pitchichiligaddaకిచ్చిలిగడ్డ(Tel.)
Grown as an ornamental also.
Zingiber capitatum Roxb.
Tuberous geophyte; spikes arise at the end of the leafy stem;bracts green with a brown margin;corolla tube pale yellowbasal auricle large and bright red.
rare in VSKP, Mahaboobnagar and Warangal districts.
Zingiber purpureum Rosc.
Large slender aromatic herb;root stock perennial, yellow inside; Spikes from the root stock, on long peduncles; bracts red or greenish red;pubescent.
Rare in some moist localities through out the state.
Zingiber roseum (Roxb.)Rosc.
A tall herb; spikes sessile arising from the root stock; bracts red; corolla tube red.
Rare in VSKP and E.Godavari hills at high altitudes.
  Aquatic herbs; roots 0; vascular cambium 0;  stomata 0; leaves opposite, lamina margins spiny-toothed; plant monoecious; flowers extra-axillary, alternating with leaves; anthers extrorse, arrangement unclear.G-1 , ovule 1/carpel, endosperm 0, embryo large.
Fragile alga like herb. Leaves whorled, spiny-toothed, often dichotomously-branched; flowers small, sessile; and achenes spiny.
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Only genus with the chatacters of the family.
Rare, in unpolluted waters throughout the state. Hornwort, rigid hornwort, coontail, or coon's tail(Eng.)
Ceratophyllum demersum
It is published in 4 volumes, Ist post/volume includes, Nymphaeles, Magnoliales, Laurales, Piperales, Acorales, Alismatales, Dioscorales, Pandanales, Liliales, Asparagales, Arecales, Poales, Commelinales, Zingebarales and Ceratophyllales 
Post/Volume 2 include Ranunculales to Fabales
Volume 3- include Rosales to Ericales 
The remaining in Volume 4
Thank you for the encouragement and support.
continued... Eudicots in the next post- visit the next post
Copyright @A.lalithamba.
It is under construction; To be continued .....
The authors are A.Lalithamba Rtd.Lecturer in Botany(Her other bloglist is given below) and D.C.S.RAJU. FLS.;For his works and history of plant taxonomy please visit 


  1. Wonderful information, let me tell you, your website gives the best and the most interesting information. This is just the kind of information that i had been looking for, Thanks a ton once again, Regards, muslim baby names

  2. Thank you Sir. Your work is invaluable and is required in todays world with all the health misseries and worries. Please keep up with the same spirit to extend the list of other hebs/plants/trees. Without this translated and pictorial information it is quite difficult to acquire much of the ayurvedic raw materials.

    Thank you once again.

  3. thank you Sir, interesting information.

  4. can you give me the location of neeli kaluva - i promice to take only a few tubers ( less than 10 )