Friday, November 16, 2012

Flora Andhrika-Plant wealth of Andhra Pradesh

Taxonomy has a major role in interpreting the knowledge base of Globosphere. The aim of this attempt is to make information very accessible and flexible. Preparation of Floristic accounts and databases are also vital for providing taxonomic knowledge to the people. The role of taxonomist   is crucial in the identification of the biological diversity. With fast depleting biological resources and increasing habitat changes from national level down to  the micro level of ecological  niches of fragile environments  there is an immediate need for application of newer tools to aid traditional methods. It is useful in storaging the morphological repositories which are essential for universal availability of raw data of descriptive taxonomy.With  advent television, remote sensing, mobile communication etc and mapping of our resources it  has become easy to digitize information.  The digital libraries through out the world take advantages of computers in the form of desktop or tablets to map any plant or animal of smallest area and provide information to every one at any place in shortest time. An attempt is made is here to explain the benefits of using computers in botanical studies particularly in utilization of data for the conservation of plant resources of Andhra Pradesh.
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh);  the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where  Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795).
JGKoenig described many plants used in Indian Medicine. He is considered as the founder of Indian Botany. Many plant species are named in his honour, Eg.,  Chionachne koenigii
JG Koenig
 W.Roxburgh is considered as the father of Indian Taxonomy, began his work in A.P only. Many plant species are named in his honour, Eg.,Oropetium  roxburghianum,  Capparis roxburghii,  endemic to A.P
William Roxburgh

The  Flora Andhrica is the title of the book by Walter Elliot FLS who spent five years in Telugu districts of Northern Circars of erstwhile Madras Presidency.He included the names of plants in Telugu and English.
Walter Elliot
He consulted Sabdartha Kalpataruvu by Mamidipudi Venkayya Sreshti of Masulipatam and compiled the Telugu names of flowering plants  and their Latin names following binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus adopted in India by Koenig. 
Colonel Richard Henry Beddome (11 May 1830 – 23 February 1911) extensively surveyed several remote and then-unexplored hill ranges in India and Sri Lanka, which include Eastern Ghats,  he explored Nallamala Hills, and Visakha patnam hills in A.P. Many plant species were named after him as an honour. Eg. Cycas beddomei is endemic to Seshachalam Hills of Andhra Pradesh. 
 The British Surgeons William Roxburgh ,Buchanan-Hamilton( Francis Hamilton who is successor of Roxburgh and Konig. He was with Tipu at Bangalore. He was first Surveyor at Barack pore, Cal. 
He acted for Roxburgh on leave at Gdn. He became Buchanan Hamilton and retired in 1815.), Wight, Cleghorn, Beddome, Lushington and many pioneers studied  our plant wealth leading to publication of  Plants of  the Coast of Coromandel in 1795 and Flora Indica in 1820 followed by Hookers Flora of British India in 1872-97.
Buchanan Hamilton 
Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn (9 August 1820 – 16 May 1895) sometimes known as the father of scientific forestry in India,made collections from A.P.
 Botanical Survey of India brought out Flora of India vol-1 in 1993 coinciding with bicentenary of Col Robert Kyd the founder of Botanic garden at Calcutta.
An English Index to plants of India by H.Piddington in 1832  he compiled a list of the plants of economic importance, gives names of plants in Bengali, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Cyngalese and Nawar languages known at the time of publication of 3rd vol of Flora  Indica by Roxburgh posthumously. Sir Walter Elliot,F.R.S.
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at Visakhapatnam, he learnt Telugu names of plants, so he named Andhrica. He mentioned Yanadi of Nellore, Chenchus of Guntur, Koyas of Rajamandry and Konda Doras of Vizagpatam as ancient people of Gondwana land with fossils, fuels and primitive cultures. Ayurveda and Herbal folklore  and traditional usage of plants in Eastern Ghats, Coramandel Coast and Deccan Plateau with common script for over 13 centuries since the visit of Huensong and Telugu usage enabled the European Physicians to describe our native plants and their uses known to world in modern languages.

Robert Wight (6 July 1796 – 26 May 1872) made extensive collections from southern India from 1826 to 1828. His collection consisted of specimens from around Madras up to Vellore and from Samalkota and Rajahmundry,
in Andhra Pradesh. many plant species are named in his honour Eg., Clematis wightiana 
Robert Wight

A.W.Lushington(1915) - Conservator of forests who worked at Madgole hills of Visakhapatnam published a  a book named Vernacular list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency, with all local names  in all languages  spoken in the presidency. 
 Rampa agency in Rajahmandry became the  source for Garden of East India Company and included in Flora Indica. Dr.J.G.Koenig, Dr Roxburgh and Dr.Patrick Russel are  visitors to Pulicat lake, Nagari Hills, Tirupati, Kakinada, Annavaram and Simhachalam temples too and so made plant collections as pioneers in plant science. These European surgeons had good friendly relations with local land-lords and indeed much liked by some ancient families leading to progress of English usage.
M.S.Ramaswamy (Rampa hills, Velugonda hills), V.Narayana swamy (Rampa hills and Gudem agency), V.Venkateswarlu, R.S.Rao, N.P.Balakrishnan, G.V.Subba Rao, A.R.K.Shastry etal, of BSI are some of the contributors of Flora of Andhra Pradesh. The formation of linguistic states in  Indian Republic and adoption of Telugu as official language and making it compulsory for communication it is obvious  that digital applications for use of desirable botanical data is made accessible to common man and students in particular to know our plants with help of images and simple easily understandable documents.Hence the Flora Andhrika  as title for Blog/Page/Docs for Google users is chosen here with a view to revise old classics with updated information and wide field of the area of study for practical purposes.
Photographs of the champions of Indian Taxonomy are collected by DCS Raju
From this part the exercise is revised by A.Lalithamba;
  APG system of classification is followed;  date of revision:14-03-2017
With the efforts of many naturalists, scientists a lot of work is done. This is a simple effort. 
The compilation of list of plant species, and the vernacular/local names are given for the entire flora including cultivated, exotic species for the benefit of researchers as well as common man who is interested in plants.  
Description of some species and images are posted in my flickr post  which is linked here 
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah 
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao;  Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,Flora of Chittoor district, 
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008, 
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
 For images and description link is given, other species will be briefly described.
For regional/ Telugu names, district floras of Andhra Pradesh, Medicinal plants by R.S.Rao, K.Hemadri, research papers on ethno medicinal plants of Eastern Ghats published by different authors in many scientific journals, my survey, Forest plants published by Department of Forests A.P and  Flora Andrica by T.S.Elliot, A.W.Lushington -Vernacular list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency,  are scrupulously followed. Slang, pronunciation variations, local variations are  solved with my desecration, for example మల్లి / మల్లె  is written as malli, malle in english are solved . 
note: Local names in bold are common and popular/well known/widely used names.
Due to space problem few images are included here;
2350 plant images(1500Plant species) are given in the following flickr post.
for images visit 
Gymnosperm flora is very poor with least diversity. The following are native and cultivated species
Native: Cycas beddomei Dyer, perita, పేరీత ,madana kaamaakshi మదన కామాక్షి)   It is endemic to Tirumala hills of Chittoor distict. ; Cycas circinalis L.(Queen sago), dzavvubiyyamu, జవ్వుబియ్యము, madana kamakshi,మదన కామాక్షి madana mastu,మదన మస్తు   perita, పేరీత  rana guvva,రణ గువ్వ,  tanaguva kamakshi,తనగువకామాక్షి, varaguna వరగుణ , varugudu,వరుగుడు  Cycas sphaerica Roxb. Syn. Cycas circinalis Haines var. Orixensis- Arjuna chettu,అర్జున చెట్టు, Naasi chettuనాసి చెట్టు It is also endemic to Srkiakulam district. 
 Gnetum montanum Markgraf,  Gnetum ula Brongn.,apajuttiliఅపజుట్టిలి ,loluga లోలుఁగ , kaloiకాలోయ్, luluti లులితి, lulludiలుల్లుడి    (In North coast)
cultivated:  Cycas rumphii Miq.,ranaguvva రణ గువ్వ, Cycas revoluta Thunb., Callitris cupressiformis F. Muell., Callitris glauca Mirb., Cupressus sempervirens L.,jeedakara జీడకర్ర, jeekaka జీకాక , jeelakarraజీలకర్ర , jeerakaజీరక , jeerana జీరణ Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.)D.Don, , Juniperus communis L., Thuja occidentalis L.,nemali eekaనెమలి ఈక  Platycladus orientalis (L.)Franco,Pinus roxburghii Sarg.,daevadaaru chettu,దేవదారు చెట్టు , saralaసరళ , Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui , Pinus hartwegii Lindl. 
Aquatic herbs, plant rhizomatous; 4-celled uniseriate secretory trichomes with a large terminal cell; diaphragms in root aerenchyma; mycorrhizae 0; primary stem with ± scattered vascular bundles; protoxylem lacunae +; vascular cambium 0; P persistent; fruit maturation underwater. Pollination by wind or aquatic beetles.
Perennials or annuals; quintessential waterlilies. A root arises below each leaf.  Flowers large, flowers neither terminal nor axillary, haplomorphic, usually many free perianth parts differentiated into sepals and petals; stamens and carpels many ovules 3 to many in each carpel; carpels laterally connate only, whorled . Fruit baccate. Myricetin, sesquiterpene [pseud]alkaloids are present. Distribution is worldwide.
Only Nymphaea L. is available.
List of species:
1.Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f; Syn.N.stellata Willd.,  kaluvaకలువ, alli taamara అల్లితామర,allikada,అల్లి కాడ,  indeevaramu,ఇందీవరము, nalla kalava,నల్ల కలువ  nallani padmamuనల్లని పద్మము, neeti tamara నీటి తామర , tellakaluvaతెల్ల కలువ,,kumudaకుముద,vutpalamuఉత్పల,
 2.Nymphaea pubescensWilld., Looks similar to N.nouchali, but flowers are white., changaluvaచెంగలువ, kaluvaకలువ,chandovaచందోవ, chitti kaluvaచిట్టి కలువ , errakuluva ఎర్ర కలువ, thellakalava తెల్ల కలువ
3.Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex. Andrews., erra kaluva,ఎర్రకలువ   thaamaraతామర 
4. Nympahea caerulea Savigny ; the blue lotus(నల్లకలువ) is cultivated in coastal areas.నీలోత్పలము
Victoria amazonica(Poepp.)Sowerby Gaint water lilly is also cultivated in some coastal areas as ornamental plant. 
2.MAGNOLIALES Bromhead  
Vessels in multiples; secondary phloem stratified; pith septate; leaves two-ranked; "bract" sheathing; P whorled; G occluded by fusion and secretion;  irregularly ruminate endosperm. 
MAGNOLIALES Bromhead ;  
Deciduous trees; leaves spiral, leaf blade entire or lobed; often glaucous below; large stipules that entirely surround the stem but are open on the side opposite the petiole. The flowers are rather large, solitary, receptacle elongated, bearing many petals, stamens and carpels that are obviously spirally arranged. Perianth 3+3 or 3+many, calyx and corolla distinguishable.  Fruit dehiscing abaxially; endosperm ruminate
Magnolia champaca (L.)Baill. ex Pierre, campakamu,చంపకము,sampenga puvvu/sampagnipuvvu, సంపెంగ/ సంపంగిపువ్వు champeyamu,చాంపేయము  gandha-phali, గంధ ఫలి , hemaangamu,  హేమాంగము, hemapushpamu హేమ పుష్పము , kaanchanamu,కాంచనము  vandanamalaiవందన మలై(It is tamil name)  
Trees/shrubs; branches are not strictly axillary. Leaves are distichous, aromatic, entire. The flowers are nearly always pendulous and their development is more or less open. The tepals are usually in three whorls of three. Stamens are numerous, enclosed in some sort of bowl-shaped structure; they are short with a tough, truncate connective extending over the apex of the anthers. The seeds are quite large and most have a regularly ruminate endosperm. Protoberberidine alkaloids are reported from Annonaceae (Wink 2008). Largely tropical in distribution. Pollination is by small insects.
ALPHONSEA Hook.f.& Thoms. 
Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thw., pulusu maamidi పులుసు మామిడి, muvvi మువ్వి  
 Annona muricata L.,lakshmana phalamuలక్ష్మణ ఫలము  Annona reticulata L.,raamaphalamu,రామ ఫలం raamaseethaphalamu,  రామసీతాఫలము  Annona squamosa L., seethaphalamu, సీతాఫలం,  ganda gaathramu, గండ గాత్రము, seethapandu సీత పండు , 
 Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.)Bhandari, manoranjithamu,మనోరంజితం, thiga sampangi తీగసంపెంగ, muddasampengaముద్దసంపెంగ , phalasampangaఫలసంపెంగ, sakalaphalasampanga సకలఫలసంపెంగ, sampengaసంపెంగ,   
 Hubera korinti (Dunal) Chaowasku Syn. Polyalthia korintii (Dunal) Thw., elli dabba, ఎల్లిదబ్బ, nella gutti నెల్ల గుత్తి, korintiకోరింటి 
Huberantha cerasoides (Roxb.) Chaowasku, Syn. Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Bedd., chilakadudugaచిలకదుద్దుగ,gutti chettu గుత్తిచెట్టు,  chilkadadduచిలకదుద్దు,  chittiduduga చిట్టిదుద్దుగ, dudduga, దుద్దుగ , govaగోవ ,  
MILIUSA Lesch. ex A. DC.,
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair, 
barre dudduga, బర్రెదుద్దుగ,gaadidalotta, గాడిద లొట్ట , budda dudduga, బుడ్డదుద్దుగ, duddugaదుద్దుగ,  kamarakoru కమరకోరు , nalla chika duddi నల్లచిలకదుద్ది, pedda chiluka duddugaపెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ, Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms., nalla dadduga, నల్ల దుద్దుగ , pedda chiluka dudduga, పెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ,
Monoon longifolium (Sonn.) B. Xue & R. M. K. Saunders Syn. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw.,  ashokamu, అశోకము(Known as weeping Ashoka),naramaamidi,రమామిడి asvattamu, అశ్వత్థము , daevadaaru,  దేవదారు ,   nettlingum నెత్తి లింగం,  
Polyalthia fragrans (Dalzell) Benth. & Hook. f., chilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ 
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw.,  buddadudduga,బుడ్డదుద్దుగ chilaka duduga,  cilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ etidudduga ఏటిదుద్దుగ, kopu కోపు   
Uvaria hamiltonii Hook. f. & Thoms., uvva వువ్వ 
Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. &Thoms., chettu sampangi చెట్టు సంపంగి, apoorvachampakamu అపూర్వ చంపకము 
The plants are cultivated in gardens and houses for fragrant flowers.
Myristica attenuata Wall ., Rare in E.Godavari dist., Myristica dactyloides Gaertn., adavijaajikaaya అడవి జాజి కాయ ; Myristica fragrans Houtt., jajikaya,జాజి కాయ& జాపత్రి   jajipattiri, జాజిపత్రి  jatipatri,జాతిపత్రి/జాపత్రి  Myristica malabarica Lam.,  
Compsoneura sprucei (A.DC.) Warb.,syn. M.laurifolia,  Except M.attenuata remaining are not found in A.P, but products widely used.    
3.    LAURALES Berchtold & Presl  
 leaves opposite; inflorescence ± cymose; hypanthium +, P spiral; inner staminodia +; receptacle ± concave, stylulus long, (extragynoecial compitum +); megaspore mother cells several; fruits indehiscent, hypanthium persistent
 Trees or lianas; branching is from previous flush; lamina venation ± palmate; inflorescence thyrsoid/ cyme; flowers very small ; 4-5-merous; Perianth 3-10 uniseriate; stamens 3-5(-7), nectaries outside the stamens, or 0 ; ovary inferior, stigma peltate ; ovules variable; fruit  samara; cotyledons much folded. Pantropical in distribution. Aporphine alkaloids are common.
Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq.,(Syn.G.asiaticus Willd.,G.jacquini Gardner.)  kumaari polikiకుమ్మరిపొలికి, nallaponakuనల్ల పొణకు , papurapu kaayaపావురాయి కాయ, ponaku పొణకు , tanuku తణుకు, tanakurతనకురు    
The twigs are ridged. Leaves spiral, entire, thick, coriaceous, with steeply ascending secondary veins, glaucous below; often aromatic, with long-petiole. The flowers are rather small, trimerous, and have valvate anthers; the fruit has a single, large seed that lacks endosperm and the pedicel - and sometimes also tepals and hypanthium - is often swollen and conspicuous. distribution

pantropical. Flavones, 5-O-methyl flavonols, polyketides [acetogenins],are present. 
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd. ex Hook.f. (Nallamala forest) mungiliముంగిలి,nette నెట్టె 
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees,(Cultivated), Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.,(E.Godavari)
Cassytha filiformis L., sitamma nulu poguluసీతమ్మనూలుపోగులు, teegapaachiతీగ పాచి,antharavallithigeఅంతర వల్లితీగ , nooluthige, నూలు తీగ , paachithige,పచ్చి తీగ pachatigeపచ్చతీగ, seethammapogunoolu సీతమ్మ పోగునూలు,seethammaavaari jadaalu సీతమ్మవారి జడలు, 
CINNAMOMUM Scheaffer.,
Cinnamomum caudatum Nees (Rare, in VSKP)
NOTE: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) PRESL, karppooramuకర్పూరము ,hemavyayamu హేమవ్యయము , himavalukaహిమవకుళ , candrasanguyamu చంద్ర సాంగుయము , chandramu చంద్రము ,gamuburamu గంబూరము , ghanasaramu ఘనసారము ,Cinnamomum zeylanicum BL.,/ C.verum Presl., dalchinachekka, దాల్చిన చెక్క dalcini,దాల్చిని  lavanga-pattaలవంగ పట్ట ,Cinnamomum tamala NEES & EBERM.,talisha-patri,తలిశపత్రి,tamala తమాలవృక్షము, biryaani aaku బిర్యాని ఆకు
These species are not available in A.P, but products are widely used.     
Litsea chinensis Lam., naranalikeనారనలికె, kanujunalikeకణుజు నలికె , medaమేడ , naraనార , naramamidiనరమామిడి; Litsea deccanensis Gamble., naramamidiనరమామిడి Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., (E.ghats of Nallamala, sehachalam, velugonda) nara-nalikeనారనలికె,kanugu nalikeకనుగు నలికి, kanujunalikeకణుజు నలికె , konda-wargu కొండ వరఁగు ,  medaaమేడా , nara-chettuనార చెట్టు , nara-mamdiనర మామిడి ,   narra alagiనర్ర అళగి , pulusu maamidi పులుసు మామిడి .
Litsea monopetala  
 Litsea monpetala (Roxb.) Pers.,chiru mamidi, చిరుమామిడి (rare, VSKP)  Litsea laeta (Wall, ex Nees) Hook. f.(Rare, E.Godavari)
NEOLITSEA (Benth.) Merr.
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. (Chittoor) (Syn.N.zeylanica (Nees)Merr. (VSKP), Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble, Neolitsea scrobiculata (MEISSNER) GAMBLE, aakupathrikamu ఆకు పత్రికము, bodedaబోడెద,buroyidaబురోయిద 
Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm.,naaraనార  (Rare in VSKP)
Phoebe wightii Meisner (VSKP)
4.PIPERALES Dumortier  
Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; primary stem with distinct bundles; wood with broad rays, interfacicular cambium lacking fusiform initials; nodes often swollen; leaves two-ranked, lamina heart-shaped, secondary veins palmate; inflorescences/flowers terminal; A in 3's.
Herbaceous plants (they are quite often vines) prophylls adaxial; secondary thickening odd; leaves exstipulate with palmate venation and entire margins; flowers 3-merous, monosymmetric( resupinate); stamens extrorse (inserted in Aristolochia). The ovary is usually inferior and the perianth is uniseriate and connate; fruit septicidal schizocarp. Seed winged or arillate. World-wide. Flavonols and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are present in the family. 
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., gadida gadapaగాడిదగడప; gadaparakuగడపారాకు, gadathigadaparaku, గాడిదగడపారాకుkadapara కడపార  Aristolochia indica L., eswaramulliఈశ్వరిమూలి,  isvaravaeruఈశ్వరి వేరు, nalla eeshvari నల్లఈశ్వరి doolagovila, దూలగోవిల, eshwariఈశ్వరి,  govilaగోవిల ,  tellaeeshvari  తెల్లఈశ్వరి, Aristolochia elegans Mast., and Aristolochia ringens are cultivated as ornamental. nallaisvara నల్ల ఈశ్వర ,Aristolochia tagala Cham., nallayisvariనల్లఈశ్వరి,

Plant habit various; nodes swollen; leaves simple, cordate at base, soft and fleshy, secondary venation pinnate. Flowers minute, naked, often borne in dense spikes; individual flowers are subtended by peltate to clavate bracts.Anthers 2-3, thecae not dehiscing their entire length; ovule single basal. Fruit flesh berry.  
Peparomia dindygulensis Miq.,  Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott, 
Piper attenuatum Buch.-Ham. ex Miq., Piper betle L.,tamalapakuతమలపాకు,akumadupu,ఆకుమడుపు, kammeraku,కమ్మేరాకు   nagavalli,నాగవల్లి, phanirajavalli,ఫణి రాజవల్లి, vitikaవితిక ,(Cultivated as commercial crop),Piper cubeba L.f., chalava-miriyalu, చలవ మిరియాలు  thokamiriyaalu, తోక మిరియాలు ; Piper longum L.,pippalluపిప్పళ్లు, modi,మోది, pippali-katteపిప్పలి కట్టె ,  (Cultivated for medicinal purpose) Piper hymenophyllum Miq.,(Kurnool, Chittor dist), Piper nigrum L., (Cultivated) miriyaalu,మిరియాలు,nalla miriyaalu నల్లమిరియాలు maarichamu, మారీచము,  miriyalatige,మిరియాల తీగ, miriyamu, మిరియము  moloovookodi,మోలోవూకోడి , paluka,పలుక  savyamuసవ్యము, Piper trioicum Roxb.(In E.Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool and VSKP dist)pamu miriyaalu పాము మిరియాలు 
Herbs; vessels 0; inflorescence a spadix with large associated inflorescence bract [spathe]; flowers dense, sessile, small [<5 mm across], weakly monosymmetric,  carpels ascidiate-plicate, ovules straight, perisperm +. With 1 Family 1 genus.
Rhizomatous herbs, leaves sweetly-smelling, two-ranked, isobifacial. Flowers are small, perfect and pentacyclic in densely spikes overtopped by lateral leaf-like spathe.  Bracts and bracteoles 0, P persistent; anther thecae hooded, intra ovarian trichomes +, style broad. Fruit berry.
Acorus calamus L.,  vasa,  వస, vadaja,వడజ,vaja  వజ 
Starch grains pteridophyte-type, amylophilic; inflorescence scapose; anthers extrorse; tapetum amoeboid [?here], cells uninucleate; carpels with completely unfused canals, styles +,  embryo (chlorophyllous), large, cotyledon large; seedling with hypocotyl and root well developed, collar rhizoids +. The root stele is often tri- to pentarch; When the leaves are petiolate, the vascular bundles are in an arc; inverted bundles are also common.
ARACEAEJussieu, nom. cons. 
Araceae are herbs with leaves that are usually divided into a petiole and expanded blade. They have a distinctive inflorescence of a more or less petal-like spathe plus a spadix made up of densely-packed, sessile, ebracteate flowers; in many taxa the spadix has a large, terminal, sterile part. The fruit is a berry.
ALOCASIA (Schott) G.Don.,
Alocasia decipiens Schott, charakanda చారకంద;  Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott,  Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don, pichi chemaపిచ్చి చేమ; Alocasia montana (Roxb.) Schott.,
AMORPHOPHALLUS Blume ex Decaisne,
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume(Rare in hills of E.Godavari)adavi dumpa, అడవి దుంప , Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth ,adavi chaama అడవి చామ; Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, (Cultivated as vegetable)kandagodda,కందగడ్డmanchi kanda,మంచికంద,duradakandagadda,దురదకందగడ్డ ghemikanda,ఘేమికంద   kanda,  pottikanda,పొత్తికంద thiya-kandhaతియ్య కంద 
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume(Reported in1970 by B.S.R.)Now not tracedout)
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott(Godavari and VSKP dist)
Caladium bicolor (Aiton)Vent., (ornamental)
Colocasia esculenta (L.)Schott,  chema,చేమchamadumpa,చామదుంప, chaamakoora,చామకూర  chamagadda, చామగడ్డ,(Tubers are known as gadda or dumpa, leaves as kura)  kaladi కాలడి , sari kanda సరికంద Colocasia antiquorum Schott,  chamagadda,చామగడ్డ chemaచేమ,  
Dieffenbachia bowmannii Carrière, (Cultivated)
Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.)Engl.
Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott,enugapippalu,ఏనుగు పిప్పళ్లు  gaja-pippalluగజపిప్పళ్లు
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Rare in north circars)
Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.,chirisanagalu చిరిశనగలు  Lemna gibba L.,
Monstera deliciosa Liebm;
Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. (cultivated)
PISTIA L.,     
Pistia stratiotes L.,antharathaamara, అంతరతామర, budaga tamara,బుడగ తామర, aakaasathaamara, ఆకాశతామర,   neeraaku నీరాకు,  nirubudiki,నీరు బుడికి  thoodi kooraతూడికూర  
Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott
Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott, Rhaphidophora pertusa  (Roxb.) Schott , yenuganalleru ఏనుగు నల్లేరు
Scindapsus officinalis Schott,Enugu tippali ఏనుగుతిప్పలి  
Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott, (Cultivated as ornamental)
SPIRODELA Schleiden,
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.,
Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott,
 ALISMATACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Alismataceae are laticiferous, aquatic herbs. Leaves floating or aerial; petiolate, leaf-blade elliptic to sagittatemidrib prominent, and parallel veins linked by fine transverse veins. Plant mon- or dioecious, inflorescence branches whorled; Their petals are crumpled in bud; stames 3-many, anthers extrorse; carpels 2-many, free; embryo is strongly curved.
Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.)Miq., gurrapu dekka chettuగుర్రపు డెక్క చెట్టు 
Sagittaria guayanensis subsp.  lappula (D.Don) Bogin, Sagittaria sagittifolia L., 
HYDROCHARITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Hydrocharitaceae are aquatic plants with petiolate or (usually) undifferentiated leaves. The inflorescence often has two fused (sometimes free) bracts at the base and the ovary is inferior, often with laminar or more or less strongly intruded parietal placentation, and the stigma lobes are bifid.
BLYXA Noronha ex Thouars, 
Blyxa aubertii Richard, , Blyxa echinosperma (C. B. Clarke) J. D. Hooker,  Blyxa octandra (Roxb.) Pl. ex Thw.,naachu,నాచు paachi,పాచి paathala banthi పాతాళబంతి  
Halophila beccarii Ascherson, Halophila ovalis (R. Brown) J. D. Hooker,
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, poonaachu,పూనాచు, valakadaవలకాడ  
Najas indica (Willd.)Cham, Najas marina L., (Nellore); Najas minor Ali.,(E.Godavari)
Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. ex Wight) Thwaites,
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.,edukula thaamara,ఎడుకులతామర,neeru venikiనీరు వెనికి 
Vallisneria spiralis L.,panchadub,పంచదుబ్బు  punatsuపునాసు 
APONOGETONACEAE Planchon, nom. Cons
Water plants with short rhizome or corm; leaves spiral, pseudopetiolate, the sometimes fenestrate leaf blades have a midrib, parallel veins, and strong cross veins; the finest veins are reticulate. The inflorescence is densely spicate, coloured and has a long scape.  Flowers are small, monosymmetric, often with less conspicuous tepals. Staminate flowers have more than 10 stamens. Carpellate flowers have G 2-9, free; ovules 1-12 per carpel. Seed coat mucilaginous.
Aponogeton crispus Thunb., namma puvvumokka,నమ్మ పువ్వు మొక్క, (It is an auarium plant with crispy or wavy leaves)
 Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl. & K.Krause,nava dumpaనవ దుంప, namma dumpa,నమ్మ దుంప,natta naachuనత్త నాచు , 
POTAMOGETONACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. Cons
Often freshwater plants, leaves spiral, 2-ranked or opposite. inflorescence spicate, flowers sessile 4-merous; tepals clawed, adnate to stamens; stamens 1-4; G 4, carpels stipitate,  stigma expanded. Fruit a drupelet, tepals persistent.
Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton nodosus Poir., Potamogeton perfoliatus L.,
Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
Branches well developed, adaxially grooved vascular bundles in rings; vessels also in stem and leaf; flowers or inflorescence with glandular hairs; styles free early in ontogeny; T persistent in fruit; embryo at most short.
Herbaceous climbers; leaves petiolate, with broad blades and pulvini at both ends of the petiole; the leaf base does not surround the stem; lamina has several strong longitudinal veins and transverse secondary veins, or reticulate fine venation. Flowers small and not very brightly coloured; 3 merous, the ovary is inferior and often ridged or winged in fruit. Tropical in distribution.
List of species: Dioscorea alata L. , pendalamuపెండలం, daeshavaali pendalam,దేశవాళీ పెండలం dukka pendalam,దుక్కపెండలం, gadimidondapendalamu గడిమిదొండపెండలం, gunapendalamuగుణపెండలం , kavili-gaddaకవిలిగడ్డ, naarathegaనార తీగ ,  niluvu pendalam, నిలువు పెండలం, yadduthoka dumpaఎద్దుతోక దుంప  Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines,(E.Godavari, VSKP) , Dioscorea bulbifera L., adavidumpa అడవి దుంపchedupaddudumpa చేదుపదుంప, malaakaakaayapendalamu, మాలాకా కాయపెండలం, Dioscorea esculenta L.,shilakdamశిలకడం, tivvi teega తివ్వి తీగ  Dioscorea glabra Roxb., eddutokadumpaఎద్దుతోక దుంప, naratega,నార తీగ,  Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.,
 Dioscorea hispida Denns., pulidumpaపులిదుంప, tellaagini-geddaluతెల్లగిణి గడ్డలుkolli, కొల్లి pedda anem,పెద్ద అనెం  pedumpaపేదుంప ,  thandrabisalathigeతాండ్రబిసలతీగ, Dioscorea oppositifolia L.,yella gaddaయెల్ల గడ్డ,tella gaddaతెల్లగడ్డ, adavidumpathige,  అడవిదుంపతీగ,adaviyatagatigeఅడవి యాట తీగ,  aretegalu, ఆరె తీగలు, atyaga,అత్యాగ, avathengathige,అవతెంగ తీగ, chenchu dumpaచెంచు దుంప , ganuga గానుగ , karrapendalamu కర్రపెండలం, naarabadluనారబడులు ,  tsuntsugaddaత్సు-త్సు గడ్డ, Dioscorea pentaphylla L.dukka pendulamu దుక్కపెండలం,adavi-ginusu tiga,అడవిగినుసు తీగ  adavigummaditiga,అడవిగుమ్మడి తీగ  chenchu gadda,చెంచుగడ్డ  , kaaruchembaకారుచెంబ , kanta aluకంటాలు,  moyyakku-pendalam మొయ్యా క్కుపెండలం, mullupendalamu ముళ్ల పెండలం, nuludumpa నూలు దుంప , pandi mukku dumpa పంది ముక్కు దుంప , pandigadda పందిగడ్డ,  Dioscorea pubera Bl.,Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng., teega dumpaతీగ దుంప, subbadumpa సుబ్బ దుంప, Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f., kummara baddu,కుమ్మరబద్దు verrichaada, వెర్రి చాడ  
TACCA J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze 
Syn. Tacca pinnatifida J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., ritta kandaరిత్త కంద,adavi dumpa, అడవిదుంప,kanda కంద, peddakandagadda పెద్దకందగడ్డ Fiji Arrowroot, batflower, East Indian arrowroot, Polynesian arrowroot, Tahiti arrowroot (Eng.);
PANDANALES Berchtold & J. Presl
Nucellar cap +; endosperm with reserves starch, embryo minute.
Plant woody, shrubs, or climbers with roots from leaf axils, not rhizomatous; leaves spirally three- or four-ranked, M-shaped when mature, spiny, plant di-(mon)oecious; inflorescence bracts usually colored; staminate flowers: A 2-many, carpellate flowers: G 1-several, free to connate, fruit baccate or drupaceous; primary root branched. 
Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze; Syn. Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.,
Local names:mogili,మొగలి,ketaki,కేతకి, gajangi, గజాంగి, gedangimogaliగెడంగిమొగలి , gojjangi,గొజ్జంగి
STEMONACEAE Caruel, nom. cons.
Plant monopodial, (tuberous), with cataphylls, stem erect (twining); plant glabrous; leaves two-ranked or opposite, with petiole,  conspicuous, ladder-like transverse veins between the very close to distant longitudinal veins; when dry, the leaves are often very thin. The inflorescences are axillary, cymose; and the flowers are 4- or 5-merous. A adnate to base of T, ± connate, connective expanded;  style branches long; ovules 2 to many/carpel; fruit capsule, seeds longitudinally ridgedaril of uniseriate or vesicular hairs from hilum, raphe or micropyle.  
Stemona tuberosa Lour.,kaniputeega కనిపుతీగ,ijedigadda,ఇజెడిగడ్డ
Stemona tuberosa  
 Plants geophytes; leaves elliptical, (main veins seven or fewer), fine venation reticulate, (leaf base not sheathing); inflorescence terminal; T large (small), free, (spotted), tepal nectaries +anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap +; P deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls.For images please visit:
COLCHICACEAE de Candolle, nom. cons.
Cormose or sometimes rhizomatous geophytes that may be recognised by their rather large flowers with six, usually free tepals, each more or less enveloping a stamen and with nectaries on the adaxial surface at or towards the base, and a superior ovary.
DISPORUM Salisbury,
Disporum calcaratum D.Don, Disporum pullum Salisb.,(E.Godavari, VSKP )
Gloriosa superba L., adavi nabhi,అడవి నాభి, agni-shikha, అగ్నిశిఖ, naageti gadda నాగేటి గడ్డ, deyyapu mokka, దెయ్యపుమొక్క  deyyapu poola chettu దెయ్యపు పూల చెట్టు , ganjeri గంజేరి , kalaga puvvu కలగ పువ్వు , kalapagadda, కలపగడ్డ ,  kannu nopi mokka కన్ను నొప్పి మొక్క , laangali, లాంగలి , nabhi,నాభి  posala poligodi gaddaపొసలపోలిగోడి గడ్డ , potti nabhi,పొట్టి నాభి   potti-dumpa,పొట్టి దుంప,  vasa naabhiవస నాభి,  
Iphigenia indica (L.) A.Gray ex Kunth,kaki katuka కాకి కాటుక  Iphigenia  mysorensis Arekal&Swamy; Iphigenia pallida Baker,(Rare in Godavari, VSKP)
SMILACACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Prickly climbers. The leaves are spirally-arranged and petiolate, there are paired petiolar tendrils, and the blade has several strong longitudinal veins and reticulate fine venation. Plant dioecious. The flowers are rather small, "typically monocot", and are borne in umbels; the fruit is a berry. 
Smilax aspera L.,pala sugandhi,సుగంధి  sugandhipalaసుగంధిపాల (VSKP), Smilax perfoliata Lour.,pirangi chekka పిరంగి చెక్క (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP), Smilax zeylanica L.,konda gurivatheegaకొండ గురివ తీగ , adavi konda teega అడవి కొండ తీగ, konda dantena,కొండదంతె న konda garbha-tige కొండ గర్భ తీగ ,   kondathaamara కొండ తామర , kummarabaddu,కుమ్మర బద్దు  kummeritheega,కుమ్మెరితీగ , kushtaputamara కుష్టపు తామర , phirangi mokka,ఫిరంగి మొక్క,  sithapaసితాప
Smilax zeylanica 
Dimorphic root, hypodermal cells +;(velamen +);  anthers longer than wide; tapetal cells bi- to tetranuclear; microsporogenesis simultaneous; seeds exotestal, tegmen not persistent; endosperm helobial;Chelidonic acid +, steroidal saponins 0
For images please visit:
ORCHIDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Mycorrhizal herbs, root hairs often lacking. Flowers monosymmetric, resupinate, Tepals free, median inner tepal forms a labellum; stamens 3 basally adnate to style; ovary inferior, septal nectaries 0, placentae branched, style solid, stigma wet; ovules more than 1500 per carpel, fruit dehiscing laterally by six valves, seeds minute, dust-like, endosperm 0, fruit splitting down its sides, tepals deciduous in fruit. Worldwide in distribution.
Flavone C-glycosides, flavonols present, SiO2 bodies in leaf vascular bundle sheaths. 
ACAMPE Lindl.,
Acampe carinata (Griff.)Panigrahi; Acampe ochracea (Lindl.)Hochr., Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.)Blatt.&Mc Cann,
Aerides multiflora Roxb., Aerides odorata Lour., Aerides ringens (Lindl.)C.E.C Fisch.,
Aerides multiflorum
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f., Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.
Cleisostoma tenuifolium(L.)Garay.
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
 Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr, Dendrobium aquem Lindl., Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl., Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl., Dendrobium ovatum(Willd.)Kranz
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
ERIA Lindley
Eria bambusifolia Lindl.
EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindley
Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch,gooru chutu gadda,గోరుచుట్టుగడ్డ    raayeduru dumpa,రాయెదురుదుంప ,  veduru gadda వెదురు గడ్డ Eulophia explanata Lindl., Eulophia graminea Lindl., Eulophia ochreata Lindl., Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh
Gastrochilus calceolaris  [Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.] D. Don 
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schlt.,
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook.,  
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f., Habenaria digitata Lindl., Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell, Habenaria furcifera Lindl.,Habenaria intermedia D.Don, vrddhi వృద్ధి  Habenaria longicorniculata J.Graham, Habenaria marginata Colebr. , Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra, Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., Habenaria ramayyana Ram.Chary & J.J.Wood, Habenaria rariflora A.Rich., Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, chukka dumpaచుక్క దుంప 
Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl.,
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl.,
LUISIA Gaudich.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudich,
 Nervilia aragoana Gaudichaud , Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden, Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schlechter, 
Oberonia arnottiana Wight, Oberonia brunoniana Wight., Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley, Oberonia falconeri J. D. Hooker, Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenfaden
Paplionanthe teres (Roxb.)Schltr.
Paplionanthe teres
Pecteilis gigantea (J.E.Smith)Rafin
PERISTYLUS Blume  nom cons
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley, Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley,
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K.Gupta, riddhiరిద్ధి   
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.
Pomatocalpa mannii(Rchb.f.)J.J.Smith., Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.,
Rhyncostylis retusa(L.)Blume,
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume 
VANDA W.Jones ex.R.Brown.
Vanda tessellata Hook ex. G.Don,chittiveduri, చిట్టి వెదురు  kanapa badanika, కణపబదనిక  mardaaru,మర్దారు, marsaruమర్సరు, saga సాగ , vadanika,  వదనిక  badanike,బదనిక  
Vanilla wightii LINDL.EX WIGHT, naaga naleru నాగ నల్లేరు 
HYPOXIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. Cons
Tuberous herbs. Leaves in rosette, plicate or folded with persistent leaf bases; non-glandular indumentum is quite prominent. Flowers bisexual, regular, on short racemes. The outer whorl of tepals tends to be green outside and the ovary is inferior and sometimes subterranean; it is often narrowed and beaked at the apex.
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., nelatadiనేలతాడిnallathaadigadda,నల్లతాడిగడ్డలు  nilapthaaligaddaluనిలపతాడిగడ్డలు
Hypoxis aurea L.,   
AMARYLLIDACEAE J. Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.
Bulbous herbs. Leaves fleshy, two-ranked; inflorescence scapose,  umbellate, or cymose,  inflorescence bracts 2 or more, scarious, internal bracts small; flowers large, pedicels not articulated; tepals free ; stamens 6, connate basally; style long, ovary inferior.   
Allium cepa L., vulligaddaluఉల్లిగడ్డలు, erragaddaluయెర్రగడ్డలు, nirulli,నీరుల్లి,erra ulligadda,ఎర్రఉల్లిగడ్డ,  vullipayaluఉల్లి పాయలు, Allium sativum L.,vellullipaayaవెల్లుల్లిపాయలు,tellagadda, తెల్ల గడ్డ,, thellavayaluతెల్ల వాయలు , vellulliవెల్లుల్లి,  
Crinum asiaticum L.,chengalva, చెంగలువ  kesara-chettu,కేశరచెట్టు, lakshmi-narayana-chettu,  లక్ష్మీనారాయణచెట్టు , visha-mungali, విషమంగలి,  Crinum latifolium  L., chembu gadda చెంబు గడ్డ , Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J.Nair,kaesarachaettuకేసరచెట్టు, kaja gaddaకాజగడ్డ 
Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss,(Ornamental)
Pancratium longiflorum Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.,thonda thoka chettuతొండతోకచెట్టు  
Scadoxus multiflorus  (Martyn) Raf., 
Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb., Zephyranthes citrina Baker,  Zephyranthes rosea Lendl.,
ASPARAGACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
 Plants rhizomatous or bulbous, never cormous; flowers small, inflorescence umbel or raceme; bracts 4 or more; tepals connate, corona may be present, ovary superior. 
Agave angustifolia Haw.,kittanara,కిత్తనార, balurakkisaబలురక్కిస , brahmarakasiబ్రహ్మరాకాసి,  peddakalabandaపెద్దకలబంద, piyyatikalalebandaపియ్యటికలబంద, samataసమత  Agave americana L., chagera-matta, చంగర మట్ట, banda-kattalaబండ కట్టల,  kalambandaకలబంద, kittanara,కిత్తనార  , rakashi-mattalu, రాకాసిమట్టలు, rakshasimattaరాక్షస మట్టలు , saga-nara, సాగనార  , Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck, kitthanaaraకిత్తనారpichikalabandaపిచ్చి కలబంద piyyatikalabandaపియ్యటికలబంద,, raakshasikalanbandaరాక్షసికలబంద,, raakshasimadalu రాక్షసిమడలు , raakshasimattaరాక్షసిమట్ట 
Aloe vera L., 
kalabandaకలబంద,kumaari కుమారి, chinnakalabanda చిన్నకలబంద, chinnaraakasimattaచిన్నరాక్షసిమట్ట, errakalanbandaఎర్రకలబంద,  kunthi kalabandaకుంతి కలబంద,, manchikatthaaliమంచి కత్తాలి , musambaramuమూసామ్బరం ,    ASPARAGUS L.,
Asparagus aethiopicus L., Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop, cultivated; Asparagus gonoclados Baker,challagaddalu,చల్లగడ్డలు  pillipichara,పిల్లి పీచర; Asparagus racemosus Willd., pilli teegalu,పిల్లి తీగలు, shathaavari,శతావరి,challaచల్ల, challa-gaddalu, చల్లగడ్డలు , erravaaluduthige, ఎర్ర వాలుడు తీగ ,  pillipeechara, పిల్లి పీచర,  sathaananduduశతానందుడు,  seethammajata సీతమ్మ జట,     
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker, (North Circars,Kurnool), 
Chlorophytum glaucum Dalzell, (rare in W.Godavari), Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.,
Chlorophytum malabaricum Baker,(Chittoor), Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, kuchhela,కుచ్చెల  sarala pagada సరళ పగడ ,
Dipcadi krishnadevarayae B.R.P.Rao, Dipcadi montanum (Dalzell) Baker, (New addition)
Dracaena marginata hort. ;(Cultivated); Dracena reflexa (Cultivated) Dracaena terniflora Roxb., (Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP)
DRIMIA Jacq., 
Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop,adavi vulli అడవిఉల్లి; Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar,
Drimia congesta (Wight)Ansari&Raghavan
FURCRAEA  Ventenat,
Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw.,
Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop, kaachu gadda కాచుగడ్డ ;adavitheela gadda అడవి తీలగడ్డ, 
Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, 
Polianthes tuberosa L.,gaddasampenga  గడ్డసంపంగిnelasampenga నేలసంపంగి, thella sampenga, తెల్లసంపెంగ vaerusampenga వేరుసంపంగి,  
Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook.,(Ornamental), Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f.,  saganara,సాగ నార,miyanda మియంద,  chaga, చాగ chama kada nara,చామకాడనార   ishaura-kodu ఈశ్వర కోడు , junappu,జున్నపు, saggai సగ్గయి Sansevieria trifasciata Prain,(Ornamental)
URGINEA Steinh.,
Urginea coromandeliana Hook.f.,
Yucca gloriosa L., goli gulaabi గోలీగులాబి 
ASPHODELACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons., (Xanthorrhoeaceae)  

They have a dense tuft of long, narrow leaves terminating a stout, woody stem (and persisting as a skirt of dried leaves if there are no fires) and a long, erect, densely spike-like inflorescence with small flowers; pedicels articulated; A not adnate to T; fruits capsular.
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.,  seema vulli సీమఉల్లి      
Plant woody, unbranched, growth monopodial; vessels also in stem and leaf; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets, stomata tetracytic; leaves spiral,massive, vernation reduplicate-plicate, pinnately pseudocompound, petiolate, with closed sheath; flowers ± sessile; septal nectaries +; ovule 1/carpel, apotropous, sessile, attachment broad; seeds large [>1 cm long].
ARECACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons.//Palmae Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   
Trees; stem woody, large, tough, unbranched, growth monopodial; leaves spiral, pinnately pseudocompound, petiolate, with closed sheath. Inflorescences axillary, large, with numerous  sessile flowers. Flowers 3 merous; staminodes and pistillodes present; stamens 6, basifixed; ovule 1/carpel; fruit drupe or dry berry; seeds large. Tropical. Flavonoid sulphates abundant.
Borassus flabellifer L.,thaatichettu,తాటిచెట్టు,thadi, తాడి,  penti tadi-chettu,పెంటి తాడిచెట్టు (female tree),potu-tadi-chettu-పోతుతాడిచెట్టు(male plant),karathaalamu,కరతాళము, naamatody,నామ తాడి, trinarajamu, త్రినరజముఁ    
Calamus rotang L.,pemu,పేము,prabbali, ప్రబ్బలి, bethamబెత్తము,betthapu chettu,బెత్తపుచెట్టు, niruprabba,నీరు ప్రభ, prabba ప్రబ్బ, sannabettamu,సన్నబెత్తము  vaethasamu వేతసము  Calamus viminalis Willd.,papatige, పాపతీగ, amlavetasamu ఆమ్లవేతసము,  bettamu,బెత్తము , pepabettamuపీపాబెత్తము 
Caryota urens L., kondajiluga,కొండజీలుగ, jeeluga chettuజీలుగచెట్టు,bakini,బకిని   chirugu chettu, చిరుగు చెట్టు,  gukatad గూకతాడి, jirugudu chettu జిరుగుడుచెట్టు , maareమారి, mardi,  tar-mardiతార్మార్ది , thirugu,తిరుగ  yaathrakathaari,యాత్ర కతారి, yadarikodari,యేదరి కోదరి  
Cocos nucifera L., kobbariకొబ్బరిtenkayaటెంకాయ, kobbari bondaalu కొబ్బరి బొండాలు, errabondaalakobbari, ఎర్ర బోండాల కొబ్బరి ,  gujjunarikedamగుజ్జునారి  కేడము, laangali, లాంగాలి  mukkantipandu,ముక్కంటి పండు  narikelamu,  నారికేళము  trinaraajamu, త్రిణరాజము;   
DYPSIS Noronha ex Mart.,
Dypsis lutescens (Wendl.) Beentje & Dransf.,(cultivated)
Elaeis guineensis Jacq., పామాయిల్చెట్టు  (Palm oil tree)
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth,var. pendula kondayita,కొండ ఈత/కొండీతadvi eeta,అడవిఈత  chitti etha, చిట్టీత/ చిట్టి ఈత   Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., chiruta-ita,చిరుత ఈతchitti-ita, చిట్టి ఈత, eechakoyya,ఈచ కొయ్య   chinnaicham చిన్నఈచం ,  icakoyyaఇచ్చ కొయ్య , sannaita సన్నీత  Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb., etha chettu,ఈతచెట్టు,peddaita,పెద్దఈత, chetteetha, చెట్టీత, indu,ఇందు  ishanchedi,ఈశంచేడి   ; Phoenix paludosa ROXB., hintalamu,హింతాళము ,girakatadu,గిరిక తాడు  girukatali,గిరిక తాళి   kajjura ఖజ్జూరముPhoenix dactylifera L., kharjuramu,ఖర్జూరము,muddakharjurapu,ముద్దఖర్జూరము,gajjuramu,గజ్జూరము, perita,పెరీత, simakharjuramuసీమఖర్జూరము (not cultivated in A.P. )
Areca catechu L., vakkalu,వక్కలు,  pokachekkaపోక చెక్క 
Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermalraphides 0; P = K + C; style well developed, stigmas small,endosperm nuclear, ; cotyledon hyperphyllar.
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TYPHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Marsh plants or aquatics ; leaves two-ranked; plant monoecious; inflorescences dense, complex, staminate and carpellate flowers in separate groups but on the same inflorescence, carpellate below the staminate; flowers very small , monosymmetric by reduction; P chaffy; nectary 0; staminate flowers: stamens 1-8;  carpellate flowers: G 1  style single, stigma rather elongated, on one side; ovule 1/carpel. Fruit achene. Flavonoids +; SiO2 bodies 0; starch grains amylophilic. Tropical in distribution. 
Typha austalis K.Schum.& Thonner, jammugaddi,జమ్ము గడ్డి, enugu jammu, ఏనుగు జమ్ము, kandra కాండ్ర Typha domingensis Pers., jammu,జమ్ము,neeti jammu, నీటి జమ్ము, dubbujambu,దుబ్బు జమ్ము    
ERIOCAULACEAE Martinov, nom. cons.
Plants rosette; monoecious; leaf sheath not distinct. Plants monoecious;  inflorescences “pipe-brush” like; receptacle flat,  scape spirally twisted and ridged; the base of the inflorescence is surrounded by a single closed leaf sheath; flowers small (less than 5mm), median sepal adaxial; petals scarious, sepals and petals persistent, aestivation open;  and inconspicuous corollas aggregated into dense heads. staminate flowers: (A dorsifixed) Stamens 4-6;  carpellate flowers: placentation axile; ovules 1/carpel, pendulous; staminodes 0. Fruit indehiscent. 
Aerenchyma is present in root cortex and leaf. Rodlets are present. 
Eriocaulon odoratum Dalz., Eriocaulon quinquangulare L., Eriocaulon sollyanum Royle, Eriocaulon minutum Hook.f., Eriocaulon ritchieanum Ruhland(Seshachalam Hills),Eriocaulon truncatum Buch-Ham., 
CYPERACEAE Juss. nom.cons.
Herbs with solid, sharply three-angled stems and leaves with closed sheaths. Inflorescence units are spikelets or heads; flowers are reduced, usu. monosymmetric, aggregated into spikes and heads; perianth scarious, tepals variously reduced; flowers 3 merous, stamens connate, G [2] ovule 1 per flower; fruit an achene, (with bristles, etc.).

 Aurones, flavonoid sulphates, flavone C-glycosides, tricin, kestose and isokestose storage oligosaccharides [fructans] +; (velamen +); world wide in distribution.
ACTINOSCIRPUS (Ohwi) R. W. Haines & Lye,
Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh. & D.A.Simpson, (syn.  Schoenoplectus grossus(L.f.) Palla; Scirpus grossus L.f.);    gundu-tunga-gaddiగుండు తుంగగడ్డి ;  
BOLBOSCHOENUS (Aschers.) Palla,
Bolboschoenus glaucus (Lam.) S.G.Sm., Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, BULBOSTYLIS Kunth.,
Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke, Bulbostylis densa (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz.,
Carex speciosa Kunth, Carex stramentitia Boott. ex Boeck.,  
Courtoisina cyperoides (Roxb.) Soják(Rare in Kurnool, Ananthapur, VSKP)
Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb., Cyperus alulatus Kern, Cyperus alternifolius L., Cyperus arenarius Retz., Cyperus articulatus L., Cyperus bifax Clarke, Cyperus bulbosus Vahl,poora gaddi పూరగడ్డి  Cyperus castaneus Willd.,  Cyperus clarkei T.Cooke, Cyperus compactus Retz., Cyperus compressus L., Cyperus corymbosus Rottb., Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth, Cyperus difformis L., Cyperus diffusus Vahl,  Cyperus digitatus Roxb., Cyperus distans L.f., Cyperus dubius Rottb., Cyperus elatus L., Cyperus esculentus L., kshudra mushtiక్షుద్ర ముష్టి,sugandhi సుగంధి   Cyperus exaltatus Retz., Cyperus fuscus L., Cyperus haspan L., Cyperus imbricatus Retz., Cyperus iria L., Cyperus javanicus Houtt., Cyperus laevigatus L., Cyperus leucocephalus Retz.,Cyperus meeboldii Kuk., Cyperus michelianus subsp. pygmaeus (Rottb.) Asch. & Graebn. Cyperus niveus Retz., Cyperus nutans Vahl, Cyperus pangorei Rottb., Cyperus paniceus (Rottb.) Boeckeler, Cyperus pilosus Vahl, Cyperus platyphyllus Roem.&Schult., Cyperus platystylis R.Br., Cyperus procerus Rottb., Cyperus rotundus L., tunga-mustheluతుంగ ముస్తెలుbhadra-tunga-muste,  భద్ర తుంగ ముస్తె gandala,గండల,  kaivartakamuste,కైవర్తకముస్తె, shakha-tunga-veru, shakhatungaveru,శాఖ తుంగ వేరు, Cyperus rubicundus Vahl, Cyperus scariosus R.BR.,kolatungamustelu,కోలతుంగ ముస్తెలు  thunga gadda veru,  తుంగ గడ్డ వేరు Cyperus squarrosus L., Cyperus stoloniferus Retz.,konda jatamaansi కొండ జటమాంసి Cyperus strigosus  L., Cyperus tenuispica Steud., Cyperus tuberosus Rottb.,
Eleocharis  acutangula (Roxb.)Schult., Eleocharis  atropurpurea (Retz.)Presl., Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis swamyii Govind.,
Fimbristylis acuminate Vahl, Fimbristylis aestivalis (Retz.) Vahl, Fimbristylis argentea (Rottb.) Vahl, Fimbristylis bisumbellata (Forssk.) Bubani, Fimbristylis cinnamometorum (Vahl) Kunth(Seshachalam hils), Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link, Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br., Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl, Fimbristylis eragrostis (Nees) Hance,  Fimbristylis falcata (Vahl) Kunth, Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl,Fimbristylis ferruginea subsp. sieberiana (Kunth) Lye, Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich., Fimbristylis nutans (Retzius) Vahl,  Fimbristylis ovata (Burm.f.) J.Kern, Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retzius) R. Brown,  Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth, Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl, Fimbristylis tenera Schult., Fimbristylis tetragona R. Brown, 
Fuirena ciliaris (L.) Roxb., Fuirena umbellata Rottb., Fuirena uncinata (Willd.) Kunth,
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Kyllinga bulbosa P.Beauv., Kyllinga melanosperma Nees
 Kyllinga nemoralis (J. R. Forster & G. Forster) Dandy ex Hutchinson & Dalzielgandala గండల Kyllinga odorata Vahl, Kyllinga tenuifolia Steud.,
Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J.Kern, Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G. C. Tucker, Lipocarpha squarrosa (L.) Goetgheb.,
Pycreus diander (Torr.) C.B.Clarke, Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama, Pycreus polystachyos (Rottb.) P.Beauv., Pycreus pumilus (L.) Nees, Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees, Pycreus stramineus C.B.Clarke 
Remirea maritima Aubl.
Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton,
Queenslandiella hyalina (Vahl) Ballard,
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla, Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla,
Schoenoplectiella juncoides (Roxb.) Lye, Schoenoplectiella supina (L.) Lye
SCLERIA P. J. Bergius,
Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw., Scleria corymbosa Roxb., Scleria oblata S.T.Blake ex J.Kern , Scleria terrestris (L.) Fassett 
POACEAE Barnhart, nom. cons.//GRAMINEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   Leaves long, sheaths open and ligules at the sheath-lamina junction; often hollow stems/culms, basic unit is a spikelet in the inflorescences . Individual flowers are small, lacking an obvious perianth and with a gynoecium that usually has two plumose stigmas and a single ovule. In the dry, achenial fruit (often called a caryopsis), embryo large, lateral, lying next to the seed coat.
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ACRACHNE Wight&Arn. ex Chi.,
Acrachne racemosa (Heyne ex Roem.&Schult.)Ohwi,
Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Thw.,Puvvu gaddi,పువ్వుగడ్డి  uppu gaddiఉప్పుగడ్డి  
ALLOTEROPSIS J.S.Presl ex C.B.Presl,
Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf,
Andropogon pumilus Roxb.,
Apluda mutica L.,
Apocopis courtallumensis (Steud.)Henry, (Godavari), Apocopis vaginata Hack.,
Aristida adscensionis L.,nalla putiki,నల్ల పుటికి,  poraka gaddi పొరక గడ్డి,  Aristida funiculata Trin. &Rupr., Aristida hystrix L.f., Dolluba gaddi,డొల్లుబ్బగడ్డి   chinna misaala gaddiచిన్న మీసాల గడ్డి Aristida mutabilis Trin. & Rupr., Aristida setacea Retz.,cheepuru gaddi,చీపురు గడ్డి, gaddi parakalu,గడ్డి పరకలు, poochika gaddiపూచిక గడ్డి, poochika parakalu పూచికపరకలు
Arthraxon hispidus  (Thunb.)Makino, (Godavari, VSKP),Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst., Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst. Var. echinatus(Nees)Hack.,Doongaddi,దో నగడ్డి,nagriనగరి  Arthraxon lancefolius (Trin.)Hochst.,
Arundinella  benghalensis (Spr.)Druce,(VSKP), Arundinella  ciliata (Roxb.)Nees ex Miq., Arundinella pumila ( Hochst.) Steud.,Nallamala, Godavari dist.,  Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud.,(Rare in Nallamala), Arundinella setosa Trin.,Pathi oopagaddiపత్తి ఊప గడ్డి Arundinella setosa Trin. Var. lanifera Fischer, Arundinella nervosa (Roxb.) Nees ex Hook. & Arn.(Seshachalam hills)
Arundo donax L., kaki veduruకాకి వెదురుadavikikkasagadiఅడవికిక్కసగడ్డి ,  paatuveduru, పాటు వెదురు, peepaluపీపాలు 
Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.,(Chittoor, E.Godavari)
BAMBUSA Schreber nom.cons,
Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, veduruవెదురు, bongu veduru,  బొంగువెదురు, bongu,బొంగు  , kichakamu,కీచకము,  madusuveduru,ముడుసువెదురు , maskaramu,మస్కరము  moolkasha, mulla veduruముళ్లవెదురు, pentivedaru, పెంటి వెదురు , pottuvaeduruపొత్తువెదురు, trinadhvajamuతృణధ్వజము, vederuppuవెదురుప్పుBambusa tulda Roxb.,Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl.,  golden bamboo, veduruవెదురు,
Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A.Camus, janu gaddi,జానుగడ్డి, torra gaddiతొర్రగడ్డి, genjulu garikaగెంజులుగరిక  
Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf, Brachiaria  eruciformis (J.E.Smith)Griseb; domakalu gaddi దోమకాలుగడ్డి, Brachiaria kurzii (Hook.f.)Camus, Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf, Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf, anda korraఅండకొర్ర, eduru gaddiఎదురు గడ్డి , Brachiaria remota (Retz.) Haines, Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb.,
Cenchrus biflorus Roxb., Cenchrus ciliaris L.,kusaకుశ;Cenchrus echinatus L.,  Cenchrus setigerus Vahl, Anjan gaddi అంజన్ గడ్డి 
Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.,
Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) Thw., Darbhapathraka,దర్భపత్రక, Gella gaddiజెల్లగడ్డి   
Chloris barbata Sw.,uppu gaddiఉప్పుగడ్డి; Chloris bournei Rang. & Tadul., Chloris gayana Kunth, Chloris montana Roxb. , Chloris roxburghiana Schult., Chloris virgata Sw.
Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.)Trin.,katle chettu,కట్లెచెట్టు, katle gaddiకట్లెగడ్డి , shankapushpichettu శంఖపుష్పి చెట్టు  Chrysopogon asper B.Heyne ex Blatt. & McCann, Sci. Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf, Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov.,Pedda paala bogaray gaddi,పెద్దపాలబోగారేగడ్డి,  nakka barogantaనక్క బారోగంత  Chrysopogon lancearius (Hook.f.) Haines (Godavari), Chrysopogon orientalis (Desv.) A.Camus, Chrysopogon polyphyllus (Hack. ex Hook.f.)Blatt &McCann, Chrysopogon serrulatus Trin.,(E.Godavari), Chrysopogon velutinus (Hook.f)Bor., Chrysopogon verticillatus (Roxb.)Trin. ex Steud., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, vatti-veru,వట్టి వేరు, avvuru-gaddi-veru అవ్వూరు గడ్డి వేరు, kuruvaeru,కురువేరు  lamajjakamu-veru,లమజ్జకము వేరు,  vidavali-veruవిడవలి-వేరు  
Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight &Arn. ex Steud.)Munro ex Benth.,(Only in VSKP)
COELACHYRUM Hochst. & Nees, 
Coelachyrum lagopoides (Burm.f.) Senaratna,
Coix aquatica Roxb.,(Kurnool), Coix lacryma-jobi L.,gorivindlu,గొరివిండ్లు,  gorivipusa గొఱివిపూస (Godavari, VSKP)
Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Stapf, adavi nimma gaddi అడవి నిమ్మ గడ్డి , kaasi gaddi కాశీగడ్డి, kamanchi-gaddi కామంచి గడ్డి, Cymbopogon citratus (Hook.f.)Stapf,(Cultivated)nimmagaddiనిమ్మ గడ్డి,chippagaddi,చిప్పగడ్డి, vaasana gaddi వాసన గడ్డి, Cymbopogon coloratus (Hook.f.) Stapf, boda gaddiబోదగడ్డి;  Cymbopogon flexuousus (Nees ex Steud)Stapf, Cymbopogon gidarba (Ham. ex Steud.)Haines,  Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult., Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W.Watson, kamachi-kassuvu కామంచి కసువు, kachi gaddi కాచిగడ్డి, kanchi కంచి, kashy gaddiకాశీగడ్డి, nimma gaddiనిమ్మ గడ్డి,  Cymbopogon nardus (L.)Rendle,allapu kommu అల్లపు కొమ్ము గడ్డి,  vellavanti gadda వేళ్లవంటిగడ్డి, kaamaakshikasavu,కామాక్షి కసువు kaamanchi gaddiకామంచి గడ్డి, allupu bodha gaddi,అల్లుపుబోద గడ్డి  kamakshi-kasuvu-nuneకామాక్షి కసువునూనె , kamanchi-gaddinune kommu కామంచి గడ్డి నూనె కొమ్ము (Cultivated);Cymbopogon schoenanthus(L.)Spreng, chippa-gaddi-nuneచిప్పగడ్డినూనె, nimma-gaddi-nuneనిమ్మ గడ్డి నూనె
CYNODON Richard,
Cynodon barberi Rang.&Tad.,  Cynodon dactylon (L.) Persoon, garika gaddi, గరికగడ్డి,   haraili,హరియాలి  thella garikiతెల్ల గరిక,durvaramu దుర్వారము, bharghavi భార్గవి   
Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Hochst. ex Steud.) Stapf, Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.)Camus,
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd., nela raagiనేలరాగి, muttengapillu,ముట్టెంగపిల్లు   DENDROCALAMUS Nees
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.)Nees,saadanapuvedaru,సాదనపువెదురు, chittiveduru,చిట్టి వెదురు,gattiveduru, గట్టివెదురు  kanakaveduru, కనక వెదురు, potuveduru,పోటువెదురు  raartiveduru, రాతి వెదురు  sannaveduru,సన్న వెదురు, veduruవెదురు 
Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf, darbha gaddi,దర్భగడ్డి,aswalayana అశ్వలాయన, durpa దుర్ప,kushadarbha కుశ దర్భ ,
Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Dichanthium  aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb., Dichanthium  caricosum (L.)Camus, Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty, karigaddi కరిగడ్డి   Dichanthium glabrum (Roxb.)Jain, Dichanthium pseudoischaemum (Nees ex Steud.)Jain,
Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schult.) Veldkamp, Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, Digitaria  longiflora(Retz.) Pers.,  Digitaria stricta Roth ex Roem. & Schult., (Rare), Digitaria tomentosa (Willd.)Henry,
Dinebra retroflexa(Vahl) Panz.,
Dimeria lehmannii (Steud.)Hack.,(Seshachalam hills)
Echinochloa colona (L.) Linkothagaddi ఊతగడ్డి  Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv., pedda windu, పెద్ద విందు  Echinochloa frumentacea Link, oodarlu ఊదర్లు, korralu కొర్రలు   Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) Beauv.,bontha oddu,బొంత ఒద్దు  pedda oodaపెద్ద ఊద 
Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn., raagulu,రాగులు, chollu,చోళ్ళు, peddaraagulu,పెద్ద రాగులు,  sodiసోడి, tamidalu,  తమిదలు thaviddu తైదలు/తవిదలు
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.,kaaruchodi,  కారుచోడి kurorకుర్రో 
ENNEAPOGON Desv. ex P.Beauv.,
Enneapogon persicus Boiss.,
Enteropogon dolichostachyus (Lag.) Keng, kanthari gaddi కన్తరిగడ్డి  
Eragrostiella bifaria (Vahl) Bor, Eragrostiella brachyphylla(Stapf)Bor,  
Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arn., Eragrostis aspera (Jacq.) Nees,  Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud., Eragrostis  cilianensis (Ali.) Vign., Eragrostis ciliaris (L.)R.Br.,  Eragrostis ciliata(Roxb.) Nees,  Eragrostis coarctata Stapf,  Eragrostis deccanensis Bor.,  Eragrostis diarrhena (Schult.) Steud.,   Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.)Steud.,  Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.)Trin.,  Eragrostis minor Host, Eragrostis nigra Nees ex Steudel, Eragrostis  papposa(Roem. & Schult.,) Steud., Eragrostis patula (Kunth) Steud., Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv., Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees, Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., chinna garika gaddi చిన్నగరికగడ్డి  Eragrostis  tremula (Hochst.) Steud., Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., vudara gaddi ఊదరగడ్డి, Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin.,బంక గడ్డి banka gaddi, Eragrostis nutans (RETZ.) NEES EX STEUD. uranki gaddi, వూరంకి గడ్డి 
Eremopogon foveolatus (Del.) Stapf,
Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C. E. Hubb.,
Eulalia phaeothrix (Hackel) Kuntze,  Parai gaddi పరాయి గడ్డి 
Eulalia trispicata (Schult.)Henry(Nallamal hills)
Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.)C.E.Hubb., balvajaబల్వాజ (Rare in Godavari, VSKP, Srikakulam)
Garnotia tenella (Arn. ex Miq.) Janowski,
Hackelochloa granularis (L.) O. Ktze.,nali poonukuనాళిపూనుకు, Guru singu gaddi, గురుసింగుగడ్డి, kuru jedanai gaddiకూరు జెడనై గడ్డి 
Hemarthria compressa (L.f) R.Br.,
Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.,yeddi gaddiయెడ్డిగడ్డి, kaseri gaddi,కసేరిగడ్డి   
Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees, erra changala gaddiఎర్ర చంగల గడ్డి 
Hymenachne pseudointerrupta C.Muell.,
Ichnanthus  vicinus (Bailey)Merr.,
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.,balbajamu,బలబాజము, barhissu,బర్హిసు dharba, dharba gaddi,దర్భ /దర్భ గడ్డి  modavagaddi, మోదవగడ్డి 
Isachne globosa (Thunb.)O.Ktze., Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schult.,(Godavari, VSKP)
Ischaemum  indicum (Houtt.)Merr.,erra thota gaddiయెర్ర తోట గడ్డి   Ischaemum  pilosum (Klein ex Willd.)Wightkundara nattu కుందరనత్తు Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.,
Iseilema anthephoroides Hack., Iseilema laxum Hack.,yerra chengali gaddi ఎర్ర చెంగలి గడ్డి  Iseilema venkateswarluii Satyavathi, (Endemic)
LEERSIA Solander ex Swartz nom.cons.,
Leersia hexandra Sw.,
Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees, Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth,mandi gaddi మందిగడ్డి   Leptochloa neesii (Thwaites) Benth.,  Leptochloa  panacea (Retz.) Ohwi,
Lophopogon tridentatus (Roxb.) Hack.,
Manisuris myurus L.,nalla punuku నల్లపునుకు 
Melanocenchris jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach, Melanocenchris monoica (Rottl.)Fischer,
Microchloa kunthii Desv.,
Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.)Camus,
Mnesithea grannularis(L.)Koneing &Sosef,  Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth,penukuపెనుకు 
MYRIOSTACHYA (Benth.)Hook.f.,
Myriostachya wightiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.f.,kikkisa కిక్కిస 
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka,
Ophiuros exaltatus (L.) Kuntze,
Oplismenus  burmanii (Retz.) Beauv.,kodijuttu gaddi,కోడిజుట్టు గడ్డి  konda anthrikagaddi కొండ అంత్రిక గడ్డి Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv.,konda gaddi కొండ గడ్డి 
Oropetium  roxburghianum (Steud.)S.M.Philips (Very rare), Oropetium thomaeum(L.f.) Trin.,
Oryza  meyeriana (Zollin. &Mor.) Baill, Oryza  officinalis Wall ex  Watt. (Restricted to Gundla Brahmeswaram),, Oryza  rufipogon Griff.,nalla vadlu/yerra biyyamనల్ల వడ్లు /యెర్ర బియ్యం ,Oryza sativa L., vari,వరి, vadlu, వడ్లు, biyyamబియ్యం, dhanyamuధాన్యము ,  errajilama vadluఎర్ర జిలమవడ్లు ,  mattakaaraluమట్టకారలు, nevaridhanyamuనేవరిధాన్యము, yerra rajanaaluఎర్ర రాజనాలు  
Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy,
Panicum brevifolium L., Panicum fischeri Bor, Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum miliaceum L.,barigalu, varagalu, worgaవరిగలు   Panicum notatum Retz.,  Panicum  paludosum Roxb., Panicum psilopodium Trin., Panicum repens L.,allapu kommu  vanti gaddi అల్లపు కొమ్ము వంటిగడ్డి  , ladda-gaddiలడ్డ గడ్డి  Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult.,shamalu, సామలు, nalla shaamalu,నల్ల సామలు;Panicum trypheron Schult., Panicum walense Mez.,
Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus, Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf, Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) Camus,
Paspalum distichum L., Paspalum scorbiculatum L.,  arikelu, ఆరికలు, allu, అల్లు  arige ఆరిగ, asakalu, అసకాలు kiraruga,కిరారుగా  niraaruga,నిరారుగ  nita-ari-gaddi నీటఆరి గడ్డి , paata arige chettu, పాతఆరిగచెట్టు Paspalum vaginatum Sw.,
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., sajjaluసజ్జలు,gantelu,గంటెలు peddaganti పెద్ద గంటి ,  sazza   Pennisetum hohenackeri Hochst. Ex Steud.,  Pennisetum pedicellatum  Trin., Pennisetum  polystachyon (L.) Schult., Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Pennisetum setosum Schum.,
Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze, nakka peechu,నక్క పీచు  nakka thoka,నక్కతోక గడ్డి  nakkapeechu,
Phalaris minor Retz.,
Phragmites karka (Ret­z.) Trin. ex Steud., eela karra,ఈలకర్ర,naagasvaramu, నాగస్వరము,   kikkasagaddi,కిక్కసగడ్డి   kulpa gaddi, కులపగడ్డి  mettantisa,మెట్టన్తిస    peddarelluపెద్ద రెల్లు , puvvugutthigaddi, puvvuguttigaddi పువ్వుగుత్తి గడ్డి 
Pogonatherum crinatum(Thunb.)Kunth, Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.)Hack.,
Pommereulla cornucopiae L.f.,
Pseudanthistiria heteroclita (Roxb.) J. D. Hooker,(New record) Pseudanthistiria umbellata (Hack)Hook,
Pseudopogonatherum contortum (Bor.)Camus,
Pseudoraphis spinescence (R.Br.)Vickery(Aqatic grass)
Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) Camus,
ROTTBOELLIA L.f.,        
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, konda poonukuకొండపునుకు 
Saccharum officinarum L., cheraku,చెఱకు,rasaalamu,రసాలము,  arukanupula-kranuga, ఆరుకణుపుల క్రానుగ cheraku-gada,చెఱకుగడ, ikshupu,ఇక్షుపు, kaantaaramu,కాంతారము  kanupula-cheruku, కణుపులచెరుకు,  laavucheruku, లావుచెరుకు,  thellacheraaku,తెల్ల చెరుకు  thiyyamranu, తియ్యమ్రాను, vamsakamu, వంశకము   Saccharum spontaneum L., rellu gaddi,రెల్లుగడ్డి,kaakicheruku,కాకి చెరుకు, billu gaddi, బిల్లు గడ్డి,  kaaki veduru, కాకి వెదురు,  kaki gaddi,కాకి గడ్డి  koregadi, కోరెగడ్డి  naga saramuనాగ సరము, verricheruku,వెర్రిచెరకు vetticheraku వెట్టి చెరుకు    
Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase,  Sacciolepis interupta (Willd.) Stapf, wolam వొలం  
Sehima nervosum (Rottler) Stapf, Sehima  sulcatum (Hack.)Camus,
SETARIA P. Beauv.,
Setaria  intermedia Roem. & Schult., Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.,korraluకొర్రలు, kanguni,కంగుని, nakka-korra, నక్క కొర్ర Setaria palmifolia (Koen.)Sapf.,  Setaria  paniculifera (Steud.)Fourn. ex Hemsl., Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., nakka korra నక్క కొర్ర;  Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv.,chigirinta gaddi,చిగిరింతగడ్డి,  chikilinta gaddiచికిలింతగడ్డి  
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, jonnalu,జొన్నలు, pachha jonna, పచ్చ జొన్న,thellajonnalu,తెల్ల జొన్నలు, gidda jonnaగిద్దజొన్న, kondajonnalu, కొండ జొన్నలు  raamudi thalam braalu,రాముడి తలంబ్రాలు,   Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., gaddi jonna గడ్డి జొన్న  Sorghum nitidum  (Vahl) Pers.,
Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr.,ravanasurudi meesaluరావణాసురుడిమీసాలు, gutti romala gaddi,గుత్తి రోమాలగడ్డి, meesalu మీసాలు,  
Sporobolus diander (Retz.) P. Beauv., Sporobolus capillaris Miq., Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.)Kunth, Sporobolus maderaspatanus Bor, Sporobolus pilifreous (Trin.)Kunth, Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl)Kunth, Sporobolus tremulus (Willd.)Kunth, Sporobolus virginicus (L.)Kunth, Sporobolus wallichi Munro ex Trin,
 THEMEDA Forrsk.,
Themeda  arundinacea (Roxb.) Ridl., Themeda laxa (Anderss.)Camus, Themeda quadrivalis (L.) O.Ktze., Themeda tremula (Nees ex Steud) Hack., Themeda trianda Forrsk., Themeda cymbaria Hack.(Seshachalam Hills)
Tetrapogon tenellus (Roxb.) Chiov., Tetrapogon villosus Desf.,
Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda, konda cheepuru gaddi కొండచీపురుగడ్డి   Syn. Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O.Ktze., (E.Godavari, VSKP)
Trachys muricata (L.)Pers., ex Trin.,
TRAGUS Heller nom.cons.,
Tragus roxburghii Panigrahi,
Tripogon  bromides Roem. & Schult., Tripogon jacquemontii Stapf, Tripogon wightii Hook.f ,
Tripsacum laxuma Nash, (Rare in Araku valley)
Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv., Urochloa setigera (Retz.) Stapf,
Zea mays L., mokkajonna, మొక్క జొన్న, jonnapothu,జొన్న పొత్తులు 
ZOYSIA Willd.,
Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.,
XYRIDACEAE C. Agardh, nom. cons.
Rosette plants that often have two-ranked, isobifacial leaves; they can be recognised best by their inflorescences and flowers. The inflorescences normally bear one or more pairs of bracts along the inflorescence stalk; the flowers are borne in heads and have a conspicuous but ephemeral corolla. 
Xyris capensis  Thunb., Xyris pauciflora Willd., (Visakha patnam and Chittoor dist)
JUNCACEAEJussieu, nom. cons.
glabrous (Luzula excepted) caespitose herbs; stems solid and rounded; leaves that are also often rounded and have open sheaths, and pentacyclic flowers with a scarious perianth, G shortly stipitate. 
Juncus prismatocarpus R.Br., in Araku valley.
BROMELIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
 Rosette plants, the leaves always being tough, spirally arranged, lacking a distinct sheath, and often with spiny-toothed margins; the indumentum is scaly (lepidote); and the terminal inflorescence is predominantly bracteate, the bracts sometimes being coloured. The flowers have a calyx and corolla, and the petals, although free, are erect and form a tube. Fruit a septicidal capsule, K persistent; seeds caudate.
Ananas comosus (L.)Merr., Pineapple, అనాసపండు  cultivated in Vishaka dist.
Ananas comosus fruit
COMMELINACEAE Mirbel, nom. Cons
Herbs with rather soft and fleshy leaves with closed sheaths. The inflorescences are helicoid cymes; often subtended by large, leafy bracts; they are quite often leaf-opposed. The flowers usually last for one day only and are frequently blue or pink; when they are monosymmetric they are usually held with the median petal in the abaxial position. The filaments are often conspicuously hairy. (G [2]), septal nectaries 0; fruit a loculicidal capsule, variously thickened; seeds pitted or rugose.

Mycorrhizae absent; 6-hydroxyflavonoids present.
Commelina attenuata K.D.Koenig ex Vahl, Commelina benghalensis L.,vennadevikura,వెన్నదేవి కూర, amruta kaadaఅమృత కాడ, neerukaassuvu, నీరు కసువు, venna veduruవెన్నవెదురు,  yanadra aakuయాండ్రఆకు Commelina caroliniana Walter,( Syn. Commelina hasskarlii C.B.Clarke), Commelina clavata C.B.Clarke, Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Commelina ensifolia R.Br., Commelina erecta L., Commelina hirsuta (Wight)Clarke, (Rare in Kurnool), Commelina maculata Edgew., Commelina paludosa Blume,  Commelina petersii Hassk.,( Syn. Commelina jacobii C.E.C.Fisch.Commelina persicariifolia Wight ex C.B.Clarke)
Cyanotis D. Don,
Cyanotis arachnoidea C. B. Clarke, Cyanotis arcotensis Rolla Rao,   Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D. Don ex Sweet, Cyanotis cristata (L.) D. Don,  kinimokka,కినిమొక్క, neta kinaనేతకిన Cyanotis cucullata (Roth)Kunth, Cyanotis fasciculata (B.Heyne ex Roth) Schult. & Schult.f., Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult.f.,
Floscopa scandens Lour.,
Murdannia Royle,
Murdannia  dimorpha (Dalz.)Brueckner, Murdannia nudiflora (L.)Brenan, Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn., Murdannia striatipetala Faden, Murdannia vaginata (L.) G.Brückn.,
Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden
Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt, Tradescantia spathacea Sw.,( Syn. Rhoeo discolor (L'Hér.) Hance.
PONTEDERIACEAE Kunth, nom. cons.
Herbs with rather soft and fleshy leaves with closed sheaths. The inflorescences are helicoid cymes; often subtended by large, leafy bracts; they are quite often leaf-opposed. The flowers usually last for one day only and are frequently blue or pink; when they are monosymmetric they are usually held with the median petal in the abaxial position. The filaments are often conspicuously hairy. (G [2]), septal nectaries 0; fruit a loculicidal capsule, variously thickened; seeds pitted or rugose.
Mycorrhizae absent; 6-hydroxyflavonoids present. 
Eichhornia Kunth,
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, budaga tamara,బుడగ తామర  gurra pudekka mokaగుఱ్ఱపుడెక్కమొక్క , kappa kaluva కప్ప కలువ   
Monochoria C. Presl,
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) C.Presl, neerukaacha, నీరు కాచ  nirokanchaనీరుకాంచ 
Rhopalephora scaberrima (Bl.)Faden
VSKP and E.Godavari districts.
Giant herbs; no aerial stem except when flowering; leaf with petiole and blade, midrib +, lateral veins S-shaped , more than a single order, fine transverse venation; inflorescence branches spirally arranged; inflorescence bracts largepersistentflowers large [>2 cm long], monosymmetric; A5, anthers long [>5 mm long];  G inferior, style long, stigma large, seeds arillatewith germination valves. Members of this group are largely restricted to the tropics.For images please
Plant epiphytic; aerial stem +, branched leaves spiromonostichous, sheath closed; inflorescence dense, spicate-capitate, unbranched, flowers single; floral bracts large, often with abaxial nectarines.Flowers monosymmetric,with large labellum and single stamen, (G [2]), stigma with adaxial projection, fimbriate.
Costus speciousus (Koen.) Smith., adavi dumpa,అడవి దుంప  koshtamu కోష్ఠము ,
MARANTACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Robust herbs, Aerial stem +,  leaf sheath closed; petiole often long, pulvinate at the apex, flowers in mirror image pairs [2-flowered units], of moderate size, median member of the outer whort adaxial; inner whorl T and A develop before outer whorl T and A; C, A and style all basally fused, (outer staminodes 0), one inner staminode hooded, only 1 G fertile, style under tension, becoming curved; ovule 1/carpel, basal. 
Maranta arundinacea L., pala gunda పాలగుండ    
MUSACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Plants large herbs; cormose; glabrous; buds not axillary; leaves spiral, petiole short, secondary veins depart more or less at right angles from the midrib.Plant monoecious; inflorescence bracts deciduous, flowers ebracteate, monosymmetric flowers, which are at right angles to the main axis; tepals 5, five tepals connate except the adaxial petal, that is deeply concave. staminate flowers: Stamens 6,  median [adaxial] anther of  inner whorl absent. carpellate flowers: staminodes +,  stigma capitate; loculii mucilaginous. Fruit a berry.   
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman.(Rare in VSKP)
Musa paradisiaca L.,aratiఅరటి  Musa rosacea Jacq.,konda aratiకొండ అరటి   (Rare in E.Godavari), Musa balbisiana Colla., aratiఅరటి 
Ravenala madagascarensis Sonn., Cultivated as ornamental.
CANNACEAE A. L. Jussieu,
Large herbs, mucilage canals in stem; leaves spiral, petiole short; inflorescence branched; flower large, short-lived, asymmetric ; fertile ½ stamen with petaloid appendage, staminodes 1-4; G muricate, style flattened,  stigma on one edge; capsule glandular-muricate.
Canna indica L., krishnatamara,కృష్ణతామర mettatamaraమెట్టతామర  
Curcuma amada Roxb.(Cultivated, maamidiallam,మామిడల్లం,arukanla kachoram,ఆరు కండ్ల కచోరము, shadgrandikaషడ్గ్రంధిక    
Curcuma aromatica Salisb., (Rare in E.Godavari dist,  kasturi-pasupu,కస్తూరి పసుపు, adavi pasupuఅడవిపసుపు, Curcuma decipiens Dalz., (Rare in Godavari), Curcuma neilgherensis Wight,  Curcuma longa L., pasupuపసుపు,haridra హరిద్ర   Curcuma pseudomontana J.Graham, adavi pasupuఅడవిపసుపు
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, adavipasuvu,అడవిపసుపు kachoeramu, kachoramకచోరము, kasthooripasupu,కస్తూరి పసుపు, kichhiligaddalu,కిచ్చిలిగడ్డలు 
Large and often aromatic rhizomatous herbs with two-ranked, ligulate leaves that have open sheaths; inflorescence branched, flowers pedicellate, monosymmetric, with single stamen, filament short, median A of outer whorl 0, lateral staminodes petal-like; fruit fleshy. 
Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f)Roscoe (Visakapatnam, Godavari dist.,)Alpinia galanga (L.) WILLD., dumparaashtrakamu, దుంపరాష్ట్రకము  kachoramu,కచోరము , peddadumparashtrakamu పెద్దదుంపరాష్ట్రకము;Alpinia chinensis ROSCOE, sanna-dumparashtrakam,సన్నదుంపరాష్ట్రకము  sannarastramసన్నరాష్ట్రము 
Globba marantina L.,kalinga raashtra,కళింగరాష్ట్ర kondapasupu కొండ పసుపు Globba ophioglossa Wight,sonti సొంటిGlobba orixensis ROXB.,dumpa raashtramuదుంపరాష్ట్రము Globba racemosa Smith., 
Globba marantina
Hedychium coronarium Koen.dumpa raashtramuదుంపరాష్ట్రము, kicciligadda, కిచ్చిలి గడ్డ , vasa vasanthi, వసవాసంతి  Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe, Hedychium spicatum BUCH.-HAM.,seema kichiligaddalu సీమకిచ్చిలి గడ్డలు  
Zingiber officinale Rosc., allamu,అల్లము ardrakamu, ఆర్ద్రకము mahaushadamuమహౌషధము, sonti,శొంఠి,  sringaberamu,శృంగబేరము  Zingiber capitatum Roxb., Zingiber purpureum Rosc.,kaaru pasupuకారు పసుపు, Zingiber roseum (Roxb.)Rosc., bomma kachikiబొమ్మ కచికి ,adavi pasupu,అడవి పసుపు  kaarallamu,కారల్లము koorapasupu, కూర పసుపు, 
Large herbs with two-ranked leaves and erect or pendulous inflorescences with large, coloured bracts in the axils of which are fascicles of flowers with petal-like tepals; flowers resupinate (not), obliquely monosymmetric, the drupaceous fruit is borne on a stout, elongated pedicel and has a single hard stone per loculus.
Heliconium pendula Cultivated 
Heliconium pendula
  Aquatic herbs; roots 0; vascular cambium 0;  stomata 0; leaves opposite, lamina margins spiny-toothed; plant monoecious; flowers extra-axillary, alternating with leaves; anthers extrorse, arrangement unclear.G-1 , ovule 1/carpel, endosperm 0, embryo large.
Aquatic plants; leaves whorled, spiny-toothed, often dichotomously-branched; flowers small, sessile; the perianth and connective have spiny teeth; fruit spiny, achenial.
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Only genus with the chatacters of the family.
Rare, in unpolluted waters throughout the state. Hornwort, rigid hornwort, coontail, or coon's tail(Eng.)nasu,నాసు  neeti sambraaniనీటి సాంబ్రాణి 
Ceratophyllum demersum
RANUNCULALES Berchtold & J. Presl  
Includes Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae and Ranunculaceae 
MENISPERMACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Vines or lianas in habit; leaves simple, alternate,petioles pulvinate at both ends, often lamina peltate and coriaceous with palmate venation. The plants are dioecious; inflorescence axillary; flowers small, parts whorled or spiral, the often 3-merous flowers are small, anthers with superposed thecae and the drupelets single seeded, often have a distinctively sculpted endocarp and can be strongly curved (hence the "moon-seed" family 

aporphine alkaloids, sesqui- and diterpenoids +, (plant tanniniferous); Pantropical.
Anamirta cocculus (L.)Wight&Arn., kakumaanu కాకుమాను   
Cissampelos pareira L.,adavi banka teega, అడవి బంక తీగ,visaboddiవిషబొద్ది, chiruboodiచిరుబోడి , esaboddiఏస బొద్ది , paata, పాట, pata visha boddiపాట విష బొద్ది , pateru tivva, పటేరుతివ్వ , shedsugandiచెడు సుగంధి,     
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob., doosaratheege, దూసరతీగ, cheepurutheega, చీపురుతీగ,  katla tiga, కట్లతీగ, shipriశిప్రి    
CYCLEA Arnott ex Wight
Cyclea peltata (Lam.)Hook.f.,paatathige, పాటతీగ  
Pachygone ovata (Poir.) Diels, pedda dusara teega, పెద్ద దూసరతీగ 
Parabaena sagittata Miers
Stephania japonica (Thunb.)Miers., Rare in North coastal districts., duvvathigeదువ్వ తీగ 
TILIACORA Colebrroke,
Tiliacora acuminata Miers, kappa teegaకప్పతీగ, theega mushidi తీగ ముషిడి, adavi thamalapaaku,అడవితమలపాకు,naagamushini,నాగముషిణి, nalla thigeనల్ల తీగ , paataeru, పాటేరు  , thigemushini,తీగముషిణి, verri chithra moolamu వెర్రిచిత్రమూలం    
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.)Miers,tippa teega,తిప్పతీగ,jivantikaజీవంతిక,kora patta tige,కోర పట్ట తీగ,   amrta,అమృత  dooyuthige, దూయు తీగ , galoochi, గలూచి,   guduchi, గుడిచి,  iruloochi, ఇరులూచి  , kodupurutheega, కొడుపురుతీగ,  madhukaమధుక , manapaala, మనపాల , somida,సోమిద,  thellathippathige,తెల్లతిప్పతీగ,    tippa-tige-sattuతిప్పతీగ సత్తు ,  Tinospora sinensis (Lour.)Merril, thippatheegaతిప్పతీగ, 
RANUNCULACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Herbs or woody lianas; leaves spiral, usually exstipulate, lobed leaves with broad bases. The flowers have large and often petal-like sepals, nectariferous "petals", spiral, usually numerous stamens, and separate carpels borne on a well-developed receptacle. Fruit a follicle. Mainly temperate.
Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.,gowri kunthalaగౌరీకుంతల, pedutivva పేడుతీగ/తివ్వ, gurrapu teega గుర్రపు తీగ, ; Clematis smilacifolia Wall.,gurrapu teega గుర్రపు తీగ,        
NARAVELIA Candolle nom. cons.,
Naravelia zeylanica (L.)DC., pulla bachalaపుల్లబచ్చల, karu pippala tivva,కారుపిప్పలతివ్వ,   mukku peenasa teega, ముక్కుపీనాసతీగ
Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Rare in north coastal dist.,
Nigella sativa L., is known as Black caraway నల్ల జిలకర it is used as substitute to షాజిరా . ఇది మన రాష్ట్రంలో పండదు. కానీ ఆయుర్వేద మందులలో వాడతారు.       
PAPAVERACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons
Herbs with copious latex; leaves soft, bristly-hairy; base broad. The flowers are 2-merous, buds enclosed by two, large, fugaceous sepals ; and the calyx and corolla are clearly distinguishable; petals crumpled, stamens numerous, the gynoecium has two (or more) carpels, parietal placentation, and usually a short style.
Argemone mexicana L., balu rakkisa,బలురక్కిస, brahmadandi,బ్రహ్మదండి, kusumapala,కుసుమ పాల  pichy kusama chettuపిచ్చికుసుమ చెట్టు,  yerrikusuma ఎర్రి కుసుమ, peela dattura పీలదత్తూర,nela rakkisaనేలరక్కిస           
Fumaria indica (Hassk.)Pugsley (A weed in Vijayanagaram dist.)
 NELUMBONACEAE A. Richard, nom. cons. 
Aquatic, rhizomatous herbs; with air canals; leaves  peltate, with dichotomous main venation that are held above the water surface like parasols,flowers large, have free carpels immersed in a large, obconical receptacle. 
For images please visit:
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
It is the National flower of India. The flowers are used for worship in temples; the tender petioles, rhizome, and seeds are eaten as vegetable in many cultures. The leaves are widely used as meals plates. 
Common name: Lotus, Sacred lotus, East Indian Lotus(Eng.); thaamara, తామర, errathaamaraయెర్ర తామర ,  kamalamu,కమలం padmamu,పద్మం  pundreekamu పుండరీకము , soungadhikamu సౌగంధికము , thella thaamara,తెల్ల తామర;
PROTEACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br. commonly known as Silver oak is cultivated as avenue plant in some parts of the state.parana, perane,పరణ  seema chiluku, సీమ చిలుకు
Grevillea robusta flowers

BUXACEAE Dumortier, nom. cons. 
Evergreen herbs to small trees; monoecious; leaves opposite, exstipulate; flowers small with an inconspicuous perianth. The stamens are opposite the perianth members, and the styluli, stigmatic their entire length, are conspicuous. Fruit has no columella. 
Sarcococca saligna (D.Don) Muell.-Arg. in DC., 
Rare, in VSKP dist., 
DILLENIALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
Leaves simple,coarse, strong and parallel secondary veins that proceed straight into the teeth; scalariform tertiary venation; flowers conspicuous, pedicels articulated, petals crumples; stamens many, reflexed in bud; fruits shiny follicles; seeds arillate.
Dillenia bracteata Wight., Chiruteku.చిరుటేకు, kallateku, కల్లటేకు  
Dillenia indica L., peddakalinga,పెద్దకళింగ,revadi chettu,రేవడి చెట్టు,  chalta,చల్త , kalinga,కళింగ, uvva వువ్వ ; Elephant apple(Eng.)
Dillenia pentagyna Roxb., chinna kalinga, చిన్నకళింగ, raevadi,రేవడి, parateku,పారాటేకు, parudu,పరుడు,   rath-eggi,రాథేగ్గి,   uvva kaya వువ్వకాయ
Dillenia indica
SAXIFRAGALES Berchtold & J. Presl
Branching from the previous flush [woody members];leaf margin serrate; anthers basifixed, with basal pit; carpels free, at least apically, styluli short, stigmas decurrent; fruit dry,seeds small compared with other angiosperms;
They have a very poor representation in the tropics.
SAXIFRAGALES Berchtold & J. Presl 
CRASSULACEAE Jaume Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.
Plants woody, succulents, flowers 4 merous; Calyx tubular, lobes 4, Corolla connate; stamens 4, with spherical connective prolongation; carpels 4, free and have nectariferous scales at their bases. The fruits are usually follicles. 
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln., Kalanchoe cherukondensis Subbarao & Kumari, (Endemic) Kalanchoe lacinata (L.)pers., sima-jamudu సీమ జెముడు, Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forrsk.)Pers., Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.)Pers.ranapala,రణపాల, gallara paku, గల్లారపాకు kondel cheruకొండెల్చెరు  , seemajaamulu,సీమ జెముడు
HALORAGACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Small herbs; usually monoecious. Leaves opposite or whorled, small, lamina margin serrate or deeply lobed. Flowers small, solitary or in dichasial cymes or in fascicles; 4-merous; K valvate, C deciduous; A 8, opposite sepals, anthers much longer than filaments; ovary inferior, ovule 1/carpel, styluli with swollen bases, stigmas capitate. Fruit nut-like, indehiscent, exocarp often ornamented. 
Myriophyllum indicum Willd., 
Ver.names: Water milfoil (Eng.); Pandi naachu పంది నాచు (Tel.).

VITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Often vines, nodes are often swollen; tendrils usually leaf-opposed; leaves palmately compound, or lobed or veined; leaf blades are very brittle when dry, with coarse teeth; stipules caduceus. Flowers small in leaf-opposed paniculate or umbellate cymes; petals valvate. The stamens are equal in number to and opposite the petals,  Gynoecium bicarpellate, 4-ovulate, stigmas sessile, berry often has ruminate seeds.   
Ampelocissus divaricata (Wall. ex Lawson)Planch, Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch.,   adavi teega drakshaఅడవి తీగ ద్రాక్ష,bedasathivva,బేడసతివ్వ, athukula bodduఅతుకుల బొద్దు,adavi draksha,అడవి ద్రాక్ష, doba-tiga,దోబతీగ,pani-bel,పాణిబెల్ pula-tigaపూలతీగ  Ampelocissus tomentosa (B.Heyne & Roth) Planch.,adavi draksha,అడవి ద్రాక్ష,athukula bodduఅతుకుల బొద్దు,gari gummadi,గారిగుమ్మడి , lolugatige, లోలుగతీగ   CAYRATIA Juss. nom.cons,
Cayratia auriculata (Roxb.)Gamble,  pullagummadi పుల్ల గుమ్మడి,kaniyapu teega కనియపుతీగ, koorapallem కూర పళ్లెం; Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep.,edaakulamandulamaari,ఏడాకులమందుల మారి gummadithige, గుమ్మడి తీగ,  kaadepathigeకాడేప తీగ ,  kaanniyaapathige,కానియపుతీగ   nasa gummadi,నసగుమ్మడి,  pulimaadaపులిమాడ, thigegummadiతీగ గుమ్మడి    Cayratia trifolia (L.)Domin, kanupu tigeకణుపు తీగ, kaadepathigeకాడేప తీగ,pulimaadaపులిమాడ, kaaniyaapathigeకానియపుతీగ , kamputhigeకంపుతీగ,, kurudinne కూరుదిన్నె, mandulamarithigeమందుల మారితీగ , mekamethani kadaమేకమెత్తనికాడ ,     
Cissus adnata Roxb.,gudamathige, గుడమతీగ  kokkitayaaraalu కొక్కితయారాలు, Cissus quadrangularis L., nalleruనల్లేరు,vajravalliవజ్రవల్లి, gudametige,గుడమతీగ ; Cissus repanda (Wight & Arn.) Vahl, gummadithige,గుమ్మడితీగ,  nelabodduనేలబొడ్డు, pasupu godani theganiపసుపుగోదానితీగ , Cissus repens Lam.,nelabodduనేలబొడ్డు, ladayi kotam లడాయి కోటం ;Cissus vitiginea L., adavi draksha,అడవి ద్రాక్ష, bankabaddu,బంక బద్దు  chinna mandula maari,చిన్న మందుల మారి  gummudu గుమ్ముడు,adavigummadi అడవిగుమ్మడి,meka mettaku  మేకమెత్తాకు , Cissus woodrowii (Stapf ex Cooke) Santapau,
( Syn. Cissus pallida (Wight&Arn.)Salisb.)budara theegaబూదరతీగ , nalla teega, నల్ల తీగ , pedda gummudu,  పెద్దగుమ్ముడు    
Cyphostemma setosum ( Roxb. ) Alston,barre bachaliబర్రెబచ్చలి,podabachali పొదబచ్చల
Leea asiatica (L.)Rid., Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr.,anka dora, అంకదొర , jalamukkuduజల ముక్కుడు , jata mukudi, జత ముక్కుడు  neetiveli నీటి వేలి Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem.,peddapayagillaakuపెద్ద పాయగిల్లాకు 
Tetrastigma canarense (Dalz.)Gamble, Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.)Alston,kond draaksha కొండ ద్రాక్షTetrastigma sulcatum (Lawson)Gamble, (This genus is found in Visakhapatnam and E.Godavari districts only)thellagummadiతెల్ల గుమ్మడి 
Vitis vinifera L.,(It is cultivated  for the fruits). draaksha, ద్రాక్ష ,  gostini-panduగోస్తని పండు , kisumisu panduకిస్మిస్ పండు 
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE R. Brown, nom. Cons.
Herbs to trees growing in arid and saline conditions almost worldwide. Leaves compound usually stipulate and opposite that lack a terminal leaflet; the nodes are to be swollen. The flowers have all parts free apart from the carpels; there are usually ten stamens that often have scales at the base. Some aspects of floral morphology, e.g. obdiplostemony, gross stigma morphology, are reminiscent of Geraniales.
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, gara-chettu,గార/గార చెట్టు, ingudi ఇంగుడి ,
Fagonia cretica L., cittigara చిట్టి గార 
Tribulus subramanyamii P.Singh etal.,  Tribulus terrestris L., palleru,పల్లేరు, chirupalleru,చిరు పల్లేరు  cinnapalleru,చిన్న పల్లేరు  nirunji,నీరుంజి , pallerumullu,పల్లేరు ముళ్ళు   sannaneggilugidaసన్ననెగ్గిలుగిడ  
CELASTRACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Shrubs and trees or lianes ;leaves opposite, serrate are common, the stipule-like structures are small and quite often fringed; flowers in cymes, very broad disc in which the ovary is more or less immersed and five or fewer stamens, are often distinctive; stamens as many as sepals and opposite to sepals, (staminodes ± fringed); fruit a loculicidal capsule with winged or arillate seeds. hexitol dulcitol, flavonols +, ellagic acid 0;
Cassine glauca (Rottb.) Kuntze,  nirichi నిరిచి,  bhoothaankusamu, భూతాంకుశము,neradi, నేరడి, beera,బీర, kanniru,కన్నీరు,   nerinja,నెఱింజ, niraja maanuనిరజమాను, neraddi నీరడ్డి  noorijia, noridiనోరిడి,yerrajirri యెర్రజిర్రి  
Celastrus paniculatus Willd., malaeria teega మలేరియాతీగ, baavanji,బావంజి,  eru kotaఎరుకోట, eriki ఎరికిmaayalenkatha మాయలెంకతmayalaerikata, మాయలెరికత, pallem thivva పల్లెంతివ్వ , gandumidaగండుమీద,    jyothishmathi,జ్యోతిష్మతి,  maayaleruthige,మాయలోరి తీగ, malaerikata,మాలేరికత   malkanguni,మల్కాన్గి   manerutheega,మానేరుతీగ, odur, ఒదురు, pallerutivva,పల్లేరు తివ్వ  theega paaleru,తీగపల్లేరు,             
Euonymus glaber Roxb.,Euonymus indicus HEYNE EX. ROXB., nallakaakidiనల్లకాకిడి 
Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth., danthi, దంతిchinni, చిన్ని   gajachinni, geccangi, gechchangi, గెచ్చెంగి, peddachinta పెద్ద చింతు/చింటు, peddadanteపెద్దదంతి, thanisiతనిసి 
Loeseneriella obtusifolia (Roxb.) A.C.Sm., mediteegaమేడితీగ  
MAYTENUS Molina emend Bosch,
Maytenus emarginata (Ruiz & Pav.) Loes., danthi,దంతి,goddali-chippa, గొడ్డలి చిప్ప, chinni tuppa,చిన్నితుప్ప, danthausi దంతఔసి,  gajasinni గజశిన్ని,  peddachintu,పెద్ద చింటు peddadanthi, పెద్దదంతి, Maytenus heyneana (Roth)Raju&Babu,
Maytenus hookeri Loes., Maytenus rufa (Wall.)Hara,
Pleurostylia opposita (Wall.) Alston,kuntichinta, కుంటిచింత, piyariపియారి  
Reissantia indica (Willd.) Halle, verriyaapaవెర్రియాప  
Salacia chinensis L. neraaniనేరాణి, Salacia oblonga Wall ex Wight&Arn.,
Siphondon celastrineus Griff.,
OXALIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Trees to herbs (vines); leaves spiral, compound leaves with pulvinate leaflets; the leaflets are entire and often have sub-palmate venation; Flowers either cymose or has cymose branches, pedicels articulated; petals contorted, often clawed; anthers extrorse; nectaries often as glands, opposite to petals; G [(3-)5], stigmas spathulate/capitate; ovules (1-)2-many/carpel, the flowers are heterostylous; fruit a  ribbed/angled loculicidal capsule.   
Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. jala puspaజలపుష్ప, attapatti, అత్తపత్తి chumi,చుమి  , Biophytum reinwardtii (Zucc.)Klotzsch, Biophytum nervifolium Thw.,
Oxalis corniculata L.pulichintaakuపులిచింతాకు,pullachanchali,పులిచెంచలి,amboti kura, అంబొటికూర, puli chintaపులిచింత, chinchalam  చించలం Oxalis latifolia H.B.K.Nov.,

Woody plants (Shrubs to trees). Leaves that tend to turn red or orange red, sometimes yellow, as they die; the blades are often serrate and the petiole can be swollen at one or both ends. The flowers are moderate-sized, pendulouson racemose inflorescences. Both calyx and corolla are often valvate; the petals, when present, are often fringed, there is often a very prominent disc that is usually outside the stamens, the basifixed anthers often have rather short filaments and dehisce by pores or short slits (these may elongate), and the fruit is often a smooth to spiny woody capsule with arillate and/or hairy seeds.
Elaeocarpus lanceifolius Roxb.,Elaeocarpus lucidus,  Rudrakshaరుద్రాక్ష Elaeocarpus  tectorius (Lour.)Poir., (Rare in VSKP),Elaeocarpus sphaericus (GAERTN.) K.SCHUM., rudraksha రుద్రాక్ష (It is found in Eastern Himalayas) but the seeds are well known and used in A.P. Hence to introduce it is added 
Elaeocarpus sphaericusరుద్రాక్షపూలు  
Courtesy: Images of Aristolochia ringens, Dillenia, Elaeocarpus, Aerides,Cymbidium, Paplionanthe teresprovided by Col.Bimal Sarkar 
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Copyright @A.lalithamba.
It is under construction; To be continued .....
The authors are A.Lalithamba Rtd.Lecturer in Botany(Her other bloglist is given below) and D.C.S.RAJU. FLS.;For his works and history of plant taxonomy please visit 


  1. Wonderful information, let me tell you, your website gives the best and the most interesting information. This is just the kind of information that i had been looking for, Thanks a ton once again, Regards, muslim baby names

  2. Thank you Sir. Your work is invaluable and is required in todays world with all the health misseries and worries. Please keep up with the same spirit to extend the list of other hebs/plants/trees. Without this translated and pictorial information it is quite difficult to acquire much of the ayurvedic raw materials.

    Thank you once again.

  3. thank you Sir, interesting information.

  4. can you give me the location of neeli kaluva - i promice to take only a few tubers ( less than 10 )


  5. this is a very appreciable work mam
    if i provide you plant botanical name can you give me telugu names