Friday, November 16, 2012

Flora Andhrika-Plant wealth of Andhra Pradesh

Taxonomy has a major role in interpreting the knowledge base of Globosphere. The aim of this attempt is to make information very accessible and flexible. Preparation of Floristic accounts and databases are also vital for providing taxonomic knowledge to the people. The role of taxonomist   is crucial in the identification of the biological diversity. With fast depleting biological resources and increasing habitat changes from national level down to  the micro level of ecological  niches of fragile environments  there is an immediate need for application of newer tools to aid traditional methods. It is useful in storaging the morphological repositories which are essential for universal availability of raw data of descriptive taxonomy.With  advent television, remote sensing, mobile communication etc and mapping of our resources it  has become easy to digitize information.  The digital libraries through out the world take advantages of computers in the form of desktop or tablets to map any plant or animal of smallest area and provide information to every one at any place in shortest time. An attempt is made is here to explain the benefits of using computers in botanical studies particularly in utilization of data for the conservation of plant resources of Andhra Pradesh.
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh);  the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where  Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795). W.Roxburgh is considered as the father of Indian Taxonomy, began his work in A.P only.
The  Flora Andhrica is the title of the book by Walter Elliot FLS who spent five years in Telugu districts of Northern Circars of erstwhile Madras Presidency.
He consulted Sabdartha Kalpataruvu by Mamidipudi Venkayya Sreshti of Masulipatam and compiled the Telugu names of flowering plants  and their Latin names following binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus adopted in India by Koenig. The British Surgeons William Roxburgh ,Buchanan-Hamilton, Wight, Cleghorn, Beddome, Lushington and many pioneers studied  our plant wealth leading to publication of  Plants of  the Coast of Coromandel in 1795 and Flora Indica in 1820 followed by Hookers Flora of British India in 1872-97. Botanical Survey of India brought out Flora of India vol-1 in 1993 coinciding with bicentenary of Col Robert Kyd the founder of Botanic garden at Calcutta.
An English Index to plants of India by H.Piddington in 1832 gives names of plants in Bengali, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Cyngalese and Nawar languages known at the time of publication of 3rd vol of Flora  Indica by Roxburgh posthumously. Sir Walter Elliot,F.R.S.
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at Visakhapatnam, he learnt Telugu names of plants, so he named Andhrica. He mentioned Yanadi of Nellore, Chenchus of Guntur, Koyas of Rajamandry and Konda Doras of Vizagpatam as ancient people of Gondwana land with fossils, fuels and primitive cultures. Ayurveda and Herbal folklore  and traditional usage of plants in Eastern Ghats, Coramandel Coast and Deccan Plateau with common script for over 13 centuries since the visit of Huensong and Telugu usage enabled the European Physicians to describe our native plants and their uses known to world in modern languages.
 Rampa agency in Rajahmandry became the  source for Garden of East India Company and included in Flora Indica. Dr.J.G.Koenig, Dr Roxburgh and Dr.Patrick Russel are  visitors to Pulicat lake, Nagari Hills, Tirupati, Kakinada, Annavaram and Simhachalam temples too and so made plant collections as pioneers in plant science. These European surgeons had good friendly relations with local land-lords and indeed much liked by some ancient families leading to progress of English usage.
The formation of linguistic states in  Indian Republic and adoption of Telugu as official language and making it compulsory for communication it is obvious  that digital applications for use of desirable botanical data is made accessible to common man and students in particular to know our plants with help of images and simple easily understandable documents.Hence the Flora Andhrika  as title for Blog/Page/Docs for Google users is chosen here with a view to revise old classics with updated information and wide field of the area of study for practical purposes.
From this part the exercise is revised by A.Lalithamba;
 We are following APG system of classification only. Date:16-11-2016
Rewritten of this blog is taken up with some changes; The notes for some plants is given in flickr with images; all the plant species given in floras is listed here to facilitate location of plants. The exercise is taken up to facilitate easy access. 
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah 
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao; 3. Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008, 
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
 For images and description link is given, other species will be briefly described. 
Gymnosperm flora is very poor with least diversity. The following are native and cultivated species
Native: Cycas beddomei Dyer,  (పేరీత , మదన కామాక్షి)  pereetha, madana kamakshi (Tel.) It is endemic to Tirumala hills of Chittoor distict. ; Cycas circinalis L.(Queen sago), Cycas sphaerica Roxb. Syn. Cycas circinalis Haines var. Orixensis- (అర్జున చెట్టు, నాసి చెట్టు)  Arjuna chettu, Naasi chettu(Tel.)It is also endemic to Srkiakulam district. 
 Gnetum montanum Markgraf,  Gnetum ula Brongn.అపజట్లీ , లోలుఁగ ,కాలోయ్ , లులితి (In North coast
cultivated:  Cycas rumphii Miq., Cycas revoluta Thunb., Callitris cupressiformis F. Muell., Callitris glauca Mirb., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.)D.Don, , Juniperus communis L., Thuja occidentalis L., Platycladus orientalis (L.)Franco,Pinus roxburghii Sarg., , Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui , Pinus hartwegii Lindl. 
Aquatic herbs, plant rhizomatous; 4-celled uniseriate secretory trichomes with a large terminal cell; diaphragms in root aerenchyma; mycorrhizae 0; primary stem with ± scattered vascular bundles; protoxylem lacunae +; vascular cambium 0; P persistent; fruit maturation underwater. Pollination by wind or aquatic beetles.
Only Nymphaea Linn. is available.
Aquatic rhizomatous herbs;lamina on on the surface of water, peltate, upper surface waxy; flowers large, haplomorphic;Perianth and anthers many, staminodes showy; fruit baccate, fruit maturation under water.
List of species:
1.Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f; Syn.N.stellata Willd. 
 2.Nymphaea pubescensWilld. Looks similar to N.nouchali, but flowers are white. 
3.Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex. Andrews.
 4. Nympahea caerulea Savigny ; the blue lotus(నల్లకలువ) is cultivated in coastal areas.

N.caerulea నల్లకలువ  
Victoria amazonica(Poepp.)Sowerby Gaint water lilly is also cultivated in some coastal areas as ornamental plant. 
2.MAGNOLIALES Bromhead  
Vessels in multiples; secondary phloem stratified; pith septate; leaves two-ranked; "bract" sheathing; P whorled; G occluded by fusion and secretion;  irregularly ruminate endosperm. 
Leaf entire or lobed, more or less glaucous below and have large stipules that entirely surround the stem but are open on the side opposite the petiole. The flowers are rather large, usually single, and have an elongated receptacle bearing many petals, stamens and carpels that are obviously spirally arranged. Remains of old infructescences may often be found benath the tree. Pollination by beetles.
Magnolia champaca (L.)Baill. ex Pierre
Syn. Michelia champaca L.
Common name: చెట్టుసంపెంగ; చంపకము (Tel.);Sanskrit:चंपक ; Ylang Ylang(Eng.)
 Moderate sized deciduous tree. Flowers solitary, axillary, yellowish- orange, fragrant, 3-4 cm across. K and C similar in all aspects, 9-15 in 3 or more rows.Stamens numerous, multiseriate, filaments flat, introrse. Carpels in a lose stalked spike. Fruit laxly arranged  aggregate of follicles. 
It is often cultivated in temples for the fragrant flowers.The wood is used as timber.
Photographed at Nellore.
Magnolia champaca సంపెంగ 
  ANNONACEAE Jussieu  
Trees/shrubs; branches are not strictly axillary. Leaves are distichous, aromatic, entire. The flowers are nearly always pendulous and their development is more or less open. The tepals are usually in three whorls of three. Stamens are numerous, enclosed in some sort of bowl-shaped structure; they are short with a tough, truncate connective extending over the apex of the anthers. The seeds are quite large and most have a regularly ruminate endosperm. Protoberberidine alkaloids are reported from Annonaceae (Wink 2008). Largely tropical in distribution. Pollination is by small insects.
ALPHONSEA Hook.f.& Thoms. -Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thw.
ANNONA L.,-- Annona muricata L., Annona reticulata L., Annona squamosa L.,  
ARTABOTRYS R.Br.,- Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.)Bhandari,
 Hubera korinti (Dunal) Chaowasku Syn. Polyalthia korintii (Dunal) Thw.  
Huberantha cerasoides (Roxb.) Chaowasku, Syn. Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Bedd.,
MILIUSA Lesch. ex A. DC.,--
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms.,
Monoon longifolium (Sonn.) B. Xue & R. M. K. Saunders Syn. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw. 
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw.
UVARIA L., Uvaria hamiltonii Hook. f. & Thoms., 
Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. &Thoms.
The plants are cultivated in gardens and houses for fragrant flowers.
Common name: Ylang ylang (Eng.); Apurva champakam, chettu sampangi(Tel.)అపూర్వచంపకం    
MILIUSA Leshenault ex A.Candole
Trees or shrubs. Pedicel slender, usually elongate. Torus elevated, usually long pubescent.Stamens many; connectives narrow and not concealing anther locules, apex subapiculate. Carpels many, oblong;monocarps many, subsessile to long stipitate, globose to ovoid. Seeds 1 to several per monocarp. 
Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.)Finet&Gagnep,
syn.Saccopetalum tomentosum Roxb.
Leaves coriaceous, tomentose below; flower solitary, monocarps subsessile, globose, velvety brown.
M.velutina(Dunal) Hook.f& Thoms.
Syn.Uvaria velutina Roxb.-N.Circars
Leaf blade 5-10 cm wide, base obliquely cordate; flowers 3-6 in leaf-opposed cymes or on short and few-leaved branches; carpels glabrous.
Common names: Pedda chiluka dudduga,నల్లదుద్దుగ, పెద్దచిలుకదుద్దుగ 
These two species are found in E.ghats in North Circars- Vishakhapatnam dist, and rare in Velugonda and Seshachalam hills.
Shrubs and trees; flowers solitary or in clusters, extra axillary, or leaf opposed, on young or old wood; K-3; C-3+3, sub equal, inner ones concave, larger. Torus convex; A-many, connective concealing the anther lobes; carpels many, ascending; monocarps stalked and clustered, each one seeded.
3.Polyalthia suberosa(Roxb.) Thw. Syn. Uvaria suberosa Roxb. 
Small trees, leaf margin entire; flowers solitary, extra axillary;berries purple, globose.
Found in the dry forests of E.ghats.   
Common name: Budda dudugaబుడ్డ దుద్దుగ, చిలక దుద్దు 
Desmos chinensis Lour. Syn Unona discolor Vahl -
Seen in Visakhaptam dist.
Common name:  Chiluka Duduga,  చిలక దుద్దుగ  
3.    LAURALES Berchtold & Presl  
 leaves opposite; inflorescence ± cymose; hypanthium +, P spiral; inner staminodia +; receptacle ± concave, stylulus long, (extragynoecial compitum +); megaspore mother cells several; fruits indehiscent, hypanthium persistent
Trees or lianes;  branching from previous flush; lamina venation ± palmate; breeding system very variable;inflorescence dichasial, ebracteate; flowers very small, P uniseriate;
  flowers (3-)4-5-merous; P 3-10; A 3-5(-7), ovary inferior, usu. facing abaxially, stigma peltate; ovules variable, fruit  samara.
Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. Syn.G.asiaticus Willd.,G.jacquini Gardner.
The twigs are ridged. Leaves spiral, entire, thick, coriaceous, with steeply ascending secondary veins, glaucous below; often aromatic, with long-petiole. The flowers are rather small, trimerous, and have valvate anthers; the fruit has a single, large seed that lacks endosperm and the pedicel - and sometimes also tepals and hypanthium - is often swollen and conspicuous. distribution
pantropical. Flavones, 5-O-methyl flavonols, polyketides [acetogenins],are present.
List of Plants:
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd. ex Hook.f. (Nallamala forest)
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees,(Cultivated) Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.,(E.Godavari)
Cassytha filiformis L.,
CINNAMOMUM Scheaffer.,
Cinnamomum caudatum Nees (Rare, in VSKP)
Litsea deccanensis Gamble., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., (E.ghats of Nallamala, sehachalam, velugonda) Litsea  monpetala (Roxb.) Pers.,(rare, VSKP)  Litsea laeta (Wall, ex Nees) Hook. f.(Rare, E.Godavari)
NEOLITSEA (Benth.) Merr.
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm. (Chittoor) (Syn.N.zeylanica (Nees)Merr. (VSKP), Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble
Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm.,(Rare in VSKP)
Phoebe wightii Meisner (VSKP)
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd.ex Hook.f
Evergreen pubescent trees, dioecious; leaves nearly verticillate;flowers creamy on naked branches; perianth tube short; fertile stamens 9 in 3 whorls; fruit seated in shallow cup shaped perianth tube.Found in Nallamala and Seshachalam hils, and Vishaka, Srikakulam districts.
Evergreen trees or shrubs;terminal buds mostly conspicuous; leaves thick leathery. Flowers small, bisexual; inflorescences short, mostly cymose-paniculate; perianth tube short; 6 almost equal. Fruits baccate; perianth in fruit  deciduous.
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees
Leaf blade abaxially glandular;glossy,  alternate,  subleathery, elliptic, at both ends obtuse; flowers in axillary racemes, pubescent; fruits elliptic-oblong.
Wood is moderately hard.
Rare in Rampa hill forest.common name:not known.
Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.
Young branches tomentose; leaves elliptic-oblong, acute, nerves more prominent beneath; fruit elliptic tomentos,
Rare in the forests of East Godavari district.
Wood soft used for construction.
Cinnamomum caudatum Nees.
Evergreen aromatic trees; leaves subopposite, leaf blade 1-3 veined, papery to leathery; inflorescence appearing when mature leaves are present, in axillary panicles; flowers bisexual;stamens 9+3 staminodes; anthers sagittate or cordate; fruit bluish black berry, seated on small cupule.
Rare in Vishakapatnam hills.
common name not known.
Moderate sized trees; leaves alternate; flowers in umbels or umbellate cymes in leaf axils; flowers unisexual; perianth 3+3;anthers 4-celled; fruit seated on enlarged perianth tube.
Litsea albicans(Kurz.)Hook.f.
A glabrous moderate sized tree; leaves sub coriaceous, glaucous beneath; flowers in sessile-subsessile pedunculate umbels; fruit a berry, seated on the perianth tube.
Rare along the ghats of Rampa hills.
Litsea deccanensis Gamble
Moderate sized pubescent tree, bark thin, smooth;leaves coriaceous, finely tomentose beneath; flowers pubescent, pale yellow, perianth lobes incomplete;stamens >20.Berry blackish purple when ripe.
Common in hilly areas of Chittoor and Godavari districts.
Common name: నరమామిడి  
Litsea decanensis
Litsea monopetala Pers.
Moderate sized ever green tree; bark dark gray, smooth; branchlets pubescent; leaves chartaceous, fulvous, pubescent below;flowers in sessile clusters in umbellate heads; perianth saucer shaped in fruit.
Frequent in shady moist places along hill slopes in Godavari and Vishakapatnam districts.
Common name: చిరుమామిడి ; 
4.PIPERALES Dumortier  
Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; primary stem with distinct bundles; wood with broad rays, interfacicular cambium lacking fusiform initials; nodes often swollen; leaves two-ranked, lamina heart-shaped, secondary veins palmate; inflorescences/flowers terminal; A in 3's.
Plant usu. viny  and woody; secondary thickening odd; wood storied, hairs hooked;  base of petiole U- or V-shaped; inflorescences axillary; (flower resupinate), flowers monosymmetric -  P connate; A 3-12;G [4-6], apically constricted;fruit septicidal and opening adaxially-laterally, a schizocarp, or dry-baccate, K not persistent; seed winged or arillate.Fly pollination is common.
Woody vines; leaf simple, chartaceous, entire; petiole U shaped at base.Flowers monosymmetric, 3 merous, axillary or leaf opposed. P lobes united in to a tube, inflated at the base and extended in to a narrow limb above. Stamens 6, adhered to the stylar column; G-(6), ribbed; fruit 6 celled septicidal capsule.
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. , Aristolochia indica L., Aristolochia elegans Mast., is cultivated as ornamental.
Plants woody climbers; usually epiphytic on trees, vascular bundles in two rows, cambium storied, mucilage canals +, axillary bud prominent, racemose inflorescence, bracts peltate or clavate, A 1-2 or less than 10, G 2-5,ovules 1 per carpel, 16 celled tetra sporic embryosac. Fruit a berry, outer seed wall well thickened, nuclear endosperm. Mainly insect pollinated; bats also involve in pollination and seed dispersal.
Succulent herbs,usu.epiphytic, leaves opposite or whorled.Flowers monoecious.
Peparomia dindygulensis Miq.
Erect succulent herb; leaves opposite, membranous;hairy, flowers green, in long slender spikes, in terminal panicles.

Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott, 

Epiphytic tufted herb;leaves usually coriaceous, orbicular, nearly sessile, and wrinkled when dried;
Rachis of inflorescence densely pubescent; dried stems deeply sulcate.
common name: 4 leaved peperomia
Aromatic scandent shrubs with swollen nodes.Leaves alternate. Spikes congested, opposite to leaves. Flowers minute, dioecious; arise in the axils of bracts; T-0; stamens 2-4;  filaments short. Ovary one celled, ovules solitary;stigmas2-5; fruit a small ovoid globose 1 seeded berry. 
Piper betle L., (Cultivated as commercial crop)Piper longum L.,(Cultivated for medicinal purpose) Piper hymenophyllum Miq.,(Kurnool, Chittor dist), Piper nigrum L., (Cultivated) ; Piper trioicum Roxb.(In E.Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool and VSKP dist)
Inflorescence scaposedensely spicate [spadix], with large associated bract [spathe], flowers sessile, weakly monosymmetric [abaxial member of outer T whorl precocious and large]; ovules straight; endosperm copious,perisperm +, derived from nucellar epidermis, not starchy;
Rhizomatous herbs, the members are recognisable by their sweetly-smelling, two-ranked, isobifacial leaves and their densely spicate inflorescence overtopped by, and appearing lateral to the leaf-like spathe. The flowers are small, perfect and pentacyclic. Bracts and bracteoles 0, P persistent; anther thecae hooded, intra ovarian trichomes +, style broad. Fruit berry.
Acorus calamus L.
Starch grains pteridophyte-type, amylophilic; inflorescence scapose; anthers extrorse; tapetum amoeboid [?here], cells uninucleate; carpels with completely unfused canals, styles +,  embryo (chlorophyllous), large, cotyledon large; seedling with hypocotyl and root well developed, collar rhizoids +. The root stele is often tri- to pentarch; When the leaves are petiolate, the vascular bundles are in an arc; inverted bundles are also common.
ARACEAEJussieu, nom. cons. 
ARACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Araceae are herbs with leaves that are usually divided into a petiole and expanded blade. They have a distinctive inflorescence of a more or less petal-like spathe plus a spadix made up of densely-packed, sessile, ebracteate flowers; in many taxa the spadix has a large, terminal, sterile part. The fruit is a berry. 
ALOCASIA (Schott) G.Don.,
Alocasia decipiens Schott, Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott,  Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don, Alocasia montana (Roxb.) Schott.,
AMORPHOPHALLUS Blume ex Decaisne,
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume(Rare in hills of E.Godavari) , Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth , Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, (Cultivated as vegetable)
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume(Reported in1970 by B.S.R.)Now not tracedout)
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott(Godavari and VSKP dist)
Caladium bicolor (Aiton)Vent., (ornamental)
Colocasia esculenta (L.)Schott
Dieffenbachia bowmannii Carrière, (Cultivated)
Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting, Epipremnum pinnatum (L.)Engl.
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Rare in north circars)
Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., Lemna gibba L.,
Monstera deliciosa Liebm; Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. .(cultivated)
PISTIA L.,    
Pistia stratiotes L.,
 Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott
Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott, Rhaphidophora pertusa  (Roxb.) Schott Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott, (Cultivated as ornamental)
SPIRODELA Schleiden,
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.,
Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume, Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott,
Tuberous geophytes;tuber renewed seasonally, tubers ovoid; Spathe deciduous, tubular, widely spreading outward,spathe limb occasionally with a long tail at apex. Spadix sessile,neuters at the apendix; flowers filiform, subulate. Infructescence upright or nodding. Berries reddish, several seeded.
Arisaema leschenaultii Bl. 
Leaf solitary, radiatisect; leaflets 5-13;spathe 15 cm, with longitudinally white stripes; berries 1-few.
Rare in Nellore district.
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.)Schott&Endl. Leaves 2; sortly pediatisect, sheaths mottled with purple;spathe green, apex gradually dilated into acuminate incurved limb;berries orrange red.
Occassional in mooist forests of North circars. Whipcord cobra lilly(Eng.) For images
Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook.f., Adavi chema(Tel.) Gaint Elephant Taro(Eng.)
Common in Kadapa and rare in Nellore districts.
Pistia: page no-11
Plesmonium margaritiferum(Roxb.)Schott.Syn. Arum margaritiferum Roxb.
Tuberous geophyte;leaf solitary;panicle as long as petiole;spathe leathery, green, deep purple at base within; spadix very stout,neuters large; berries ovoid 2-3 celled.
Rare in Nalla malai and E.Godavari, VSKP districts. for images
Raphidophora decursiva (Roxb.)Schott.
A lofty climber; leaf large,pinnately divided to midrib;peduncle up to 20cm long,; spathe yellow, berry pulp orange, fragrant.
Rare in north circars
Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott.
Climbing shrub; leaves ovate;petiole broadly winged;peduncle shorter than petiole, solitary, terminal; spathe green; greenish yellow in fruiting stage.
Rare in the forests of VSKP. The dried inflorescence is used as medicine in Ayurveda. Gajapippaliగజపిప్పలి (Tel.)Scindapsus(Eng.)
Theriphonum minutum (Willd.) Baill.
A carmous acaulescent herb; leaves with slender petioles;spthe 5-10cm long, greenish to purplish green with purplish wavy margins.
Through out the state.
Plants < 50 cm, leaves sagittate, spadix exerted from spathe.
 ALISMATACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Alismataceae are laticiferous, aquatic herbs; leaves two-ranked to spiral, involute,  whether floating or aerial,with pseudopetiole,prominent midrib, cross veins and an apical subepidermal pore;  inflorescence branches whorled; C more or less crumpled in bud;  staminate flowers usually have many extrorse anthers and their carpellate flowers have many free carpels; the embryo is strongly curved.
list of plants:
LIMNOPHYTON  Miq.,  Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.)Miq., 
Sagittaria guayanensis subsp.  lappula (D.Don) Bogin, Sagittaria sagittifolia L., 
Limnophyton obtusifolium (Linn.) Miq.
Erect tufted herb with long-stalked leaves, sagittate, with spreading, acute triangular lobes and inflorescences with spongy peduncles about 2 ft. high; flowers white; 5-10 in each whorl ;stamens basally flattened and thickened filaments; anthers oblong; Achenes obovate, minutely stipitate, reticulately ribbed, shortly beaked
Common at the margin of ponds in mud.
Ver. Name: Blunt arrow head (Eng.) Gurrapu dekka గుఱ్ఱపుడెక్క (Tel.)
Aquatic stolaniferous herbs. Leaves sagittate; flowers monosexual, stamens many;pistils>1000 inserted on a large globose receptilcle.Achenes laterally compressed.
Sagittaria guayanensis Kunth
Leaves broadly ovate, flowers white.Seeds toothed and winged.
Rare in Khammam and Warangal districts.
Sagittaria sagittifolia L.Leaves radicle and sagittate; flowers white with purple claw; scape with3-5 flowers in each whorl;achenes obliquely ovate.
Rare in Vishakhapatnam.
HYDROCHARITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Branched submerged aquatic herbs; vessels 0; endodermis obscure or thick-walled; leaf base sheathing inflorescence subtended by 2 often connate bracts; (A introrse); pollen inaperturate nectaries 3, staminodes (0); G inferior, placentae [= carpel walls] much intruded, style single, short, stigmas usu. divided; ovules 1-many/carpel. Pollination by entomophily or anemophily or hydrophily and selfing.
List of Plants:
BLYXA Noronha ex Thouars, 
Blyxa aubertii Richard, , Blyxa echinosperma (C. B. Clarke) J. D. Hooker,  Blyxa octandra (Roxb.) Pl. ex Thw.,
Halophila Thouars,
Halophila beccarii Ascherson, Halophila ovalis (R. Brown) J. D. Hooker,
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle,
Najas marina L., (Nellore); Najas minor Ali.,(E.Godavari)
Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. ex Wight) Thwaites,
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.,
Vallisneria spiralis L.,
Halophila ovalis (R.Br.)Hook.f.
Rhizomatous salt water herbs; leaves 2 at each node;Flowers unisexual, solitary or 2 in the axils of sessile bract/spathe in between the two petioles.
found in the backwaters of Bay of Bengal
It is used as feed for fishes and sea prawns. Paddle weed, sea grass (Eng) Samudrapu gaddiసముద్రపుగడ్డి  (Tel.)
Halophila ovalis
APONOGETONACEAE Planchon, nom. Cons
Water plants with petiolate leaves; they have often densely spicate inflorescence has a long scape and the rather small flowers nevertheless often have more or less conspicuous tepals; the whole inflorescence is coloured.
Aponogeton crispus Thunb. (It is an auarium plant with crispy or wavy leaves )  Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl. & K.Krause 
Tuberous herbs; leaves floating, oblong,simple spike densely flowered, 5-15cm long, flowers bisexual, pink;fruit 3 inflated beaked follicles.
Common in ditches and ponds; cultivated as an aquarium plant also. Namma నమ్మ (Tel.) Natans(Eng.)
POTAMOGETONACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons
Aquatic plants;leaves petiolate with midrib and cross veins; there is usually a conspicuous basal ligule. The inflorescence is densely spicate and the flowers have small tepals appearing to be borne on the backs of the stamens. The carpels are stipitate, .Wind pollination.
Potamogeton crispus L.Potamogeton nodosusPoir., Potamogeton perfoliatus L.,
 Aquatic submerged herb; leaves heterophyllous, 7-9 nerved, stipule keeled;spike leaf opposed, flowers 4-merous; drupelets ovoid beaked.
Common in ponds and ditches through out the state. American pond weed(Eng.)
Potamogeton nodosus
Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
Branches well developed, adaxially grooved vascular bundles in rings; vessels also in stem and leaf; flowers or inflorescence with glandular hairs; styles free early in ontogeny; T persistent in fruit; embryo at most short.
Less herbaceous climbers, tubers +,leaves spiral/ two-ranked (opposite), pulvini at both ends of the petiole; the leaf base does not surround the stem. The lamina has several strong longitudinal veins and transverse secondary veins, or reticulate fine venation. Serial buds common; plant dioecious, inflorescences two or more together, flowers small, not brightly colored; fruit capsular, baccate, or samaroid; seeds not winged.
Climbing herbs. Flowers unisexual; in ♂ P with 6 short lobes; stamens 3 or 6 alternating with staminodes. ♀P-6 short; G-(3) inferior; 3 celled, styles 3. Fruit loculicidal, 3 winged capsule. Seeds 2 in each cell, compressed.
List of species: Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines,(E.Godavari, VSKP) , Dioscorea bulbifera L. , Dioscorea esculenta L., Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.,
 Dioscorea hispida Denns. , Dioscorea oppositifolia L.,  Dioscorea pentaphylla L., Dioscorea pubera Bl.,Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng., Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f.
  Dioscorea bulbifera L.: Leaves simple, leaves dark green, base cordate; tubers 1-3 sessile in axils; bulbils warted;♂ flowers variable in size, greenish purple;♀ sessile axillary  on pendulous spikes; capsule recurvedquadrately oblong. yam, Air potato, Air yam, Bitter yam, Cheeky yam, Potato yam, Wild yam(Eng.) పెండలం (Tel.)
 Common through out the state.
Dioscorea oppositifolia L.
Leaves simple, opposite, coriaceous, stems twining to right, male spikes clustered 10-30cm, female spike 6-10 cm, solitary/paired, stamens 6, fruit 3-winged. 
Common through out the state. Yella gadda, yestigadda ఎల్లగడ్డ,అడవిదుంపతీగ(Tel.) Cinnamon Vine, Chinese Yam, Air potato(Eng.)
Dioscorea pentaphylla L.
Leaves compound, 5 foliate,  pubescent below, stem twining to left, prickled, male racemes solitary, axillary, <15cm, Stamens 3+staminodes 3, female spikes 5-15cm, flowers distant, fruit oblong, glabrous,  angled. Dukka pendalamదుక్కపెండలం (Tel.) 5 leaf yam,Mountain yam, Wild yam, Prickly yam(Eng.)
TACCA J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze 
Syn. Tacca pinnatifida J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
 Leaves radicle, 2or3pinnate,leaf rachis groved in uppersurface; about 20 flowers greenish purple on 1.5m tall peduncle arising from the underground tuber, in an umbel subtended by many filifom green-purple bracts; fruits ovoid ribbed with many seeds.
Common through out the state. The tubers are edible and used as medicine to treat stomach ailments. Fiji Arrowroot, batflower, East Indian arrowroot, Polynesian arrowroot, Tahiti arrowroot (Eng.); adavidumpa, అడవిదుంప (Tel.)
PANDANALES Berchtold & J. Presl
Nucellar cap +; endosperm with reserves starch, embryo minute.
PANDANACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons.
Plant woody, shrubs, or climbers with roots from leaf axils, not rhizomatous; leaves spirally three- or four-ranked, M-shaped when mature, spiny, plant di-(mon)oecious; inflorescence bracts usually colored; staminate flowers: A 2-many, carpellate flowers: G 1-several, free to connate, fruit baccate or drupaceous; primary root branched [Pandanus].
Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze; Syn. Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.,
Much branched shrubs, several basal proproots +. Leaves <2m x 10cm, midrib and margins are sharply spiny. Male inflorescence of several spikes with creamy large bracts; pollen white, spinulose. Female inflorescence solitary terminal, pendulous in fruit. In a mature fruit head 7-15 celled phalanges are present with fleshy vermillion margins.  Found along the streams near coasts.
  Flowers creamy yellow, fragrant. Flowers are used to prepare perfumes. Leaves are used to make for thatching, textiles/ bags making. Mogiliమొగలిపువ్వు (Tel.) Ketaki(Sanskrit)Screw pine(Eng.)
Pandanus male flower 
STEMONACEAE Caruel, nom. cons.
 Leaves petiolate, lamina have conspicuous cross veins between the very close to distantly longitudinal veins; when dry, the leaves are often very thin. The inflorescences are axillary and the Plant monopodial, (tuberous), with scale leaves, stem erect (twining); plant glabrous; leaves two-ranked or opposite, petiolate, not sheathing, midrib simple, cross veins between the very close to distantly longitudinal veins scale leaves +, sheathing; inflorescences axillary, cymose or flowers single; pedicel articulated; flowers 4- or 5-merous.T 4(-5), perianth tube short; A adnate to base of T, ± connate, (apex of anther sterile), connective expanded, (apiculate); G 1 to [3], (inferior), placentae apical or basal, style branches ± separate; ovules 2 to many/carpel.
Stemona tuberosa Lour.
Tuberous climbing geophyte; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, membranous, Perianth segments greenish with purplish veins, Stamens purple, slightly shorter than perianth; capsule ovoid-oblong, seeds many.
Common through out the state.
Stemona tuberosa  
 Plants geophytes; ); leaves elliptical, (main veins seven or fewer), fine venation reticulate, (leaf base not sheathing); inflorescence terminal; T large (small), free, (spotted), tepal nectaries +anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap +; P deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls.
COLCHICACEAE de Candolle, nom. cons.
Leaves two-ranked to ± verticillate, inflorescence various; T towards base U-shaped and folded around each stamen in bud, nectaries median on tepal or on stamen base (0); pollen operculate; G ([2, 4]), style branched or not, stigma with recurved lobes, ovules 2-many/carpel, seeds rounded. protoalkaloid colchicine +,raphides 0.
DISPORUM Salisbury,

Disporum calcaratum D.Don, Disporum pullum Salisb.,(E.Godavari, VSKP )
Gloriosa superba L.
Glabrous rhizomatous climber. Leaves alternate/ whorled,apex acute, tendrilled; flowers at the end of branches;P -6, oblong, spreading, reflexed, margins wavy, midrib prominent;Capsule oblong.
Rarely found on the thickets on the foothill forests. Rhizome V or Y shaped, contains alkaloids. Used in the treatment of Snake bites. Rhizome is poisonous. Colchicine is extracted from these rhizomes also.
Ver.Name: Naabhi, Naageti gaddaనాభి, నాగేటిగడ్డ (Tel.) Gloriosa (Eng.

Iphigenia indica (L.) A.Gray ex Kunth,(Common) Iphigenia mysorensis Arekal&Swamy; Iphigenia pallid Baker,(Rare in Godavari, VSKP)
SMILACACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons. 
Prickly climbers with short woody rhizomes; flavonols +, stem bundles in a ring; mucilaginous cells +; leaves two-ranked, midrib and lamina, with 5-7 main veins, paired lateral ligules and/or spines or tendrils +; plant dioecious; staminate flowers: A 3-12, pollen inaperturate, spinulose,  carpellate flowers: staminodes +; style short/0, stigma dry; ovule 1/carpel.
Smilax aspera L.,(VSKP), Smilax perfoliata Lour., (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP), Smilax zeylanica L.
Smilax zeylanica L.
Prickly twiners. Leaves oblong-ovate, 3-5 nerved, glabrous, coriaceous, petiole twisted, stipules modified to tendrils.
Very rarely found in wild.A potent Ayurvedic medicine used as tonic. Vanamdhunashini,Phirangi teegaఫిరంగితీగ(Tel.); Indian Smilax, catbriers, greenbriers, prickly-ivys  (Eng.
Smilax in vegetative state
Dimorphic root, hypodermal cells +;(velamen +);  anthers longer than wide; tapetal cells bi- to tetranuclear; microsporogenesis simultaneous; seeds exotestal, tegmen not persistent; endosperm helobial;Chelidonic acid +, steroidal saponins 0
      ORCHIDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Mycorrhizal herbs, protocorms mycoheterotrophic, root hairs often lacking, vascular bundle sheaths with fibres, (also fibre bundles in leaves); flowers monosymmetric, resupinate; T free, median inner T forms a labellum; A 3 basally adnate to style; ovary inferior, septal nectaries 0, placentae branched, style solid, stigma wet; ovules > 1500carpel, fruit dehiscing laterally by six valves, seeds minute, dust-like, endosperm 0, fruit splitting down its sides, T deciduous in fruit; embryo minute. There is a wide diversification of pollination mechanisms. Mimicry is very common.Butterfly, moth, bees and even birds serve as pollinators
ACAMPE Lindley.
Epiphytes; coriaceous; flowers non resupinate,small, fleshy fragile; sepals and petals yellow with maroon bands; lip with a short spur.
1.      Acampe carinata (Griff.)Panigrahi; Syn. Saccolabium papillosum Hook.f.  Leaves strap shaped; flowers white tinged with yellow and purple steaks.
On road side trees near coffee plantations in Visakha district.
2.      A. ochracea (Lindl.)Hochr.Peduncles leaf opposed; middle lobe of lip with a fleshy tooth on either side of the base.
In Chintapalli area forests along the streams.
3.      A.praemorsa (Roxb.)Blatt.&Mc Cann, Peduncles axillary, midlobe of lip entire; flowers yellow with white and red stripes.
In moist deciduous forests of Rampa and Chittoor districts.
Epiphytes; flowers resupinate, medium sized showy, white or purple; lip with a forwardly curving spur.
Aerides multiflora Roxb. Leaves crowded, obtuse, deeply channeled and keeled; flowers rose-purple; or spotted; lip3-lobed, violet-red; spur upcrved;capsule sub clavate.
In hill forests of E.Godavari.
Aerides multiflora courtesy image by  Bimal Sarkar
Aerides odorata Lour.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate; flowers purple-white;petals obovate, lip white, violet blotched; spur uncinately incurved, capsule oblong- clavate.
In moist deciduous forests of North Circars.
Aerides odorata; courtesy, photo by Bimal sarkar's symbiosis collection
Aerides ringens (Lindl.)C.E.C Fisch.
Leaves thick loriform; flowers whitish pale pink, lip as long as sepals; spur subclavate, mid lobe rounded; capsule fusiform.
Rare in cool moist forests of W.Godavari
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.
Terrestrial leafless saprophyte; stem sheathed and tubular; raceme up to 10-20cm, flowers sraw colored with purple strips; lip broader than sepals; column very slender.
Rare in undisturbed hills of Chittoor district.
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons
Epiphytes; Column prolonged into a foot, lip erect, articulate on foot;.
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f.
Rhizome creeping, plant caespitose; slender pseudobulbs aggregating; leaves 2 subsessile; flowers yellowish green, lip toungue shaped.
In shady semi evergreen forests of Vishakha patnam.
Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.
1-leaved psuedobulb;leaves linear oblong, scape slender; umbels many flowered; column very short.
In  semi evergreen forests of Tirumala .
Cleisostoma tenuifolium(L.)Garay.
Epiphyte, stem slender, pendulous; flowers deflexed in racemes; yellow with red margins; lip creamy with violet  triangular side lobes, midlobe incurved, spur conical, column short.Rare in Tirumala
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Terrestrial leafy herb up to 1.5m; leaves thick up to 30cm long; flowers greenish white in axillary panicles; lip lanceolate, dialated, recurved; rostellum atlength bifid; pollinia granular and attached to gland.
Rare in moist forests of Kadapa district. 
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
Tufted epiphyte; stem fleshy, clothed in membranous sheaths; leaves linear, lorate; racemes pendulous; flowers creamy stained reddish purple down middle of the sepals,lip sessile purple blotched; midlobe hairy, column incurved; polinia 2 ovoid.  
Common in deep forests of N.Circars.
Cymbidium intermedium courtesy image by Bimal Sarkar
Epiphytes; lip not articulated, pubescent, erect from the base; column prolonged into foot;
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr
Stem slender, pendulous; flowers pale rose; 2-3 on short peduncles; spur conical,lip broadely deltoid, yellow streaked with purple at the base,cuculate pubescent.
In moist deciduous forests of Chinthapalli
Dendrobium aquem Lindl
Stem stout thick, flowers 2-3 from axils; creamy white, lip with yellowish disc; spur short;midlobe of lip triangular.
Rare in moist hill forests of E.Godavari
Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl
Pendulous with much branched stem; racemes terminal; flowers yellow, pedicels filiform; spur minute, lip oblong; fruit ellipsoid.
Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl
Stem slender, pendulous; flowes pale green tinged with pink, in short lateral racemes;lip longer ovate-oblong, long clawed, finely pubescent.
In moist deciduous forests through out the state.
Dendrobium ovatum(Willd.)Kranz
Stem tufted; flowering shoots leaf less; flowers cream colored; spur conical, lip flat;disk pubescent,column green, anhers white.
Rare in moist forests at Papavinasam of Tirumala
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
A small saprophytic herb; rhizome brownis-white; scape glossy, slender; flowers white, glabrous, sepals often nerveless; labellum glabrous; free from the column.
Rare in hill forests of W.Godavari district
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
Epiphyte;roots flattened; flowers pink-rose,crowded towards the end of branches;lip ovate, 2 spurred,disc fleshy,spurs collateral, short,incurved; column stout, clavate,anther 2 celled, pollinia 2, small.
Rare in chittoor district.
ERIA Lindley
Eria bambusifolia Lindl.
Epiphyte; stem pseudobulbous; racemes axillary, many flowered;rusty pubescent, petals narrower, lip ovate oblong;anthers imperfectly 4-8 celled, pollinia 8, pyriform.
Rare in Visakha patnam district.
EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindley
Pseudobulb geophyte; leaves appearing or after anthesis;  flowers <2cm,  many on lateral scape; resupinate; lip 3 lobed; spurred;anther incompletely 2 locular, pollinia 2. 
Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch
Flowers ash-green with membranous sterile bracts. Petals lanceolate; lip small, mid lobe recurved; spurs purple dotted,parallel to ovary.
In hilly forests of North Circars and Kadapa and Chittor districts.
Eulophia explanata Lindl.,
Pseudobulbs3, ovoid, annulated; scape lateral; flowers yellow;lip sessile,3 lobed,shorter than Kand C;spur broadly conical, column short.
Rare in Visakhapatnam district.
Eulophia graminea Lindl., 
Pseudobulbs conical; flowers greenih, with white lip on panicles; petals elliptic-lanceolate, tasellate,lip obovate, erect,lateral lobes embracing the column, mid lobe obovate; discwith ridges and hooked processes; spur short, incurved, column short.
Rare in Kadapa hill forests.
Eulophia ochreata Lindl., 
Roots tuberous, fleshy;flowers membranous, greenish, in densely flowered racemes with ochreate sheaths below; lip ovate,side lobes0; spur saccate; nerves all fringed.

Rare in Visakhapatnam hill forests.
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh
Pseudobulbs globular, pseudostems formed from the leaf sheaths; peduncle of the raceme is thick and fleshy, with 10-30 resupinate flowers; dorsal petal white with green and red stripes at base; lip is slightly 3 lobed, with 5 ridges, with brown and mauve veins, column slender and incurved.
Gastrochilus calceolaris  [Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.] D. Don 
Epiphyte, leaves narrow, with unequally bilobed apex, flowers greenish-white with pink patches;lip adnate to base of column,  with a subglobose-saccate or conic hypochile with lateral lobes reduced to often fleshy edges of sac; epichile fan-shaped, often broadly triangular, often hairy or papillose, margin entire to fimbriate. Column short and thick, footless; rostellum short, 2-lobed; anther subglobose, apex narrowed; pollinia waxy, 2, subglobose.
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr
Medium sized leafy, rhizomatic geophytes, with pseudobulbs; pseudostem formed with petioles; flowers medium sized, pinkih-white, not opening widely, not resupinate, on racemes;Sepals and petals similar though petals usually slightly broader, free, not spreading; lip with a central yellow callus and crimson-purple venation and streaks.
lip unlobed or obscurely 3-lobed, base usually saccate, without a distinct spur; disk usually with a callus composed of ridges or wartlike projections. Column short, with a short column foot; anther terminal, 1-locular or incompletely 2-locular, with cap; pollinia 2, usually cleft, waxy, attached to a broad stipe and a large viscidium
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook.,  
Rhizomatic geophyte; flowers greenish white, slightly fragrant on terminal spikes; floral bracts irregularly serrate,glandular pilose;lip brownish-white,when spread out cymbiform with infolded margins;rostellum bifid.

Rare in Kadapa, Sashachalam and Visakhapatnam hills.

Perennial tuber or rhizomatic geophytes, rarely epiphytes; leafy, leaves often reduced to scale leaves; leaves distichous or opposite, glabrous; flowers small to large, often showy, on racemes or spikes; zygomorphic,bisexual, resupinate;sepals and petals almost similar;  lip entire, variously lobed or 2- or 3-partite, ornamented or not with calli, ridges, hair cushions, or crests, with or without a basal spur or nectary, margins entire to laciniate. Column short to long, with or without a basal foot, occasionally winged or with lobes or arms at apex or ventrally; anther mostly 1, less often 2 or 3, terminal or ventral on column, caplike or opening by longitudinal slits; pollen usually forming distinct pollinia, less often loose, pollinia 2, 4, 6, or 8; stigma 3 lobed,mid lobe often modified into rostellum. Fruit a capsule. 
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f.,
Terrestrial geophyte.Leaves 3-5;racemes 5-10 flowered; flowers white, sepals ovate; petals broader, bearded, lip scabrid-pilose,linear at base, 3-lobed, segments subulate, spur as long as the ovary.
Moist deciduous forests of Venkatagiri and Tirumala.
Habenaria digitata Lindl., 
Terrestrial geophyte. Flowers white on about 10 cm racemes; sepals greenish white, with 3 nerves,petals 2 partite, upper segment sub falcate,3-nerved, lowershorter; lip 3 lobed;spur elongate, sub clavate,with an erect ligule at the mouth.
Rare in moist hilly slopes of Godavari and Nellore districts.

Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell
Terrestrial geophyte; stem slender; leaves appressed to the ground, orbicular; flowers greenish white on spikes;petals linear subfalcate;lip longer than sepals,lobes filiform,laterals spreading; spur as long as ovary, inflated.
Rare in moist hilly forests of Visakhapatnam.

Habenaria furcifera Lindl., 

Syn. Habenaria ovalifolia Wight

Terrestrial geophyte; leaves variable in shape, upper leaves amplexicaul; flowers creamy green on lax slender racemes;lip3 lobed from the base, side lobes filiform, divergent incurved;middle one straight, spur longer than ovary; stigmatic process 2.

In moist deciduous forests of Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts.

Habenaria longicorniculata J.Graham, 
Terrestrial geophyte; stem leafy near the base; flowers white, jasmine scented, few on short lax racemes; petals subfalcate,lip3lobed, clawed, oblong, spur very long,thickned from below, anther tubes long slender, pollinia narrowly pyriform; stigmatic processes thick.
Rare in Visakhapatnam district.

Habenaria marginata Colebr. 

Terrestrial geophyte;leaves few subradical; flowers yellow, numerous on cyllindric spikes; dorsal sepal cucullate; petals oblng-lanceolate, falcate from the broad base;closely appressed to the dorsal sepal;lip3 lobed, with a broad claw, spur thick and curved,clavate at the tip;anther lobes funnel shaped, spreading,stigmatic process adnate to the lip; rostellum triangular.

In moist deciduous forests of Araku and nallamala forests.
Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra,
Tuberous geophyte, 20-30 cm tall. Tuber globose, 1-2cm across. Leaves alternate, lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 5-10 × 1.5-3.5cm, margin entire. Flowers greenish, 1.5-2cm long, on 15-20 cm long terminal lax spike. Bracts ovate-lanceolate. Sepals 3, oblique, similar attached to the top of the ovary. Petals 6, greenish, entire, linear, lip spurred, 3 lobed, mid lobe narrow and longer than laterals. Pollinia enclosed in tubes. Ovary inferior, 3 lobed, oblong. Capsule curved and beaked; seeds many, dusty.  

Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., 

Terrestrial geophyte;tubers oblong,flowers greenish-white, on spikes;sepals subequal,laterals falcately oblong; petals linear lanceolate, lip much longer,flabelliform, 3 lobed,midlobe longer,linear, spur very slender; column short, rostellum broad, triangular,stigmatic process clavate; anthers clavate fused to column, 2 loculed.

In moist areas along the coast.

Habenaria ramayyana Ram.Chary & J.J.Wood
Terrestrial geophyte; leaves narrowly elliptic, margin pilose;flowers purplish-white on terminal rcemes;petals bipartite, lip 3 lobed, laterals filiform, mid lobe deflexed; spur narrowly cyllindical, column short.
Rare in moist deciduous forests of Mahaboobnagar.

Habenaria rariflora A.Rich., 
Terrestrial geophyte;leaves usu.3;flowers white, 1-3 in short racemes; lateral sepals subfalcate; petals 2 partite,lip 3 lobed,laterals filiform;spur longer than the ovary,upcurved; anther large,theca parallel, upcurved; rostellum erect slender, stigmatic processes clavate.
Common in Chittor district.

Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, 
Tuberous geophyte; leaves  2-3 in a rosette, orbicular, flat appressed on the ground, fleshy, waxy, glaucous.Flowers white on a simple spike;petals linear, lip 3 lobed, mid lobe narrower; spur slender and linger,clavate at tip; anther cells divergent; stigmatic processes subglobose; rostellum short, triangular.

Common through out the state.

Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
Epiphtye; stem stout; leaves 1-4, margins subundulate; flowers small, ochacceous marked with purple on a slender scape; petals broader than petals, lip with a saccate spur; sidelobes longer, large;midlobe obovate, emarginated; with a ligule, and forked2-awned; column elongate with a narrow wing.
In semi evergreen forests of coastal districts.
Pseudobulb geophyte or epiphyte; leaves >1,often jointed on the sheath;flowers mnute, resupinate on terminal racemes; sepals recurved;petals very slender;lip adnate to the base of the column; deflexed from the base,or recurved; column incurved, margins winged; anthers terminal, pollinia 4.
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl., 
Pseudobulb geophyte; leaves 2-5, lanceolate; flowers greenish pink, on angular scapes, with racemes; lip subquadrate, recurved,tip truncate with minute apiculus,column incurved with 2 small rounded wings.
Rare on moist forest floor of SriSailam.
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl., 
Pseudobulb epiphyte;  pseudobulbs close together in a cyllindric; leaves2; elliptic lanceolate; flowers pale yellowish green, on racemes; sepals linear-oblong, subacute, petals linear, reflexed, lip as long as sepals, recurved, column short incurved.
In moist deciduous forests of Visakha patnam.
LUISIA Gaudich.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
Tufted epiphyte; sheathed roots vermiform; leaves spotted with purple; flowers greenish-yellow, in 2-3 flowered spikes; dorsal sepal linear-oblong; petals linear-oblong; lip green, spotted with purple, epichite dark purple,lip 3 lobed, deflexed, fleshy; column stout.
Rare in moist deciduous forests of Visakha patnam, Srikakulam districts.
NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudich
Tuberous geophytes; tubers cormlike, fleshy with ±short rots; stem gives rise inflorescence and a leaf in succession; horizontal, cordate, orbicular, often plicate; Flowers erect or nodding; medium-sized; resupinate or not; pedicel elongating in fruit in 1-flowered species; lip 3-lobed or occasionally simple, base spurless or spurred, apex entire or fimbriate. Column elongate, clavate, slender, not winged; anther terminal, incumbent, usually ovoid, 2-locular; pollinia 2, cleft, granular-farinaceous, sectile; caudicle absent; viscidium reduced or prominent; rostellum broad, entire, sometimes absent; stigmatic surface shield-shaped to orbicular, lying below rostellum.
Nervilia aragoana Gaudichaud 
Leaf broadly cordate, margin undulate; peduncle green or purple, with 3-5 tubular sheaths; floral bracts reflexed; raceme  4-15-flowered; flowers yellowish green; resupinate, usually opening widely, emitting an unpleasant odor; lip villous on purplish veins;  column white, apex dilated; stigma suborbicular.
Rare in hills of E.Godavari
Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden
Leaf cordate, with 7 main veins, with fine white reticulate venation, inflorescence 1-flowered; flower not resupinate; lip with a yellowish patch at the centre, apical margin irregularly lacerate.
Rare in hills of E.Godavari
Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schlechter

Leaf cordate, sometimes with purple or yellowish blotches,  pubescent on main veins; raceme 2-flowered; flowers nodding, resupinate, usually opening widely;lip 3 lobed,  brownish tinged yellow at center and with purplish brown venation; mid lobe longitudinally folded at apex, slightly emarginated.
In hills of E.Godavari and Visakhapatnam.
Epiphytic herbs. Stems clustered, enclosed in leaf bases; . Leaves iridiform and unifacial, rarely terete, often fleshy, distichous, usually equitant,; Flowers on unbranched racemes; often in whorls on peduncle; not resupinate, flat, very small, usually only 1-2 mm in diam.; ovary glabrous or papillate; lip usually spreading, sessile, entire or lobed, margin sometimes erose or fimbriate, occasionally concave at base, with or without calli, spur absent; lateral lobes often embracing column. Column erect, short, lacking a foot, wings usually absent; anther cap terminal, firmly attached to column apex, 2-locular; pollinia 4, cohering in 2 unequally sized pairs, waxy; viscidium absent or abbreviated; stigma transversely reniform to ovate; rostellum protruding.
Oberonia arnottiana Wight
Leaves linear, ensiform; scape terete, raceme slender;flowers pale yellowish green, short pedicelled;lateral lobes of lip large, midlobe narrow with diverging lobes;
Rare, in moist hills of E.Godavari, and VSKP
Oberonia brunoniana Wight.
Leaves linear, oblong; scape adnate to the upper leaf, 2 edged;flowers pale yellow in dense stiff spikes; Lip brown, cordate at base,apex 2 lobed; not toothed.
Rare in semi-evergreen forests of E.Godavari.
Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley,
Tufted, pendulous; leaves coriaceous, acuminate; flowers yellow, minute, in dense interrupted spikes; petals reflexed, gland dotted; pubescent with blackish stiff bristles; lip with a callus at either side of sinus
Frequent in moist deciduous forests in Eastgodavari and VSKP and VJN districts.
Oberonia falconeri J. D. Hooker,
 Leaves falcate; flowers greenish yellow,in dense racemes; petals oblong-ovate, falcate;floral bracts with a long apical awn; lip greenish yellow 3 lobed, column yellow.
Rare in Rampa hills of E.Godavari and VSKP districts.
Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenfaden
Raceme densely flowered, flowers reddish brown, with several hundred flowers borne less than 1 mm apart from each other; lip broadly ovate or suborbicular base decurrent backward, inconspicuously 3-lobed, margin irregularly incised or fimbriate.
Frequent in moist deciduous forests in Eastgodavari and VSKP and VJN districts.
Paplionanthe teres (Roxb.)Schltr.
Epiphyte;stem slender;leaves teret,slender; flowers white or rose in 2-6 flowered ,axillary, racemes; petals large; lip yellowish-brown,spotted and lined with red and purplish brown; side lobes elliptic, mid lobe clawed,deeply bifid; spur funnel shaped;anther 2 celled; pollinia 2, didynamous.
Rare in VSKP district
Courtesy  image by Bimal Sar kar
Pecteilis gigantea (J.E.Smith)Rafin
Geophyte; stem leafy up to inflorescence; leaves ovate, upper sheathing; bracts leafy; flowers white, fragrant, in 3-6 flowered racemes;petals linear, acute;3 lobed, side lobes flabellate, deeply pectinate,midlobe linear;spathulate, spur twice as long as ovary; anther very broad, pollinia linear.
In moist hill slopes of East Godavari district.
PERISTYLUS Blume  nom cons
Tuberous geophyte; Leaves basal, clustered midway along stem or widely spaced; Flowers spirally arranged, resupinate, small; ovary and pedicel usually erect and held close to rachis, twisted,;  Sepals free; mid one erect, lateral spreading; petals white, slightly fleshy; lip 3 lobed, connate with column at base; column very stout, erect; anther with 2 parallel or slightly divergent locules; pollinia 2; stigmatic lobes 2, adnate to the base of lip.
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley
Geophyte; stem stout, covered with sheaths below; leaves elliptic-oblong, flowers yellowish green in dense spikes;sepals unequal; petals obovate rounded; strongly nervedlip without a claw, 3 fid; pollinia clavate, rostellum erect toothed.
In moist deciduous forests of Nallamali hills.
Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley
Tubers cylindric oblong; roots fleshy;stem covered by loosesheaths; leaves oblong-lanceolate;flowers greenish white, in racemes; petals and lip white; petals broad,obliquely orbicular;  nerves branched;tips recurved;lip 3 lobed;rostellum short, stout.
In moist hill forests of E.Godavari.
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Pendulous epiphytic herb; pseudobulb aggragated; leaf solitaryelliptic-lanceolate;flowers small  pinkish in terminal drooping racemes; floral bracts pale brown; sepals and petals free; lip entire with ornamental callus; column winged, stigmatic lobes 3,  surface funnel shaped.
Rare in hilly tracts of Godavari, VSKP, and Srikakulam district.
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
Epiphyte;leaves narrowly oblong; scape compressed, rachis angular; Flowers small, purple on racemes;petals much smaller, very narrow, lip broadly oblong,3 lobed, mid lobe tongue shaped;column short.
Rare in moist deciduous hillforests of VSKP.
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.
Small epiphytes; leaves many distichous, narrow, leathery; flowers small, ±resupinate; Lip firmly attached to column, immovable, fleshy, shortly spurred or saccate, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, deltoid, small; mid-lobe often recurved; Column short, stout, foot absent;  rostellum large, hamulate, ± bifid; pollinia 4.
Pomatocalpa mannii(Rchb.f.)J.J.Smith.
Flowers yellow, flushed with red;bracts minute; side lobes of lip indistinct; spur saccate;slightly inflated at apex;
Rare in semi evergreen shaded hilly  forests of VSKP
Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.
Floral bracts acuminate; flowers yellow, paillose;lip mid-lobe narrower than spur; rostellum beaked.
Rare in semi evergreen shaded hilly  forests of Palakonda.
Rhyncostylis retusa(L.)Blume,
Small epiphyte; lower parts leafless; leaves strap shaped; recurved; flowers white tinged with violet pink; on drooping racemes; bracts cordate; lip 3 lobed, clawed,middle lobe elongated; cuneiform;spur saccate;rostellum shortly beaked.
Rare in E.Godavari and VSKP 
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tuberous, unbranched geophyte; leaves few, very variable; flowers pink and fragrant  on many flowered dense spikes;  bracts much larger than the flowers; lip broadly oblong, keeled, variable; spur is also variable; column erect, terete.
Rare in the hills of E.Godavari
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume
Geophyte; leaves elliptic ovate; flowers small, white on peduncled spikes; bracts linear spreading;sepals enclosing the spur and lip; lip oblong, spur cylindric, column short.

Rare in hilly tracts of E.Godavari

VANDA W.Jones ex.R.Brown.

Vanda tessellata Hook ex. G.Don

Epihytes; leafy monopodial stems. Inflorescence axillary, racemose. Flowers brownish, showy, ; P 3+3, similar, clawed, brown; spur conical 3 lobed, blue; column cyllindric, short, pollinia 2. 

In almost all districts.

The roots have medicinal properties. Vega badanika,వేగబదనిక  kodikalla chettu కోడికళ్ళచెట్టు    (Tel.) 
I thank Bimal Sar kar for providing excellent images of Orchids for the blog
Vanda tasellata
HYPOXIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. cons
Stem ± cormose to rhizomatous, leaf bases persisting, contractile roots common; velamen +, leaves 3-ranked, vernation plicate;sheaths also closed; inflorescence various, scapose, axis compressed; (flowers 2-merous),A 3+3;ovary inferior, (apical beak +), septal nectaries 0, (placentation parietal - Empodium), stigmas commissural, ± 3-radiate, dry or wet; ovules few to many/carpel, apotropous, (micropyle zigzag), fruit dehiscing laterally,; seeds globose n = 6-9, 11, embryo short, ± undifferentiated.
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.
Stem less, tuerous geophytes; Leaves radical, linear, plicate, prominantly nerved; Flowers on short scape, yellow, 1-1.2cm across, buds subterranean;T-6; A -6,anthers sagittate,  linear. Ovary inferior, hidden among the leaves, stigmas -3. Capsule indehiscent. 
Common through out the state. Nelathaadi నేలతాడి (Tel.) Black musli,Golden eye grass(Eng.)
Tuber is used as a major ingredient in several medicines in Ayurveda and Unani.
AMARYLLIDACEAE J. Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.  
 Leaves two-ranked; inflorescence scapose, umbellate, construction cymose, with scarious spathe, inflorescence bracts 2 (or more - external); pedicels not articulated; (T free); (A connate basally), (tapetal cells uninucleate); style long; lectins +.
Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.
Crinum asiaticum L., Crinum latifolium  L., Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J.Nair,
Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss,(Ornamental)
Pancratium longiflorum Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.,
Scadoxus multiflorus  (Martyn) Raf., 

Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb., Zephyranthes citrina Baker,  Zephyranthes rosea Lendl., Allioideae Herbert
Flavonoids, cysteine-derived sulphur compounds +; also styloids +; laticifers +; leaves (spiral), sheath closed, long, shortly ligulate [Allium, at least]; floral bracts 0; T ± connate; A connate or adnate to free; style solid; ovules 2-many carpel, in two ranks, campylotropous; seeds angular.
Allium cepa L.,
Annual bulbous geophytes;bulb tunicated; Leaves linear, scape 60-90 cm, bract foliaeous. Flowers  in umbel; P-6, white with greenish vertical lines.
 Widely cultivated through out the state for Bulbs; bulbs and leaves are used as vegetable. Vulli,ఉల్లి  yerragadda ఎర్రగడ్డ (Tel.) Onion(Eng)
Allium sativum L.
Bulbous geophyte; tuber loose bulb; flowers pinkish white.
Widely cultivated for bulbs throughout the state.
Bulbs are used as spice and for medicinal applications. vellulli వెల్లుల్లి , తెల్లబాయలు/ తెల్లగడ్డలు (Tel.); Garlic (Eng.)
Allium sativum bulbs
Sub family: Amaryllidoideae Burnett  
 Geophytes; leaves (spiral), flat or revolute to involute, vascular bundles inverted; base sheathing; flowers large, monosymmetric, with median member of outer tepalline whorl adaxial; T ± free, ovary inferior, stigma capitate to deeply trifid
1.Leaves fleshy stout, flowers in umbels: CRINUM
2.Leaves lorate, flat, flowers 1-3 on spike, staminal corona +: PANCRATUM
3.Leaves cespitos, plants much shorter, flowers pink/yellow/white: ZEPHYRANTHES
Bulbous stout herbs. Leaves fleshy, stout, elongate. Flowers in umbels subtended by 2 spathaceous bracts; T-6, salver or funnelshaped, reflexed; A -6, on throat of the peianth, filaments free, filiform, spreading; G-3, ovules few or many.
Crinum asiaticum L.   
Bulb 5-10x 10-30 cm ; leaves 50-70x 10-15cm, scape 50- 90 cm, 15-20 flowered, flowers salver shaped,white 6-10 cm across.
It is found in wild, also cultivated as ornamental Naga dhamani నాగధమని  (Tel.)Gaint crinum lily, spider lily(Eng.)
Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J.Nair
Syn.Crinum deflexum  Ker Gawl.
Bulb ovoid;leaves coriaceous, canaliculate, apex gradually tapering;flowers white, fragrant, in 10-20 cm long umbels; stamens 6 red.

Common in all districts along streams and back waters. River crinum Lilly (Eng.); Kaja gadda, Kaesarachettu కాజగడ్డ ; కేసరచెట్టు (Tel.)
 Crinum latifolium  L., 

Rosette like herb, bulb globose, 12-15cm in diam. Leaves lorate , 40- 60 x 5-10cm, thick, scape 50-70 cm long, 8 flowerd; P -6 funnel shaped, drooping, white or white tinged with rose, oblanceolate.

Found in wild and in cultivation as an ornamental plant Poison bulb (Eng.) Chembugadda చెంబుగడ్డ (Tel)
Bulb is used as medicine in traditional medicine.
Pancratium longiflorum Roxb. ex Ker Gawl., 
Perenial bulbous geophyte. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers solitary on a solid scape, scape shorter than leaves. Flower white, 8-10 cm aross; P -6, connate, linear. Stamens 6 on the throat of the P, filaments fiiform, united by a membranous corona, 2 toothed between filaments, anthers versatile. Ovary 3 celled,ovules many, 2 seriate.
Found in wild and as cultivated. Scape appears after rain and storm, flowers fragrant and delicate. Spider lilly or rain lily (Eng.) Thondathoka chettu తొండతోకచెట్టు  (Tel.)
Zephyranthes rosea Lindl., Pink Rain lily(Eng.)  and Zephyranthes citrina Baker, Yellow Rain lily (Eng.) are widely introduced and cultivated in gardens.
ASPARAGACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Inflorescence racemose. World-wide, but not Arctic. The members of this family were assigned to widely differing families in different classification systems. 
Agave angustifolia Haw., Agave americana L., Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck,
Aloe vera L., 
Asparagus aethiopicus L.,Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop, cultivated; Asparagus gonoclados Baker, , short infl, flat cladode, Asparagus racemosus Willd.
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker, (North Circars, Kurnool), Chlorophytum glaucum Dalzell, (rare in W.Godavari), Chlorophytum laxum R. Br., Chlorophytum malabaricum Baker,(Chittoor), Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, 
Dracaena marginata hort. ;(Cultivated); Dracena reflexa (Cultivated) Dracaena terniflora Roxb., (Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP)
 DRIMIA Jacq., 
Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop, Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar,
Drimia congesta (Wight)Ansari&Raghavan
FURCRAEA  Ventenat,
Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw.,
Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop,
Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, 
Polianthes tuberosa L.,
Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook.,(Ornamental), Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f., Sansevieria trifasciata Prain,(Ornamental)
URGINEA Steinh.,
Urginea coromandeliana Hook.f.,
Swan necked agave. Lion’tail or Swan’s neck agave (Eng.)
Agave angustifolia Haw.,
Leaves narrow, stiffly, erect  with moderately-spaced spines, with yellow margins.
Introduced as a garden plant 
Furcraea foetida 
Evergreen perennial shrub. Leaves upto 1-1.5m x10-15cm, with spiny margin, thick.Flowers on 5-7m long panicles, 4cm long, green to creamy. capsule globose.
Common on way sides in dry trcts of Chittor and Nellore districts.
Furcraea foetida
  Polianthes tuberosa L.,
Cultivated for fragrant night blooming flowers; flowers are used for decorations and manufacture of perfumes.. Nela sampangi సంపంగి  (Tel.) Tuberosa(Eng.
Polyanthes tuberosa

Sansveria cylindrica
Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f
Syn. Sansevieria zeylanica (L.) Willd.,
Stemless herbs, root stock creeping. Leaves thick, dark green with transverse bands; Flowers greenish-white, in fascicles of 3-6 on  long racemes.Fruit fleshy, globose, <1cm,  orange on ripening. Common in scrub jungles. Saaginaara, saggal, Junappu సాగినార; జున్నపు (Tel.); Bow string hemp(Eng.)
Sansevieria trifasciata Prain,
Leaves flat erect up to 60cm, yeloish green with yellow margins. Spike 30-40cm long. Flowers greenish white on a lax raceme.
Introduced and widely cultivated as an ornamental pot plant in offices and houses. Snake plant(Eng.) Saaginaara సాగినార(Tel.) 
Yucca gloriosa L. Spanish dagger, Adam’s needle, Mound lily.(Eng.)
Dracena varieties are cultivated as ornamental plants through out the district in Offices and houses for the attractive shapes and colors of the leaves
Plant woody, unbranched, growth monopodial; vessels also in stem and leaf; cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets, stomata tetracytic; leaves spiral,massive, vernation reduplicate-plicate, pinnately pseudocompound, petiolate, with closed sheath; flowers ± sessile; septal nectaries +; ovule 1/carpel, apotropous, sessile, attachment broad; seeds large [>1 cm long].
ARECACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. cons.//Palmae Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.   
Arecaceae can be recognised by their woody stems, large, tough, petiolate leaves with plicate and often apparently compound blades,plant often monoecious; axillary inflorescences, with bicarinate prophyll,with numerous flowers,   and 1-seeded fruits.
Borassus flabellifer L.,
Calamus rotang L., Calamus viminalis Willd.,
Caryota urens L.,
Cocos nucifera L.,
DYPSIS Noronha ex Mart.,
Dypsis lutescens (Wendl.) Beentje & Dransf.,(cultivated)
Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Palm oil tree)
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth, Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb., 
Sub family: Calamoideae Beilschmied
Plant spiny; flowers in dyads;pollen equatorially disulcate - Calameaestyle branched; fruit covered by reflexed scales, seeds 1-3.
Calamus rotang L.,
Armed scandant shrub in marshy areas, stem ringed at nodes; Spadix  axillary, elongate up to 1m, branched, polygamodioecious flowers.
As large mats in drier coastal areas.It is used to make cane furniture and leaflets for making mats. Fruit pulp is edible. Pemu పేము (Tel.) Rattan’s palm(Eng.) 
Calamus thickets
Calamus viminalis Willd.
A stout scrambling and climbing plant; basal leaflets fascicled near base; fruit beaked.
Common in North coastal districts. 
Sub family: Coryphoideae Burnett
Caryota urens L., 
Up to 15m tall, unbranched tree, with smooth, cyllindric, grey shining stem. Leaves bipinnate, 5 m long, pinnae 10 pairs, leaflets, oblique, irregularly serrate, apex premorse.nerves flabellate. Spadix interfoliar, up to 4m long, branches simple equal in length, forming a dense tassel drooping from the stout peduncle.
Commonly grown as an ornamental plant in gardens and on way sides. Toddy is prepared from the sap. Solitary fishtail palm, toddy palm, wine palm, jaggery palm(Eng.) Konda jeeluga; కొండజీలుగ,mariమారి(Tel.)
Caryota urens
Borassus flabellifer L., 
Up to 40m tall unbranched tree; Leaves simple, fan shaped, plicate;Spadix  inter foliar, up to 1m, branched, peduncles sheathed with open spathes; 
Common throughout the state in wild or cultivated.In Andhra it is considered as a ‘kalpa vriksham’. Thaatiతాటి  (Tel.) Toddy palm(Eng.)
Trees/shrubs, dioecious, stem clothed with persistent leaf bases. Leavesunipinnate, attached obliquely by their folded leaf bases. Spadices many, branched, spathe coriaceous, K-3, 3 toothed, C-3, A-6, G-3 free carpels.Fruit oblong, terete. Seed oblong ventrally groved.
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth.
Stem< 10 m tall, fruit black; Common in hilly forests. Kondeetha కొండీత (Tel.)
Phoenix loureiroi
Phoenix pusilla Gaertn
   Shrub, fruit red then blackFound near coastal areas Chitteetha  చిట్టీత (Tel.)
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.,
Stem >10 m tall, fruit ellipsoid, brownish-yellow; Found in all drier areas.
Fruits edible. Sap from male inflorescence is sold as “Eetha kallu” which is similar to arak. Leaves are used for thatching, to make mats, and baskets eetha ఈత(Tel.) 
Cocos nucifera L., 
Up to 30m tall branchless trees, with ring like leaf scars;Spadices erect at first, later drooping, spathes 2, upper one large and woody, lower one short;  simple panicles Fruit large ovoid drupe. Pericarp thick, mesocarp fibrous, endocarp stony, seed cohering with endosperm.
All parts of the plant are useful. Kernal is edible, oil is obtained from dried kernel which is used as hair oil, cooking oil and for manufacture of various cosmetics. The fibrous mesocarp is used to make carpets and ropes.
Ver.nme: Coconut palm(Eng.) Kobbari,కొబ్బరిTenkai టెంకాయ(Tel)
Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Cultivated in coastal districts for oil plant; పామాయిల్ చెట్టు (Tel.)
Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermalraphides 0; P = K + C; style well developed, stigmas small,endosperm nuclear, ; cotyledon hyperphyllar.

TYPHACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.   
Plant perennial, rhizomatous; leaves two-ranked; plant monoecious; inflorescences dense, complex, gap between staminate and pistillate inflorescences; flowers very small, mono symmetric by reduction; P chaffy; A 1-8; G pseudomonomerous, style +, branches long, stigma rather elongated, on one side; ovule 1/carpel, pendulous;seed coat ± obliterated;seedling with hypocotyl and collar hairs.
Typha domingensis Pers., Syn. Typha angustata Bory & Chaub.,
 Helophyte; 2m tall, stem terete, leaf base sheathing; leaf thick and spongy. Spike cylindric, brown;flowers intermixed with clavate bracts; Anthers 4 celled; erect, ovary borne on a densely hairy gynophore; sterile ♀flowers simple with long pistillodes. Fruit a membranous drupe.
 Through out the state in marshes. The leaves are used for thatching in villages. Jammu జమ్ము( Tel.) The reed mace, Bulrush(Eng.
BROMELIACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
 Rosette plants; leaves tough, spirally arranged, lacking a distinct sheath, and often with spiny-toothed margins;inflorescence terminal.
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Pineapple(Eng.); anasa అనాస(Tel.)
It is cultivated in hilly areas of VSKP for the edible fruits.
ERIOCAULACEAE Martinov, nom. cons
Rosette plants; peduncles slender, spirally twisted and ridged or angled; flowers small; aggregated into dense heads; (known as “pipe-brush” inflorescences) base of the inflorescence is surrounded by a single closed leaf sheath; corolla scarious and inconspicuous.
Eriocaulon quinquangulare L.,
10-20 cm tall tufted marshy therophyte. Leaves lanceolate, purplish red; 7 nerved, 3-5x0.3-0.4 cm; Head globose, 0.6cm across, white, peduncles many, numerous, twisted, 7 ribbed; puberulous; florets unisexual, minute; K-3 white, papilose hairy.
Common in marshy areas through out the state. 
JUNCACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons
Juncaceae are glabrous caespitose herbs; stems solid, rounded; leaves often rounded and have open sheaths; flowers pentacyclic; perianth scarious.Pollination mainly by dragon flies.
Juncus prismatocarpus R.Br.,
A hemicryptophyte.stem terete; leaves basal and cauline;cymes terminal and corymbose;capsule prismatic.
Common in marshy areas of coastal districts. Soft rush, Branched rush(Tel.)
Juncus prismatocarpa
CYPERACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons
Herbs with solid, sharply three-angled stems and leaves with closed sheaths. The flowersare very reduced and often aggregated into spikes or heads, the perianth, when recognisable, is scarious, (G [2]), (gynophore +); ovule single,  and the fruit is an achene.
BULBOSTYLIS Kunth. nom.cons.
Culms tufted, very slender. Leaf sheath with long silky hairs at apex; Spikelets ovoid to ellipsoid, many flowered. Glumes spirally arranged or rarely distichous, herbaceous or membranous, deciduous, subtending a flower but basal 1 or 2 empty. Flowers bisexual. Perianth bristles absent. Stamens (1 or)2(or 3). Style filiform, base thickened, bulbous, and persistent in fruit; stigmas 3. Nutlet obovoid to obpyriform, 3-sided with persistent style base.
Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.)Kunth.
Stems slender,striate up to30cm long.Inflorescence capitate, brown, achenes smooth.
A very common species through out the state.
2.Bulbostylis densa (Wall.)Hand.
Slender herbs, leafblades filiform, Inflorescence loose, achenes transversely wrinkled. 
Common in open wet grassy places.
3. Bulbostylis thouarsii (Roem. & Schult.) ined.Syn.Bulbostylis puberula (Kunth) C.B.Clarke
Leaves filiform, sheaths pubescent;spikelets solitary; glumes ovate, apex with recurved mucro, densely pubescent.
Rare in snady areas near river banks and sea-shores.
Herbs, perennial; rhizome usually stoloniferous;culms tufted or sparse,erect, trigonous;Leaves basal or basal and cauline, flat;numerous spikes arranged in spicate, racemose, or paniculate inflorescence; Involucral bracts leaflike; Flowers unisexual, 1 flower or 1 flower in a unisexual spikelet, spikelet included by prophyll,plants monoecious; flower with (2 or)3 stamens; female flower with 1 pistil;Nutlets rather tightly or loosely enveloped in utricle, trigonous or plano-convex.
Carex baccans Nees
Inflorescence panickled in the axils of involucral bracts.
Urticles strongly inflated, broadly obovoid; red on maturity.
Rare in wet grassy forest slopes.
Carex cruciata Wahlenb  Stem stout, woody; Spikelet <1.5cm,cylindrical, involucral bracts foliaceous. urticles short hairy, glumes reddish brown.
Shady localities of forests.

Carex hebecarpa C.A.Meyer.
Rhizome short, prostrate, covered with brown scales; Inflorescence spicate,spikes 6, terminal staminate; with a solitary spike in the axils of each involucral bract, spikelet solitary, terminal.
Occasional in forest undergrowth.
Carex myosurus Nees  Rhizome woody, culms erect, trigonous; Urticles not inflated, ellipsoid-oblong,pale to castaneous. Found along forest slopes in shady places.

Carex speciosa Kunth
Annual, rhizomatous; leaves basal exceeding stem; spike solitary, terminal, oblong; urticle ovoid-ellipsoid,margins winged; achenes ellipsoid.
Occasional along moist shady slopes of hilly forests.

Rhizomatous or stoloniferous naauals or perennials. Stem trigonus, caespitose or solitary. Leaves basal, basal ones scale like, Inflorescence terminal or pseudolateral, simple or once or twice anthelate, flowers bisexual. Spikes oblong to ovoid; spikately or digitately spikeletted. Spikelets 4-angled, sub terete, many flowered. Rachilla straight or flexuous, persistant winged or not. Glumes distichous, imbricating, margins hayine, keel distinct. Stamens 2 or 3, connective crested. Styles 2 or 3 fid, nut trigonous, biconvex.
Cyperus alternifolius is grown as ornamental plant Umbrella palm; umbrella sedge(Eng.)
Cyperus amabilis Vahl.
Annual slender herb; leaves canaliculate; glumes darker, shortly awned/ mucronate, achenes oblong; 
As a weed in cultivated fields.
Cyperus amabilis
Cyperus arenarius Retz.
Perenial, glaucous green, rhizomes creeping;culms terete, stout;leaves coriaceous, sulcate;heads solitary,spikelets radiating;achenes triquetrous, smooth.
Common in sandy shores, forms large mats along shores.
Cyperus arenarius
Cyperus articulatus L.
Perennial, erect stout herb;culms terete, transversly septate;compound umbel, involucral bracts 5, much shorter than the corymb;primary rays 5-9, spikes racemose;spikelets oblong, narrow,compressed,35-40 flowered.
Usually found in standing waters,in ponds, canals, sea coast in large colonies.
Cyperus articulatus
Cyperus castaneus Willd. 
Annual, tufted, glabrous; culms slender, 10 leaves at base; anthela simple, congested into a single head. spikelets stellately clustered in groups;glumes with straight awn; rachilla straight, wingless; achenes brown with parallel sides.
Cyperus compressus L.,
Annual, culms patent; leaves 4 to a culm;Anthela  up to 10 cm, with 7 foliaceous unequal bracts; spikelets 10 on abbreviated axis per spike; compressed; rachilla flexuose;achenes broadly obovate; dark brown, shiny.
Common in grass lands as weed in cultivated fields. Annual sedge, hedgehog sedge(Eng.).
Cyperus compressus
Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth.
Annual, tufted up to 10cm; leaves filiform; umbel simple,with few unequal rays; spikes obovoid, digitately spikeletted; spikelets compressed, reddish brown; achenes obovoid , triquertous, winged.
Common in damp sandy soils.
Cyperus difformis L., 
Annual, roots reddish; culms triquertous; leaves few shorter than stem; spikes contracted into a head; involucral bracts foliaceous; spikelets many in dense heads;dusty brown, compressed;achenes ellipsoid, trigonous.
Very common in rice fields.  Variable Flatsedge, one-arm sedge, rice sedge, small-flower umbrella plant, smallflower umbrella sedge(Eng.)
Cyperus difformis
Cyperus diffusus Vahl.
Perennial tufted rhizomatous herb; leaves flat; Inflorescence decompound, diffuse; primary rays many; 3-5 digitately arranged spikelets at the tip of the secondary rays; 12-14 flowered, greenish straw colored; achenes elliptic/
Common in wet low lands along canals. Dwarf umbrella grass(Eng.)
Cyperus diffusus
Cyperus digitatus Roxb.
Perennial, robust herb with woody creeping rhizome; upto 1m tall, leaves as long as stem;umbel large and broad, involucral bracts 3-10, leaf like, primary rays 3-6,trigonous,terminated by stellately spreading sessile or cyllindric spikes of unequal length;with innumerable horizontally spreading spikelets, spikes digitate, terete 7-15 in a cluster;spikelets at right angles to rachis, acute.
Near waterlogged places at the sides of ponds, ditches and canals.
Cyperus digitatus

Cyperus distans L.f., 
Rhizomatous hemicryptophyte; culms not tufted; upto 1m tall;inflorescence decompound; spikelets purplish, distant, spreading at maturity; spikelets at right angles to the rachis;racilla persistant; achenes grey apiculate.
On the margins of ponds, ditches and rice fields. Slender cyperus;Piedmont flatsedge (Eng.)
Cyperus elatus L.
Perennial stout, robust herb; leaves as long as stem;involucral bracts 10, leafy; primary rays to 10;, spikes cylindrical clustered at the end of secondary rays.Spikelets densely and spirally arranged;achenes trigonous, pale brown
Occasional on river banks and swamps.
Cyperus esculentus L.
Perennial, tuberous hemicryptophyte; stolons slender; leaf blades flat, flaccid, shorter
than culms;spikes peduncled and arranged in umbellate form; spikelets linear; achenes ellipsoid with 3 sharp angles.
Rare in marshy areas in coastal areas. tubers are medicinal and used in cosmetic industry. Yellow nutsedge, nut grass tigernut sedge(Eng.)
Cyperus haspan L.
Perennial tufted, triquertous sedge; leaves scaberulous; inflorescence decompound ubels, 3-5 sessile spikelets at the end of each branch;yellowish brown.
Common in rice fields and moist soils.
Cyperus haspan

 Cyperus javanicus Houtt

Rhizomatous coarse geophyte, 1-2m long. Leaves longer than culms; coarse, margins scabrous; nodes purplish; inflorescence umbelliform, spikes cyllindrical, spikelets many; rachilla winged, glumes reddish brown; achenes ellipsoid blackish brown.
Common in coastal marshy areas. Marsh cyperus; java flat sedge, java cyperus(Eng.) 

Cyperus iria L.
Tufted annual therophyte;  roots yellowish red; culms 3-angled; up to 1m tall; leaf sheath reddish or purplish brown, enveloping the stem at base.compound umbel composed of numerous erect flattened spikelets; achene with slightly concave sides, and shiny dark brown to black. 
 Common weed in wet and flooded rice fields. Rice flat sedge, purple nut sedge, umbrella sedge(Eng.)

Cyperus laevigatus (L.)Clarke.
Perrenial, rhizomatous, tufted herb;stems solitary, bases enclosed by shining chestnut red scales; spikelets straw colored, about 30 in lateral heads;spikelets ovate, thick, achenes obovid brown stipate.
common in marshy localities, salt marshes and muddy soils.
Cyperus pangorei Rottb.
Perennial rhizomatous herb, robust, glaucous green, umbel compound,spikes corymbose; achenes yellowish brown.
Along the water streams in marshy and swampy areas. Matsedge.(Eng.)
Cyperus pangorei
Cyperus platyphyllus Roem.& Schult. In IUCN Red list.
Perennial densely tufted rhizomatous herb, upto 2 m tall, leaves up to 1m long, coriaceous; Anthela compound, spikes linear, yellow brownish; achenes greyish brown, elliptic.large sedge.
Rare in marshy places in coastal areas.
Cyperus platyphyllus
Cyperus polystachyos (Rottb.)Beauv.,
Perennial, erect tufted herb; leaves shorter than culms;sheaths purple brown; inflorescence simple, reduced to a single head; involucral bracts 8;spikelets compressde;straw colored.
Occasional in marshy areas, rice fields and along water streams.
Cyperus polystachyos

Cyperus rotundus L.: Tuberous geophyte ;sparcely tufted, up to 20cm; rigid, Leaves several, flat, nerves prominent;  Inflorescence compound, 5-10 cm long,  primary rays 5-7, secondary rays 1-3; spikes 2-8 sikeletted, at rightangles to rachis. Spikelets narrow-oblong; purplish, stamenous; glumes membranous, stamens 3, achenes oblong, greyish black.
Cosmopolitan in distribution; common as a weed in rice fields.
Rhizomes are peasantly odoured. Used as tonic in Ayurveda.
Cyperus rotundus Thunga gaddalu తుంగముస్తెలు, తుంగగడ్డలు (Tel.) coco-grass, purple nut sedge, red nut sedge (Eng.)
Cyperus rubicundus Vahl.
Annual, reddish brown colored glabrous tufted herb;leaves shorter than stem, sheaths reddish;head solitary, spikelets 3-12 sessile; much compressed; achenes ovoid, brown stipate.
Rare in rocky areas at higher altitudes.
Cyperus stoloniferous Retz.
Perennial rhizomatous therophyte; rhizome woody creeping, clothed with fibres; leaves filiform;umbels simple; spikes ovate;spikelets oblong linear;thickned at edges;achenes ovate.
Common in sandy river banks.
Cyperus stoloniferous
Cyperus squarrosus L.
A small sedge up to 10cm, with 1 or 3 spike heads  with 10-20 spikelets; each flower is enclosed in a single keeled scale; this scale is light green, hairless, and lanceolate, tapering into a recurved tip(awn). flatsedge; awned flatsedge(Eng.)
Cosmopolitan ; hemicryptophyte.
Cyperus squarrosus
Stolaniferous geophyte;  Leaves bladeless; sheath apiculate; Single terminal spikelets +; with few –many flowers;  Glumes spirally imbricate; perianth bristles 3-12;  stamens 1-3, stigmas 2-3; nutlets obovoid; persistent style base expanded, some times spongy thickened.
1. Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retzius) J. Presl & C. Presl,Annuals,rhizomes &stolons absent, culms tufted;spikelet ovoid;  perianth bristles 4-6, colorless or white; persistent style base saucer-shaped, not reflexed basally.
Common through out the state in marshy areas. Purple spike rush(Eng.)
2. Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.)Trin. ex Hensch.
1-1.5m tall, perennial, partly submerged;stolons terminated by small tubers.spikelets cyllindric;whitish; achenes obovate,biconvexed, yellow, shiny.
In stagnant marshy areas of Araku, Rayalaseema, and Mohaboobnagar areas. : Chinese water chestnut, spike rush(Eng.)
Corm is eaten either raw or cooked, it is tasty. Used for abdominal pain. 
3. Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem&Schult.
Annual, caespitose; culms slender, sulcate;spikelets ovoid, reddish-brown; hypogynous bristles 5-7;longer than achenes.
Common in wet marshy lands, including Rice fields.
Medium sized rhizomatous geophytes; culms slender, 3 or 5 angled; leaves basal, blade linear, filiform; leaf sheath with out long silky hairs at apex; anthela terminal,  simple or compound,  rarely capitate ; spikelets solitary or fascicled, ovoid, 1- many; glumes spirally imbricate, distichous; often with 1 or more veins forming an abaxial keel and sometimes extending into an apical mucro or arista. Flowers bisexual. Perianth bristles absent. Stamens 1-3. Style not persistent; Nutlet sometimes stipitate,without persistent style base biconvex, 3-sided.
Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl,
Culms sparsely tufted,  thin, slightly compressed, striate, glabrous. Leaves bladeless; basal sheaths glumelike; Inflorescences reduced to a single terminal spikelet with 10-many flowers, ovoid; glumes spirally arranged, greenish –white with brown specks; stamens 2, style long and compressed.Nutlets brown with transverse wavy reticulation.
Common in marshy areas and a weed in paddy fields.
Fimbristylis aestivalis (Retz.)Vahl.
Annual, densely tufted;leafblades much shorter than culms, with incurved margins.spikelets solitary, lance ovate;densely 40 flowered.achenes obovate, thickly biconvex, yellowish and smooth. 

Fimbristylis argentea (Rottb.)Vahl.
Annual, caespitose, glaucous green, upto 10 cm; culms and laves  filiform;5-10 spikelets in cluster, in head like inflorescence;spikelts sessile, cyllindric;many flowered,achenes ovoid.
 Common in wet sandy areas and rice fields.
Fimbristylis bis-umbellata (Forssk.)Bubani,
Annual, culms upto 30cm; leaves pubescent; umbels compound,primary rays 3-5, secondary rays 3-5,spikelets solitary, 7-12 mm many flowered.
Common in rice fields and wet marshy areas.
Fimbristylis bis-umbellata

 Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br.
Tufted perennial rhizomatous geophyte;culms densely leafy below; rigidly coriaceous;spikelets globose, pale brown,in compound umbels;achenes obovoid.
Common in sandy areas near sea shores and river beds. Button sedge(Eng.)
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.)Vahl.
Tufted geophyte;leaves as long as culms; compressed umbels, 6 spikelets , laxly arranged; involucral bracts foliaceous;spikelets solitary, ovoid, terete chestnut brown,many flowered.
Common along the water courses, and in wet cultivated fields. Forked fimbry(Eng.)
Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.)Vahl.
Perennial, tufted;culms rigid,leaves scabrid,ligule with a fringe of short hairs;umbel with few spikelets,spikelets solitary, oblong ovoid, reddish brown;pubescent;
Common in marshy areas and brackish waters.
Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl; syn. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich.,  
Glabrous, strongly tillering plant; culms tufted, angled at top; leaves filiform;ligule absent, compound umbel with spikelets upto50; spikelets reddish brown; nutlets straw colored.
Fimbristylis miliacea
Common in marshy areas and rice fields. Grasslike fimbristylis, and hoorahgrass(Eng.)
Fimbristylis ovata(Burm.f.) J.Kern
Perennial caespitose herb; culms filiform, leaves crowded at base;scabrid;spikelets solitary on the stem;compressed, ovate;achenes obovoid, trigonous, stipate.
On wet grass lands, stream banks and on rice fields. Ibha muluka(San.)It is used against adenitis, scrofula, syphilis; also in
cough, bronchitis and asthma in Ayurveda.
Fimbristylis polytrichoides(Retz.) R.Br.Perennial, densely tufted, glaucous green, culms shallowly striate, leaf blades canaliculate ; spikelets ellipsoidal, brownish grey, densely flowered; achenes obovoid, grey purple at maturity.
Occasional in sandy shores near the sea.
Ver. name: Rusty sedge(Eng.)
Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl.)Kunth.
Densely tufted annual; culms 5 angled, clothed at base with 4 sheaths;leaf blades flat, shorter than culms;compound corymbs with 7 rays; each with about 30 spikelets; spikelets solitary, ovoid, rusty brown.
Common in wet places and paddy fields. Five angle fimbry(Eng.)
FUIRENA Rottb.(Umbrella grass)
Caespitose marshy land herbs of tropics; leaves hairy;spikelets sessile in clusters of 2–5; flower bisexual; perianth in sets of 3; outer with short bristles; stamens exerted; style hispidous. Achenes are usually prominently stipitate; apex stiff, hispidulous, beak+.
Fuirena uncinata  (Willd.)Kunth.

Annual therophytes; Stem articulate, angular, pubescent; Leaves linear lanceolate, sparcely pilose on both sides, laxly clothing the culm internode; Spikelets sessile, squarrose,polygonal, 3-8 in a cluster;  with20 glumes. Achenes rhombic-oval, triquertous,  light brown at maturity. 

Rare in marshy areas near the coast. Umbrella sedge(Eng.)
Fuirena uncinata

Fuirena umbellata Rottb.
Perennial light green bulbous geophyte; culms solitary, erect from horizontally creeping rhizome, 4-5-angular, glabrous. Lower leaves reduced, upper leaf blades lanceolate; 3-12 glomerulous clusters of spikelets in  paniculiform; spikelets ovoid, brownish-green ;glumes ciliate and sparcely pilose; the midvein ending in a short recurved awn.
Found near sea shores and creeks in marshy areas.
Stem 3 angled, leaves at base only, terminated by 1-3 sessile capitate spikes. Spikelts many, compressed;whitish,stamens 1-3;nut smooth.
Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.
Perennial rhizomatous herb;culms many,arranged in single row along the rhizome;leaves linear, flat, plicate;Inflorescence a single terminal globose head;plae green, densely bearing numerous spikelets;spikelets lateraly compressed.
common through out the state. shortleaf spikesedgegreen kyllinga, and perennial greenhead sedge.(Eng.)
Kyllinga nemoralis (Frost&frost.f.)Dandy ex Hutchins. &Dalziel.
Perennial rhizomatous, laxly tufted herb; leaves longer than stem, Inflorescence a single head, white; spikelets ovate, 2 flowered; achenes oblong, biconvexed,brownish.
Common in moist localities through out the state. White water sedge(Eng.) Gandala గందాల(Tel.)
Kylinga nemoralis
Kyllinga odorata Vahl.
Perennial tufted rhizomatous herb;leaves few, shorter than culms; Head with 3 spikes, whitish green;lateral spikes much shorter than central one; spikelets patent; achenes dark brown
Found in moist places in hill slopes. Fragrant spike sedge(Eng.)
Kyllinga odorata
Glabrous, tufted herbs; leaves from the base of the stem; spikelets 1-20 in in terminal bracteate head; glumes spirally imbricate; stamens 2, style short, nut sessile; scales adherent  to nut.
Lipocarpha chinensis (Osb.)Kern.
Annual, caespitose; leaves 4 to a culm; inflorescence a head with 7 spikes, spikes oblong ellipsoidal; glumes white; achenes trigonous weakly curved, straw colored
Common in marshy areas and rice fields. Goosetongue sedge(Eng.)
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl.) G.Tucker
stems round, leaf blades flat, inflorescence appears to come from side of the stem as the bract looks like an extension of the stem.stems unbranched; nuts brown, covered with scales.
Found in Vedurupattu of A.P smallflower halfchaff sedge, small flowered dwarf bulrush(Eng.) 
Lipocarpha micrantha
PYCREUS P.Beauvois
Stems leafy at the base ;inflorescence 1-many corymbose sub umbellate spikes;glumes distichous, stamens 1-3; style 2-fid, nut laterally compressed in the plane of rachilla.
Pycreus diaphanus (Schrad. ex Roem. & Schult.) S.S.Hooper & T.Koyama
Annual rhizomatic herb; culms slender, stiff, angled; spikelets straw colored, oblong-lanceolate; compressed to 60 flowered; achenes obovoid, black. 
In wet places and marshy areas along water streams.
Pycreus flavidus (Retz.)T.Koyama
Annual densely tufted therophtye;leaves few setaceous;blades plicate,Anthela congested in a head like cluster of spikelets; spikelets spreading,flattened densely flowered, reddish brown;achenes narrowly obovate.
Near water falls in marshy localities of forests.
Pycreus flavidus
Pycreus pumilus (L.)Nees.
Annual, densely tufted herb; culms slender, triquertous; leaves few, surpassing the stem; blades soft, light green; Anthela simple; involucral bracts 4, spikes subglobose, densely bearing many spikelets; spikelets flattened, spreading, light greenish; Achenes elliptic, laterally flattened.
Along the drying beds of canals of soft sticky soil, marshy fields. Low flat sedge(Eng.)
RHYNCHOSPORA Vahl nom.cons 
woody herbs; stems 3 angled, leaves grass like, 3ranked; spikelets solitary or fascicled in bracteate heads, 1-9 flowered.glumes imbricate;hypogynous bristles when present scabrid or plumose;nut ovoid, biconvex with a persistent beak like bristles.Cosmopoliton in distribution.
Rhyncospora corymbosa (L.)Britton; Syn. Scirpus corymbosus L.
Rhizomatous, perennial; culms solitary; leaves many aggregated at the base;leaf margin and underside of mid vein finely toothed; inflorescence bearing 4 anthelas, each one corymboform; glumes 4-6; tepals scabrous; achenes spindle shaped.
Found in swamp areas in hilly region. Beaked seed sedge, matamat(Eng.)
Rhyncospora wightiana (Nees) Steud.
Perennial caespitose herb; spikelets aggregated into terminal solitary heads;reddish brown; glumes elliptic lanceolate; achenes compressed, dark brown.
Found in paddy fields, and grassy grounds in forests. Wight's beak sedge.(Eng.)
Annuals or perennials. Rhizome creeping, or short, with or without stolons. Stem terete or trigonous, smooth. Leaves mostly reduced to 2-3, soft, ephemeral sheaths; ligule+. Inflorescence pseudolateral  spikes, small; Flowers bisexual, with or without perianth bristles, nut trigonous or bi-convex, compressed, surface transversely rugulose.Cosmopoliton. 
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.)Palla Syn. Scirpus articulatus L.
Perennial robust herb; culms transversely septate, hollow,green;clothed at base by 3 leaf blade less sheaths; inflorescence pseudolateral globose head with about 40 brownish spikelets.spikelets cyllindrical,achenes obovoid, triquertous.
A common species found along shallow waters in marshy areas. Bul rush(Eng.) 
Schoenoplectus articulatus

Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.)Palla.
Annual tufted rhizomatous herb; clothed at base by few brownish  leaf sheaths; 2-9 pseudolateral spikelets; spikelets oblong-obovoid; many flowered, glumes membranous; achenes unequally biconvex, faintly undulate.
Common in the margins of rice fields and swamp, marshy areas.
Schoenoplectus juncoides Hard stem bulrush(Eng.)
Schoenoplectus senegalensis (Hochst. ex Steud.) Palla
Perennial caespitose herb; culms slender, sub terete; inflorescence pseudolateral, capitate, spikelets 20 in a cluster, ovoid subglobose, fulvous;involucral bracts >20cm; achenes obovoid, triquertrous, sharply angled.
Schoenoplectus senegalensis
Occassional in marshy places. 
Schoenoplectus supinus (L.)Palla,
Annual tufted herb; culms trigonous; sheaths with a mucro; inflorescence a pseudolateral head;with about 15 spikelets;pale green and lightly straw colored;achenes elliptic, triangular, suddenly contracted at both ends, mucronate at apex.
Common in wet grassy places and rice fields.
Scirpus tuberosus Desf.
Perennial rhizomatous herb with woody tubers;culms stout, trigonous;leaves coriaceous, many;inflorescence umbellate with3-8 spikelets;solitary on each ray; achenes obovoid, brown. Tuberous bulrush(Eng.)

POACEAE Barnhart, nom. cons.//GRAMINEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. et nom. alt.
Leaves long, sheaths open and ligules at the sheath-lamina junction; pseudopetiolate; often hollow stems/culms, basic unit is a spikelet in the inflorescences . Individual flowers are small, monosymmetric by reduction;lacking an obvious perianth and with a gynoecium that usually has two plumose stigmas and a single ovule. In the dry, achenial fruit (often called a caryopsis), embryo large, lateral, lying next to the seed coat;well differentiated, cotyledon lateral, plumule terminal, primary root 0. Stomatal subsidiary cells conical to dome-shaped; microhairs bicellular.
List of species: 
ACRACHNE Wight&Arnott ex Chiovenda
Acrachne racemosa (Heyne ex Roem. & Schult.) Ohwi
Tufted annual; culms 15-75 cm high, leaves soft, glabrous or sparsely pilose on the upper surface, rounded at the base, tapering to a fine hair-like tip. Inflorescence with many slender ascending secund spikes; spikelets 6-25-flowered closely overlapping, whitish-green or brownish; glumes unequal, the awn one- to two- thirds as long as the glume; caryopsis oblomg rugose, groved.
Occasional in Rayalseema and N.Circar districts. Goosegrass(Eng.) 
Aeluropus lagopoides(L.)Trin.exThw.
Erect or decumbent perennial herbs.Culms 5-10 cm tall, rooting at nodes.Leaves distichous  lanceolate, margins scaberulous, folded, sheaths compressed; Spike 3-4 mm across, elliptic oblong, pinkish white; clustered into 1-1.5 cm across.
Occassional along salt marshes of the coast forming mats,through out the state.
Plant excretes excessive salt in the form of crystals. This grass may be grown for reclamation of salt soils.
Aeluropus lagopoides Uppu gaddi(ఉప్పుగడ్డి)puvvu gaddiపువ్వుగడ్డి (Tel.); Mangrove grass(Eng.) 
ALLOTEROPSIS J.S.Presl ex C.B.Presl.
Alloteropsis cimicina (L.)Stapf.
Annual, tufted; pilose through out, ligule a fimbriate rim;blade ovate-lanceolate, amplexicaul, margins ciliate; flowers in 3-9 spicate racemes; spikelets 2 flowered,lower 0, or staminate;glumes unequal; caryopsis elliptic oblong.
Common in waste lands, and hill slopes through out the state. Summer Grass, bug-seed grass, cockatoo grass
Alloteropsis cimicina -image courtesy JMGarg
Apluda mutica L.
Leafy perennial glabrous, tufted; leaves linear-lanceolate,apex cuspidate;terminal panicles; spikelets 3 at each node;sessile spikelets 2 flowered, one staminat, other bisexual; pedicelled staminate and 0;lower glume coriaceous;upper 5nerved;A-3, stigmas plumose.caryopsis ellipsoid.
Common along hill slopes in all districts. Mauritian grass(Eng.)Konda gaddi(Tel.)
Apluda mutica

Perennials; culms tufted. Leaf blades usually basal,usu. Rolled. Inflorescence a narrow panicle. Spikelets with 1 floret; glumes scarious, narrow, unequal; floret callus bearded; lemma narrowly cylindrical or laterally compressed, convolute, glabrous or sparsely hairy; awn 3-branched, branches arising directly from lemma apex on a straight or twisted column, persistent scabrid. Stamens 3.
 Aristida adscensionis Linnaeus,
Spikelets gray-green or purplish green;glumes subequal or lower glume slightly shorter; parallel-sided, flattened lemma often exserted from the glumes(longer than upper glume). 
Common in plains and hilly slopes through out the state. Used as forage when young.Culms with panicles used to make country made brooms. Six weeks three awn(Eng.)cheepuru gaddiచీపురు (Tel.)
Aristida adscensionis
Aristida funiculata Trin.& Rupr
Tufted annual with thin culms 15-30 cm high. Leaf-blades flat Panicle linear with few long spikelets. Lower glumes long attenuate; awn column articulated below.
Common in dry sandy soils.Used as forage when young. Aristida(Eng.) Cheepuru gaddiచీపురుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Aristida funiculata
Aristida hystrix L.f.
Perennial with creeping rootstock; terminal lax panicle;glumes linear, aristate, lemma linear, trifid;caryopsis prickly. Dolluba gaddi డొల్లుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Aristida setacea Retz.
Perennial, caespitose; leafblade filiform, scabrid; Panicle; spikelets solitary, fertile pedicelled;callus pubescent; lower glume awned; awn 3fid;caryopsis prickly.
Common through out the district. Cheepuru gaddiచీపురుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Arthraxon lancifolius(Trin.)Hochst.
Annual, tufted, decumbent; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, amplexical; panicle densely flowered; spicate; spikelets paired,laterally compressed, ciliate; lower glume lanceolate, sessile spikelets lower glume rounded;upper glume finely tapering into awn like point; stamens 2.
Common in damp habitats through out the state.
 Arthraxon hispidus (Thunberg) Makino
Annual. Culms slender, sprawling, decumbent, rooting from lower nodes, weakly ascending up to 30 cm or more; leaf blades ovate; Racemes 2–10 or more, pale green or purple; rachis internodes 2/3–3/4 length of sessile spikelets; Sessile spikelet 3–5 mm; lower glume lanceolate, weakly convex, margins not inflexed, 6–9-veined, veins scabrid-hispidulous; upper glume slightly longer than lower, palea absent .Pedicelled spikelet usually absent; Anthers 2
In R.R, E.G and VSKP districts.
ARUNDINELLA Raddi, Agrostogr. Bras. 36. 1823.
Perennial or annual. Leaf blades usually linear;with a very short ligule , a dense fringe of long hairs at base of blade. Panicle with raceme like primary branches; spikelets paired purplish; pedicels unequal, briefly connate. Spikelets with 2 florets; glumes unequal, upper as long as spikelet, persistent, smooth, 3–5-veined, awnless, its palea hyaline; upper lemma terete, smaller than the lower, firmer in texture, scaberulous, apex entire or 2-toothed, often awned, lateral teeth also awned; palea margins sometimes auriculate.
Arundinella setosa Trin
Perennial stoloniferous; glabrous;ligule membranous;panicle effusive, terminal; spikelets pedicelled, 12 flowered; glumes 5 nerved, pilose, upper awned; lemma lanceolate, 3 nerved;awned, paleas small, stamens3; caryopsis oblong.
Occasional in hill slopes in dry districts.
Arundo donax L.,
Perennial, culms stout, tall, many noded, mature stem yellowish, leaf sheth covers the internodes, leaves distichous, glabrous; panicle large, erecr, decompound, branches with silky hairs; spikelets laterally compressed, 3 flowered;glumes linear lanceolate, stamens 3, stigmas pilose, caryopsis oblong.
Common through out the state near watercourses. Kaki veduru కాకివెదురు(Tel.)Giant cane(Eng.)
Arundo donax
BAMBUSA Schreber nom.cons

Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.)Roxb.

Large thorny tufted shrub; culms upto 30 m tall, woody, leaf blade lanceolate; panicles compound, in racemosely arranged spikes, in loose clusters on the stem;glumes lanceolate, acute, many nerved;caryopsis elliptic, dark.

Common through out the state. Veduru,ముళ్ళవెదురు  mulla veduru(Tel.), Bamoo(Eng.)
Bamboosa arundanacea stem with spines

The culms are used for making a variety of items and in paper manufacture. 
Annuals geophyte; Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate; ligule= line of hairs. Panicle; rhachis triquetrous, spikelets single or paired; ovate to oblong, plump, the lowest internode elongated, then often accrescent to the sheathing base of the lower glume and forming a short stipe; lower glume mostly shorter than the spikelet; upper glume as long as the spikelet; upper lemma coriaceous to crustaceous, obtuse to acute, usually muticous, Caryopsis elliptic, dorsally compressed.
Brachiaria eruciformis (J.E.Smith)Griseb.
Inflorescence with erect appressed racemes; fertile floret smooth and shiny, obtuse, readily falling from spikelet. Domakaalu gaddiదోమకాలుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Common in moist localities through out the state.
Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.)Stapf.
Culms robust, up to 2 m tall; inflorescence with 10–20 racemes
Cultivated and run wild in Nlr, Ananthapur dist.
Brachiaria ramosa (L.)Stapf.
Annual, mostly with flat lanceolate leaf-blades; Inflorescence of 3-25 racemes on an axis .Racemes, bearing paired short pedicelled spikelets on a triquetrous rhachis. Spikelets elliptic acute to cuspidate; lower glume up to 1/2 as long as the spikelet, upper lemma rugulose, subacute to mucronulate.
Common in waste lands and rice fields through out the state. Browntop millet(Eng.), Edurugaddiఎదురుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3363 (1938). Decumbent annual rooting at nodes. Leaf-blades ovate-lanceolate. Inflorescence panicle, racemes on an axis with a triquetrous rhachis. Spikelets, glabrous, narrowly ovate, borne in pairs and crowded on the rhachis.
Common in moist localities through out the state. grass,sprawling signal grass(Eng.)
Brachiaria reptans
CHLORIS Swartz, 

Annuals or perennials; Basal leaf sheathskeeled, ligule a short ciliolate membrane. Inflorescence terminal, digitately arranged racemes; spikelets subsessile, closely imbricate, biseriate; laterally compressed, florets 2-4; ; glumes unequal, usually shorter than florets; membranous, 1-veined, terminated in to awn; callus bearded; lemma leathery, ciliate; apex mucronate or awned; Caryopsis ellipsoid to subterete.

Chloris barbata Sw.,

Annual, tufted;leaf sheaths glabrous;spikelets 3 flowered, glumes densely stiff ciliate, awned, boat shaped;stamens 3, caryopsis compresed.

Common on road sides,waste places, through out the state.

Grazed when young. Swollen Finger Grass, airport grass, feather finger grass, fingergrass, pea-cock plumegrass, plush grass, purpletop chloris, swollen fingergrass, swollen windmill grass (Eng.); Uppu gaddi ఉప్పుగడ్డి (Tel.)
Chloris barbata inflorescence


Annual or perennial. Culms robust, floating, usually solid. Leaf blades large, ligule membranous. Inflorescence axillary and terminal; spikes subtended by modified involucral spatheole; sessile enclosed within the utricle, and  pedunculate subtended by a prophyll and exserted from the apical pore of the utricle.Each spike had 2 spikelets; spikelet: lower glume broad, infolding spikelet, membranous with cartilaginous beak; upper glume narrower, keeled; lower floret reduced lemma; upper floret with hyaline lemma and palea; lodicules absent; stigmas 2, elongate, exserted from utricle. deciduous at maturity, glumes subequal, herbaceous. Caryopsis orbicular, ventrally furrowed, enclosed in utricle.

Coix lacryma-jobi L. linnaeus, 

Annual, culms tufted; 10-noded, branched; leaf sheaths shorter than internodes apex acute; male spikelets mostly paired, lower glumes narrowly winged.

Occasional in moist localities in many districts of the state.
Coix lacryma-jobi-Courtesy from Wikipedia Job’s teras, Coixseed, Tear Grass,  Chinese pearl barley(Eng.)Adaviguruginja అడవిగురుగింజ (Tel.)

 CYMBOPOGON Sprengel,  Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 14. 1815.

Perennial, culms robust. Leaf blades aromatic, filiform to broadly linear; ligule scarious. Inflorescence a dense spathate compound panicle. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse, shortly bearded; lower glume papery, flat or concave, sometimes grooved or wrinkled, 2-keeled, keels lateral, often winged above middle, with or without intercarinal veins; upper glume boat-shaped, awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma narrowly oblong, usually 2-lobed to near middle, lobes slender, ciliate, awned from sinus, occasionally subentire and awnless; awn geniculate, sometimes weakly, short, glabrous. Pedicelled spikelet or sterile, narrowly lanceolate, awnless. 

Cymbopogon citratus (Candolle) Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1906: 357. 1906.

Densely tufted;Sessile spikelet 5–6 mm; awn less; lower glume linear-lanceolate, shallowly concave in the lower half.

Cultivated for its aromatic oil. vasana gaddiవాసనగడ్డి , నిమ్మగడ్డి (Tel.) Lemon grass, oil grass(Eng.)
Cymbopogon citratus

Cymbopogon coloratus (Hook.f.)Stapf.

Lower glume of the sessile spikelet flat in lower half;pedicel of the lowest spikelet in the sessile raceme swollen.

Common in forests throughout the state. Boda gaddiబోదగడ్డి (Tel.)
Spike of Cymbopogon coloratus

CYNODON Richard in Persoon, 

Rrhizomatous or stoloniferous, perennial geophyte. Culms slender to robust, leafy, internodes short. Leaf blades broadly linear to filiform; ligule membranous or ciliate. Inflorescence digitate; racemes unilateral, slender; spikelets sessile, imbricate, biseriate; rachis flat or semiterete. Spikelets strongly laterally compressed, floret 1, with or without rachilla extension , narrowly ovate, awnless, disarticulating above glumes; glumes subequal, narrow, herbaceous, glumes persistent; lemma keeled, boat-shaped, cartilaginous, 3-veined, usually pubescent on keel, awnless. Caryopsis ellipsoid.

Cynodon dactylon (Linnaeus) Persoon,

Perennial, stoloniferous, sward forming. Culms slender,. Leaf sheaths bearded at mouth, otherwise glabrous or thinly pilose. Racemes digitate, 3–6, spreading; spikelets overlapping. Spikelets rachilla with minute rudimentary floret at apex; glumes linear-lanceolate, often purplish, subequal; Caryopsis oblong, subterete.

Common through out the state.Tender leaves are medicinal, and used as leafy vegetable also. Garika gaddiగరిక (Tel.) Couch grass, green couch , Bermuda grass,quick grass(Eng.)
Cynodon dactylon
Annuals or perennials. Culms tufted, compressed. Leaf blades linear, ligule membranous, often ciliolate.Digitately arranged spicate racemes; rspikelets sessile, biseriate, closely imbricate, rachis terminating in a bare pointed extension. Spikelets elliptic- ovate, laterally compressed, florets many, disarticulating above glumes; glumes shorter than lemmas, keeled, 1-veined; lower glume smaller, sharply acute; upper glume with a stout oblique awn from just below the broadly rounded emarginate tip; lemmas membranous, glabrous, strongly keeled, acute to shortly awned and often recurved at the apex; palea keels sometimes winged. Caryopsis angular, ornamented.
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.,
A glaucous annual,not stoloniferous, but often rooting from the lower nodes; leaves usually hairy on the margins and midrib, the hairs tubercle-based; usually four to eight spikes, spikelets three-flowered. The stout spikes and rigid awns are rather distinctive.
Very common through out the state. Crow foot grass; giant button grass(Eng.)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium
Diplachne fusca(L.)Beauv.
Perennial tuftes, coarse grass; geniculately ascending; panicle upto 15cm;loose and grey rachis scabrid; glumes oblong 1-nerved;lemma 4-toothed, pilose below, palea pilose on keels,stigmas 3, plumose
Occasional in moist places in dry districts.
Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl.)Panz.
Annuals, tufted. Leaf blades linear, flat; ligule ciliate. Spikes racemosely arranged, rachis stiff; spikelets sessile, biseriate, closely imbricate. Spikelets cuneate, laterally compressed, glumes persistent,strongly keeled, recurved; lemmas thinly membranous, Caryopsis elliptic, trigonous.
Common in moist plains in all districts. Viper grass(Eng.)
Robust annual or perennial. Leaf blades flat; ligule absent  or ciliate.Spike like panicle; racemes simple or compoundon a central axis, densely spiculate, spikelets paired in 4 rows, or congested. Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, often hispidulous, acute to awned; lower glume triangular, sheathing; upper glume shorter, prominently 5–7-veined, acute; lemma extended into a stout awn; upper lemma coriaceous, smooth, shining, terminating in a short, laterally compressed, incurving beak; upper palea acute, apex briefly reflexed. Stamens 3, stigmas plumose. 
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Annual tufted, branching from lower nodes; racemes appressed to the rachis;4 rows, spikelets unawned; caryopsis ellipsoid.
Very common in cultivated fields throughout the state.
Echinocloa colona Awnless Barnyard millet(Eng.); Jangli rice, vratki chaval(Hindi)Oodarluవూదర్లు (Tel.)
Echinocloa crusgalli(L.)Beauv.
Annual, erect, ligule absent;spikelets awned, slightly hairy;caryopsis broadly elliptic.
Common in riceefields and wetplaces in many districts. Common barnyard grass(Eng.), Samalu(Tel.) 
Eichnocloa crusgalli

Eichnocloa frumentacea Link.
Annual robust grass. Racemes not appressed to the axis; spikelets in many rows;unawnwd;lemma shortly mucronate.
Nellore, Godavari districts.
Echinocloa frumentacea Indian barnyard millet(Eng.);Bontha samalu; బొంతసామలు paala oodarluపాలవూదర్లు (Tel.)
Annuals or perennials. Culms compressed. Leaf sheaths strongly keeled; leaf blades linear, usually folded; ligule membranous, usually with a ciliate fringe. Inflorescence digitate spikelike racemes clustered at the top of the culm; spikelets 2seriate, laterally compressed, glumes shorter than lemmas, persistent, keeled, awnless; lemmas membranous, glabrous, strongly keeled. Caryopsis ellipsoid to subglobose, pericarp free.
Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn., 
A tufted annual .The leaf blades are shiny, strongly keeled and difficult to break. It has an exceptionally strong root system and it is difficult to pull out of the ground by hand. The culms and the leaf sheaths are prominently flattened. The ligule is a fringed. Racemes are contracted and  digitate. The spikelets do not disarticulate at maturity. The grains are globose, dark red.
Cultivated in Rayalaseema districts. Used as staple food in some parts of the state. Used as nutrient supplement in many parts. Raagulu,రాగులు, tavidaluతవిదలు(Tel.);African finger millet(Eng.)
Eleusine coracana

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., 
Annual, tufted;wild;peduncle of the spike hairy;spike slender, 2-7, spikelets glabrous; caryopsis oblong.
Common in hillslopes and on the bunds of rice fields. Indian goosegrass, Wiregrass, Crowfootgrass(Eng.)
Elucine indica

Eragrostiella bifaria (Vahl.)Bor.

Tufted perennial; leaves linear rigid, folded;spikelets ovoid, compressed,second, on long racemes. Caryopsis globose.
Eragrostiella bifaria

Common in foot hills in Velugonda range.
ERAGROSTIS Wolf, Gen. Pl. 23. 1776.

Annual or perennial, often glandular on the leaf sheaths and inflorescence. Leaf blades mostly flat or rolled; ligule a line of hairs or sometimes membranous. Inflorescence spiciform panicle, or rarely racemes on a central axis. Spikelets 2- to many-flowered, laterally compressed, orbicular to vermiform, variously disarticulating. Glumes unequal, deciduous or persistent, 1(–3)-veined. Lemmas membranous to coriaceous, keeled or rounded, glabrous or rarely hairy, 3-veined or the veins sometimes very faint and occasionally suppressed. Palea keels sometimes winged or ciliate. Stamens 2 or 3. Caryopsis mostly globose, or rectangular-prismatic,  sometimes the pericarp free.

Eragrostis ciliata(Roxb.)Nees

Annual, tufted;panicle cylindric, compact,uninterrupted at base, branches hirsute;spikelt much compressed;glumes ciliate.

Eragrostis ciliata
In North coastal and Telangana districts.

Eragrostis atrovirens(Desf.)Trin.ex Steud.

Perennial, tufted; spikelets narrowly oblong, fascicled;apex of lemma shortly beaked, caryopsis ellipsoid.

Common in waste places through out the state.

Eragrostis japonica(Thunb.)Trin.

Perennial,tufted; up to 1m lomg; panicle upto 50cm long,contracted, dense,branches whorled spreading;spikelets 4-9 flowered.

Common in moist localities through out the state. Pond love grass(Eng.)

Spike of Eragrostis japonica

Eragrostis pilosa(L.)Beauv.
Annual, tufted; ligule soft hairy; panicle up to 15 cm, open;branches filiform;spikelets linear oblong, 5-12 flowered.
Common therough out the state.
Eragrostis pilosa

Eragrostis tenella (L.)Beauv. ex Roem

Annual, tufted ;panicle dedcompound ;spreading, spikelets small, 3-9 flowered ;caryopsis broadley ovate.

Common through out the state. Love grass, feather grass(Eng.)
Eragrostis tenella

Eragrostis unioloides(Retz.)Nees. Ex Steud.

Annual, tufted;panicle up to 10cm long; rachis and nodes glabrous;spikelets ovoid, compressed, 20-30 flowerd

Very common in all districts. Chinese love grass(Eng.), Vudara gaddi(Tel.)
Eragrostis uniloides spike

Eremopogon foveolatus(Del.)Stapf,
Perennial tufted;culms slender, nodes bearded;raceme solitary, subended by a spatheole;spikelets binate;one sessile, one pedicelled;lemna awned;pedicelled spikelet male or barren.

Common in waste lands through out the state.
Hemarthria compressa (L.f.)R.Br.
Perennial tufted; culms up to 1.5m, leafsheaths below internodes, compressed;Racemes few, upto 15 cm,  Pedicelled and sessile spikes similar-lower glume coriaceous,5-7 nerved upper membranous, lemmas subequal.
Occasional in wet lands of Godavari, Krishna and Pennar deltas. Shervu panukuచెరువుపణుకు(Tel.); Jove grass, whip grass(Eng.)
Heteropogon contotus(L.)Beauv. ex Roem.&Schult.
Annual, tufted; ligule fimbriate;blades scaberuous;racemes solitary, awns forming a twisted spire; lower spikelets homogamous, awnless, either male or 0;glumes hispidous.
Very common through out the state in waste places. Eddigaddi,ఎడ్డిగడ్డి kaserigaddiకసేరిగడ్డి (Tel.)Black spear grass, tangle grass(Eng.)
Heteropogon contortus
Hygroryza aristata (Retz.)Nees ex Wight&Arn.
Aquatic floating grass;culms spongy; feathery whorled roots at nodes;leafsheaths compressed, auricled.spikelets 2cm, glumes absent.
Occasional in coastal areas. Asian water grass(Eng.)
Hygroryza aristata
Imperita cylindrica (L.)Raeusch.
Perennial tufted; nodes bearded;blades coriaceous, glabrous; spike like panicle;very dense,calus bearded, unawned, covered with long silky hairs;glumes hayline, lanceolate.
Common hedge grass on field bunds throughout the state.
It is used in Ayurvedic medicine; and for control of soil erosion. Thatch grass; Dharbha gaddi దర్భగడ్డి(Tel.)Cogon grass, blady grass(Eng.)
Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.
Annual, tufted; nodes bearded;leaf sheaths compressed;racemes spiciform, rachis trigonous;sessile spikelet and pedicelled one similar;ovate-oblong, callus villous;lower glume cartilagenouspale yellow, with 3-6 deep smooth cross ridges;upper glume long, keeled, keel ciliate;stamens 3, stigma pilose.
Ischaemum rugosum
common weed in marshy areas in all districts. 
Iseilema laxum Hack.
Perennial tufted grass;leaf sheaths loose, glabrous;ligule fimbriate rim;panicle upto 15 cm, flexuoses, interrupted;spatheole plicate, glabrous;involucral spikelet linear oblong , joints pilose; glumes chartaceous;upper glume chartaceous;sessile spikelet bisexual;pedicelled spikelets similar to sessile ones.
Common in forests under growth.
Annual or perennial; Spikelets in shortly peduncled, turbinate heads, secund and distant upon a tough flexuous rhachis;fertile spikelets 2-3-flowered,the uppermale+0;0,lower glume linear, 1-nerved with the nerve produced as a scabrid awn, hairy on the back and at the base of the awn; upper glume 3-nerved with a broad hyaline wing ;the wings sparsely covered with short clavate hairs; lemma and palea hairy. 
Melanocharis jacquemontii Juab. & Spach
A tiny annual;upto 20cm; rachilla glabrous; lemma bi dentate; caryopsis eliptic, lemma and palea bidentate, ciliate, awned.
Common in dry sandy soils.

Melanocencris jacquemontii
Melanocenchris monoica (Rottl.) Fischer
Perennial, tufted; spike upto 15cm, spikelets clustered subsessile;secund;rachilla puberulous;caryposis oblong.
Rare in some dry districts. 
Microchloa indica (L.f.)Beauv.
Annual tufted grass; leaf sheaths hairy. Spikes solitary, twisted;minutely ciliate;1 flowered; caryopsis subfusiform.
Found in Nellore, telangana and North coastal districts.
Oplismenus compostitus (L.)Beauv.
Perennial stoloniferous grass; culms creeping; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate;base amplexicaul;racemes spicate; branches distant;spikelets 2 flowered, awned;awns reddish, stout, smooth.
Common in shady places in the forests of all districts.
Oplismenus compostitus Kodijuttugaddi కోడిజుట్టుగడ్డి (Tel.)Running mountain grass(Eng.)
Oryza rufipogon Griff.
Perennial stoloniferous aquatic grass;panicle drooping,spikelets linear oblong,awned,coriaceous. the seed is edible. rice and red rice(Eng.); yerra biyyam(Tel.)
Oryza sativa(white);Oryza rufipogon(Red)

Oryza sativa (L.f.)Trin
Annual, cultivated grass;panicle up to 30cm, compound, spikelets unawned; caryopsis narrowly oblong compressed.
Widely cultivated through out the state. Vadlu, వరి, వడ్లుvari(Tel.) Rice, paddy(Eng.)
Oryza sativa
Annuals or perennials. Culms erect or decumbent; leaf bldes fat, linear lanceolateInflorescence usually a terminal open panicle; Spikelets usually symmetrical and dorsally compressed, disarticulating below the glumes; 2-flowered, the lower floret staminate or barren, the upper bisexual.Glumes membranus; lower usually shorter than the spikelet, upper glume as long as spikelet;upper floret coriaceous;the margins of the lemma inrolled and clasping the palea; stamens 3; stigmas plumose.
Panicum maximum Jacq.
Perennial, tufted grass; branching from base; leaf sheaths ciliate near the mouth, blades large,mid rib prominent; lax panicles;spikelets linear oblong dense;caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid.
Cultigen; used as fodder, found as an escape also.
Panicum miliaceum L.
Annual tufted grass; leaf sheaths hirsute, ligule a ciliate rim, sparsely hairy on both surfaces; panicle narrowly oblong, branches alternate;spikes ovate oblong; glumes persistent, unequal;caryopsis ovoid.
A cultigen; the seed is eaten as millet. Varigalu వరిగలు(Tel.)Proso millet, common millet, hog millet or white millet(Eng.)
 Panicum psilopodium Trin.
Perennial tufted grass; ligule fimbriate membrane; leaf blades elliptic oblong; panicle upto12 cm effusive;branches numerous, alternate; spikelets 3 mm, deciduous;caryopsis ellipsoid.
Common in shady marshy areas.
 Panicum repens L.
Perennial, stoloniferous grass; creeping at base, rooting from nodes;leafsheaths densely ciliate on margin; leaf blade linear-lanceolate; panicle medium sized; spikelets 3mm; caryopsis ellipsoid.
Panicum repens
Common through out the state. Torpedo Grass, Torpedograss, Quack Grass, Bullet Grass, Couch Panicum, Creeping Panic, Panic Rampant, Wainaku Grass(Eng.)
Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A.Camus
Annual tufted grss; geniculately ascending; leaf blades linear lanceolate, slightly pubescent; paniculate racemes upto 20cm, spikelets ovate, in two rows; lower 0 or male, upper hermaphrodite; caryopsis ovate oblong;
Very common in cultivated fields Udagaddiవూదగడ్డి (Tel.)Yellow water crown grass(Eng.)
Paspalidium flavidum
Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.)Stapf.
Perennial marshy grass; spongy creeping stem below;leaf blade linear, glabrous; spike like panicle upto 15 cm;racemes 2cm, alternate on the rachis, compressed; spikelets ovoid, 2mm, 2 florets;glume 5-7 nerved; caryopsis ellipsoid.
Near water courses in many districts. Egyptian Panicgrass, Egyptian Watercrown Grass, Egyptian paspalidium(Eng.) 

Paspalum scorbiculatum L. 
Annual, usually cultivated tufted grass; leaf blades glabrous; racms 2-5, up to 10cm,spikelets globose in 2 rows; Arikelu ఆరికెలు(Tel.)Kodomillet(Eng.)
PENNISETUM Richard ex Persoon
Pennisetum americanum (L.)Schum
Cultivated grass;culms up to 2m tall; panicle upto 25 cm long, spicate, cyllindric; caryopsis oblong-obovoid. Sajjaluసజ్జలు(Tel.); Bajra(Eng.)
Pennisetum americanum
Pennisetum purpureum Schum.
Perennial stoloniferous grass, up to 2m tall; branching from lower nodes; racemes up to 20 cm long, cyllindric, solitary, purplish or yellowish; involucral bristles many, very long, scabrid; spikelets solitary, sessile; caryopsis ovoid.
Found in hill slopes of many districts, also cultivated as fodder. Elephant or elefante grass, Napier grass(Eng.); Napear gaddiనేపియర్ గడ్డి (Tel.)
Napier grass
Pennisetum setosum (Sw.)Rich.
Perennial tufted, upto 1m tall, branched at nodes; leaf blades slightly hairy; racemes 10 cm long, purplish brown;involucral bristles unequal, inner with long silky hairs.
Occasional in hill slopes of Godavari and some Telangana districts.
Pennisetum setosum  Mission grass(Eng.)
Perotis indica (L.)O.Ktze.
Perennial tufted grass; upto 50cm, leaf blades ovate-lanceolate; racemes up to 15 cm, solitary terminal; spikelets 2mm, glumes linear,awned.
Very common in sandy tracts and plains. Indian comet grass(Eng.); Nakka thoka/ nakka peechu నక్కతోక (Tel.)
Perotis indica
Rottboellia cochinensis (Lour.)W.D.Clayton
Perennial coarse grass; up 3 m tall, with stilt roots;leaf sheaths up to 12 cm, leaf blades linear flat; racemes solitary, cyllindric, rachis fragile;spikelets 4mm, binate;glumes unequal,crustaceous.
Occasional in plains and hills of all districts.
Rottboellia cochinensis Itch grass (Eng.)
Saccharum officinarum L.
Cultivated tufted grass, culms up to 3m tall, solid, coated with white wax; panicle upto 1m long;densely branched, silvery fragile; caryopsis oblong.
Widely cultivated through out the state. cheraku చెరుకు(Tel.); Sugar cane(Eng.)

Saccharum spontaneum L.

Perennial tufted grss upto 2m tall; leafblades linear flat; panicle upto 60cm long, contracted, rachis villous;spikelets binae with silky hairs.
Very common along the streams and ponds in all districts. Rellugaddi రెల్లుగడ్డి, kakicheruku  కాకిచెరుకు (Tel.)Kans grass(Eng.) 
Saccharum spontaneum 
Sacciolepis indica (L.)Chase
Annual tufted grass,up to 70cm tall; ligule absent,  leaf blades linear, filiform; panicle spikelike, contracted, cyllindric,dense; spikelets linear;caryopsis linear.
Near marshy areas.
SETARIA P. Beauvois
Annual or perennial, tufted grass; slender to robust or canelike. Leaf blades linear-lanceolate; ligule ciliate from a membranous base. Dense and spikelike panicle; or open with the spikelets contracted around the primary branches; spikelets (or some of them) subtended by one to several bristles which persist on the branches after the spikelets fall. Spikelets elliptic, awnless, florets 2; glumes and lower lemma membranous ; lower glume ovate from a clasping base, lower floret staminate or neuter. Caryopsis ellipsoid. 
Setaria italica (L.)Beauv.
Annual cultivated grass, upto 1m tall; panicle contracted;involucral bristles introrsely barbed.
Ver.nmae: Korraluకొర్రలు(Tel.)Foxtail millet(Eng.)
Setaria italica grain

Setaria pumila (Poir.)Roem.

Annual, tufted; leaf sheaths glabrous; panicle cyllindric, densely flowered; bristles barbed, caryopsis ovoid- ellipsoid.
Common in hill slopes through out the state. Nakka thoka gaddiనక్కతోకగడ్డి (Tel.)yellow foxtail, yellow bristle grass, pigeon grass, and cattail grass.(Eng.)

Setaria pumila
Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.
Annual, tufted grass; ligule a fringe of hairs;panicle spiciform, cyllindric, up to 10cm; Bristles retrorsely barbed. Caryopsis ellipsoid.
Common in all districts. Nakkathoka gaddi(Tel.),Bristly foxtail and hooked bristlegrass(Eng.)
Setaria verticillata
Perennial or annual, culms usually robust; Inflorescence a large terminal panicle with elongate central axis; primary branches simple or branched, with paired spikelets; racemes fragile (tough in cultivated species); rachis internodes and pedicels slender, ciliate. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus bearded; lower glume usually leathery, shallowly convex, winged upward, usually hairy; upper glume boat-shaped, keeled upward; lower floret reduced to 0, hyaline lemma; awn bigeniculate, glabrous. Lodicules ciliate. Pedicelled spikelet well developed, usually much narrower than sessile spikelet, awnless.
Sorghum bicolor (Linnaeus) Moench, Panicle often dense; racemes tough at maturity; sessile spikelets ovate to subrotund, 3.5–6 mm; grain large, exposed between the gaping glumes.
Cultigen; common in dry areas through out the state. Seed is used for human consumption and also as fodder and. Jonnaluజొన్నలు (Tel.), Jowar, milo (Eng.)

spike of Sorghum

Sorghum halepense(L.)Pers.
Perennial, tufted grass; cums slender; nodes minutely silky, panicle effusive upto 20cm, decompound; spikelets binate, sessile and pedicellate spikelets almost similar; pedicellate awnless, male.
Occasional near coastal areas. One of the worst weeds of cultivation in the subtropics throughout the world. Used for animal grazing. Gaddi jonna గడ్డిజొన్న(Tel.)Johnson’s grass(Eng.)
Sorghum halepense

Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr.
Perennial, creeping dioecious grass; culms woody, much branched;leaf blades coriaceous, apex cuspidate; spike like raceme in globose bracteate heads; male spike upto 20cm; glumes coriaceous;female 30cm; spikelets solitary.
Common in coastal areas. Acts as sand binder.
Ver.nmae: Ravan's Moustache, Littoral Spinegrass(Eng.); Raavanaasuridi meesaalu,రావణాసురుడిమీసాలు guttiromaala gaddiగుత్తిరోమాలగడ్డి (Tel.)
Spinifex -female

Spinifex -male
TETRAPOGON Desfontaines
Tetrapogon tenellus (Koen. ex Roxb.)Chiov
Annual tufted grass; 60cm tall; leaf sheaths 3-7cm, leaf blades 2-8cm; racemes upto 8cm, solitary, terminal; spikelets 3-4 awned;glumes persistent, callus densely hairy, awned; caryopsis elipsoid, awnless.
Common in dry sandy tracts in Rayalaseema and south coastal districts. Eruvangaddi(Tel.)
Perennial or annuals, culms tufted, leafsheath keeled, leafblade membranous or papery; flowers in leafy compound panicle, with short racemes; each raceme with large sessile homogamous spikelets; spikelets subterete,compressed, callus acute and bearded, lower glume leathery, upper glume awnless; lemma hayline, stipriform; 

Themeda triandra Forsk.

Tufted perennial, 45-180 cm high. Panicle narrow, spatheate, up to 45 cm long; racemes reduced to a single awned fertile spikelet homogamous 5-6 mm long and two pairs of awnless spikelets. 
occasional  in hillslopes in all districts.
Common name: Red oat grass , Kangaroo grass (Eng.) 
Triticum dicoccum (Schrank) Schubler
Annual tufted cultivated grass;leafblade glabrous;spikes erect compact; spikelets ellipsoid, compressed in two rows, few flowered; lower lemma coriaceous, upperlemma with geniculately awned; palea elliptic
Cultivated in some Telangana districts. Godhumalu గోధుమలు (Tel.) Wheat(Eng.)
Urochloa panicoides Beauv.
Annual stoloniferous grass, culms ascending, rooting at lowernodes, nodes pubescent. 
Leafsheath loose, glabrous, ligule with ciliate rim, leafblade lanceolate; spicate racemes, rachis terete, serrate; spikelets solitary, dorsally compressed,; glumes unequal, hayline, densely ciliate, lemma similar to palea; stamens3; stigma plumose; caryopsis compressed.
VETIVERIA  Bory de St. Vincent
Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash
A perennial tufted robust aquatic grass; nodes glabrous, leafsheath glabrous, ligule a scarious ring; blades linear, flat glabrous; panicle, branches whorled; racemes upto 10cm long, spikelets lanceolate, binate; bisexual;lowerglume spinulose, boatlower lemma hayline,caryopsis oblong.
Common in marshy areas through out the state. Vattiveruవట్టివేరు (Tel.) 

Vativeria spike
Zea mays L.
Annual cultivated, monoecious robust grass;  nodes bearded; leafsheaths densely pubescent, panicle monoecious, male terminal, racemosely arranged; female solitary, axillary; spikelets 2-nate, 2 flowered; caryopsis triangular.
Cultivated in all districts. Mokkajonna మొక్కజొన్న (Tel.); Maize (Eng.)  
Zoysia martella (L.)Merr.
Annual tufted grass, culms upto 10cm; leafblades 1-2.5cm, linear, convolute, base pilose; raceme spicate, solitary; spikelets 3mm, ovoid, spiral, compressed, 1-flowered, appressed to rachis; caryopsis ovoid, within lemmas and glumes;
in sea-shore sands of coastal districts.
Zoysia martella
COMMELINACEAE Mirbel, nom. cons.
Herbs with rather soft and fleshy leaves; 6-hydroxyflavonoids +; vessels also in stem; hairs uniseriate; stem with swollen nodes; (prophylls lateral); leaves spiral (two-ranked), midrib prominent, sheath closed; andromonoecy common; The inflorescences usually consist of many-flowered helicoid cymes that are often subtended by large, leafy bracts; they are quite often leaf-opposed. Flowers open one day; blue or pink, monosymmetric,  the median petal in the abaxial position.  P = K + C, C deliquescent; the filaments are often conspicuously hairy. (G [2]), septal nectaries 0; ovules 1-many/carpel.
Distribution tropical to temperate.
Herbs, slender, creeping below. Leaves sessile or petioled with a lax leaf sheath. Flowers in 2-fid cymes, andromonoecious;  in a spathaceous bract; fruiting pedicels and capsules often retracted within the bract.K-3, membranous, C-3, of which 2 are larger and clawed, third reduced or absent.Stamens 2-3 fertile, 2-4 sterile, filaments filiform, spirally coiled, one of the anthers larger than others. Ovary 3 celled; 2 with 1-2 ovules, the third empty; stigma minute. Fruit loculicidal capsule. 
Commelina benghalensis L.,
Stem slender pubescent, creeping or rooting below. Leaves ovate, margin ciliate; cymes 2-3 flowered. Flowers heteromorphic. P-3 outer one linear, inner 2 orbicular; Capsule pyriform. Common in moist localities through out the state.It exhibits autogamy, cleistogamy, geitno-allelogamy, hence it uses all types of sexual systems of reproduction, and flexibility to fix variation. It is the worst weed found in arable lands.
Used as leafy vegitable. Used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for sore throat, sore foot, eye irritations. Vennadevi kura,వెన్నదేవికూర  neerukaasuluనీరుకాసులు  (Tel.) Fire leaf, Bengal day flower, Tropical spider wort(Eng.) 
Commelina benghalensis
Commelina diffusa Burm.f.,
Leaves glabrous or hispid; Spathe green; Sepals membranous, petals blue; filaments  curved; anther connective of the center stamen broad;  fruit 3 locular, each valve has 5 seeds; seed brown.
Common in moist places through out the state. Spreading day flower (Eng.
Commelina ensifolia R.Br.,
Rhizomatous diffuse slender herb; stem slender. Leaves linear, lanceolate, 4-10x 0.8cm, glabrous above, puberulous below, base narrow, entire. Spathe solitary, ovate, pubescent. Flowers blue;petals 2 large, long clawed, orbicular; Fertile stamens3; staminodes 3.
Rare in marshy areas.

Commelina hasskarlii C.B.Clarke. much branched glabrous herb;leaves narrowly lanceolate, cordate at base; flowers in pubescent cymes, capsule cordate.
Common throughout the state.
Commelina hasskarlii
Commelina maculata Edgew.,
Syn.Commelina obliqua var. viscida ; Commelina paludosa var.viscida.
Stout subscandent  glabrous herb, <0.5m. Leaves lanceolate- elliptic,sessile; mouth of sheath bearded with hairs. Spathe sessile, crowded in terminal heads, funnel shaped, glabrous, filled with glutinous liquid. Flowers blue, P-3 large, clawed. Capsule trigonous.
Distribution: Common in shady localities of hill side forests. Spotted day flower(Eng.)
Commelina maculata

CYANOTIS Don nom.cons.
Prostrate, erect or tuberous geophytes.Leaves sheathing. Flowers axillary or terminal; in scorpioid cymes; the whole flower is exposed. K-3, subequal; C-3 subequal, united into a tube below. Stamens 6, all perfect, filaments bearded; sometimes inflated. Ovary 3 celled,  style erect, bearded or naked. Capsule 3 celled loculicidal capsule.
Cyanotis arachnoidea C.B.Clarke
Prostrate creeping herb with wooly stem, rooting below. Leaves variable; oblong- elliptic; margin entire, ciliate; base cordate, apex rotund. Flowers blue, in axillary or terminal cymes, spathes 2-3 together,filaments bearded, anthers yellow; ovary 3 celled, style pilose. 
Common in dry rocky slopes.
Cyanotis arcotensis R.S.Rao,
Hispid annual herb, 10-15 cm tall, branches decumbent; stem reddish, terete. Leaves linear-oblong, margin ciliate; base cordate, apex acute. Cymes 2-4 in a cluster, bracts falcately recurved; longer than spike; flowers 2-3 mm across, filaments blue heavily bearded at top. Seeds pitted.
Cyanotis arcotensis
Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D.Don ex Sweet,
Annual glabrous herb, with variable branches. Leaves lanceolate, succulent, apex acuminate, sheaths pouching, ciliate. Flowers blue, solitary or in clusters in the axils of leaf sheaths. C-3 ovate; A-6, filaments blue, heavily bearded,anthers bithecate, yellow. Ovary  wooly-3 celled, stigma 3-fid. Nilwanti, నీలవంతి niru pulli నీరుపుల్లి (Tel.) Creeping cradle plant(Eng.), Golla gundiగొల్లగుండి,   (Tel.)
Cyanotis axillaris

Cyanotis cristata (L.) D.Don,
Creeping herb; stem branched from the base. Leaves sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 3x1 cm; base cordate, margin ciliate; sheath pubescent; chartaeous. Flowers  in scorpoiod recurved cymes, bracts ovate lanceolate, exceeding cymes; petals purple, ovary globose, filaments inflated in the middle,style glabrous.
Distribution: Tropical Asia, Africa. Found in hilly areas. Nethakina నేతాకినా(Tel.) Nabhali (Eng.)
Cyanotis fasciculata(Heyne exRoth)Schult.f.,
A decumbent herb;leaves linear,chartaceous,silky cobwebby;cymes axillary or terminal in 2-3 in a cluster;bracts narrowly lanceolate,recurved,flowers cottony, pinkish rose.capsule oblong.
Common through out the state.
Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult.f. in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes,
Perennial herb, roots fusiform tuberous, stem hirsute at base, sub erect, Leaves basal oblong, upper linear margin ciliate. Flowers axillary/ terminal, corymbose cymes, bracts ovate, equal to cymes, bracteoles 10-15 pairs, K-3, C-3 bluish purple, capsule ellipsoid.
Common in hillside forest undergrowth.Tubers are used in folk medicine. Yemma gaddalu యమ్మగడ్డలు (Tel.) Greater cat ears (Eng.)
Cyanotis tuberosa tubers

Floscopa scandens Lour.
Glabrous or pubescent subscandent herb; internodes long;leaves elliptic-lanceolate; flowers pinkish white on shortly pedunculate hirsute panicles.lower flowers bracteate, upper ebracteate; stamens extrorse;anthers yellow; seed transversely wrinkled.
Found in North coastal districts. Climbing flower cup(Eng.), Kondaamadikadaకొండఅమడికాడ(Tel.)

Tiny branched herbs.Leaves  alternate. Flowers in terminal panicles. K-3, membranous, free.C-3 obovate, subequal. A- 3 fertile stamens alternate with 3 staminodes; ovary 3 celled, 1 ovule per cell.Fruit subglobose, seed pitted.

Murdannia nudiflora (L.)Brenan

Slender branching herb,rooting at nodes;leaves linear-lanceolate;glabrous chartaceous;flowers in terminal subglobose cymes;petals suborbicular, stamens 2, 2-4 sterile, fertile bearded; capsule trigonously globose.

Common through out the state. Naked stem dew flower,  Dove weed(Eng.).
Murdannia nudiflora from Wikipedia -Courtesy JMGarg
 Murdannia striatipetala Faden,
Erect slender herbs up to 15cm, rooting at nodes. Leaves linear, lanceolate, glabrous, sheath <1cm, ciliate. Flowers in  terminal panicles, sparingly dichotomous;K-3 oblong; C- 3 blue with oblique lines, orbicular; stamens 3, staminodes-3, filaments of fertile stamens bearded; capsule  subglobose.

The plant is found in Tamilnadu coast recently. It is a new record. The reason may be due to frequent visits of travelers and boat men from Sri Lanka and Tamilnadu the plant is spread and naturalized .  Found near sea shore of Dugarajaptnam and Nelatur.
Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn. in H.G.A.Engler,
Syn. Aneilema spiratum
15-20 cm tall slender decumbent herb. Leaves sessile, lower ones linear lanceolate, upper ones oblong cordate, glabrous. Flowers  in dichotomously branched panicles, bluish purple. K-3, C-3, oblong, A-3, bearded, staminodes 3 shorter, G-3, 3 –celled, 3-many ovuled. Capsule ovoid, glabrous.
Common through out the moist places. Asiatic dew flower(Eng.)
Murdannia spirata

Rhopalephora scaberrima (Bl.)Faden
Puberulous,stout herb;leaves scattered;lanceolate, hispid above, glabrous below, sheaths with a hispid mouth; panicles with long slender peduncles, and branches, bracts persistent; corolla white;capsule globose pubescent.
Flower of Rhopalephora 
VSKP and E.Godavari districts.

PONTEDERIACEAE Kunth, nom. cons. 

Water or marsh plants; vegetative stems indeterminate;leaves spiral or spirally two-ranked (whorled), sheath open or closed, colleters +; inflorescence subtended by two bracts; flowers open for one day, tristyly, monosymmetry T ± undifferentiated, pseudomonocyclic, (large), mostly blue or yellow, ± connate; A adnate to T, ( staminodes +), of different lengths, filaments hairy;septal nectaries 0; placentation parietal; 1 carpel fertile, stigma small; ovule (1/carpel) fruit an achene surrounded by P base.

EICHORNEA Kunth nom.cons

 Eichornia crassipes (Most) Solms
Free floating herb, roots fibrous, with very many root hairs,(trichomes) and root pockets, stolons slender, rooting from nodes. Leaves rosette, petiole elongate,  spongy, lamina paddle shaped; Spike erect from the center of the rosette. Flowers violet blue, 12-15 on the scape, P-6 bi-lipped, upper one with blue beard, lower one smaller, anthers subequal,filaments hairy.Capsule oblong ovoid.
Common on still and slow flowing water bodies. Gregarious mats of plant colonies on ditches and ponds often clogging the canals.
Ver.Name: Water hyacinth,blue devil, million dollar weed (Eng.) Gurrapu dekka,గుఱ్ఱపుడెక్క  budaga taamaraబుడగతామర (Tel.)
Eichornia crassipes
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f)Pres:
 Rooted sub erect, aquatic herb; root stock short. Leaves variable, petiole spongy, apex acuminate. Inflorescence racemose, peduncle from the leaf sheaths of uppermost leaves. Flowers deep blue, companulate, A-6 inserted at the base of the P. Many ovules on forked axile placentation.
Occassional on the margins of shallow waters. Neera kancheనీరుకంచె(Tel.) Pickerel weed(Eng.)

MUSACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Musaceae are large herbs with spiral, shortly-petiolate leaves in which the secondary veins depart more or less at right angles from the midrib. The inflorescence bracts are usually deciduous and subtend fascicles of ebracteate flowers. The monosymmetric flowers have five tepals that are connate except adaxially, where there is a single, free, deeply concave tepal.
1.Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman.
Monocarpic, unbranched geophyte; pseudostem+; leaves oblong; inflorescence pendulous spadix; bracts green, ovate, persistent; flowers fertile hermaphrodite, white or transluscent;fruit bunch compact, fruits about 10-12 long,pulp scanty with many black seeds. 
Rare in high altitudes in E.Godavari, VSKP dist. Snow banana(Eng.); adavi aratiఅడవిఅరటి(Tel.)
Musa paradisiaca L, and hybrids of Musa are cultivated throughout the state for the edible fruits Banana(Eng.); Arati(Tel.)
Musa rosacea Jacq. is rarely found in high altitudes in E.Godavari dist.
Stem slender, cyllindric;leaves linear oblong, thick;flowers in erect or drooping spikes; bracts lilac or reddish;basal flowers pistillate, upper staminate;fruit linear oblong,in the size of a finger, slightly incurved, 4-5 angled;seeds many black; fruit not edible.

Ravenala madagascarensis Sonn. is grown as an ornamental. 
Ravenala madagascarensis

Heliconiaceae are large herbs with two-ranked leaves and inflorescences with large, colored bracts in the axils of which are fascicles of flowers with petal-like tepals; the drupaceous fruit is borne on a stout, elongated pedicel and has a single hard stone per loculus.
Heliconium pendula is cultivated as an ornamental.
Heliconum flower
CANNACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons. 
Cannaceae are large herbs with shortly-petiolate leaves; their flowers are large, short-lived, and asymmetric and have a flattened style and a softly spiny inferior ovary and fruit.
Canna indica
Common as an ornamental and also found as an escape sometimes along canals.
Canna indica


Costaceae can be recognised even vegetatively: they have ligulate leaves with a closed sheath that are arranged in a single spiral up the stem. Their inflorescences are usually dense, spicate-capitate, and have large bracts, and their monosymmetric flowers have a large labellum and single stamen, the style running between the two halves of the large anther.

Costus speciousus (Koen.) Smith.

Tuberous geophyte;stem subwoody, spirally twisted;leaves subsessile, glabrous above silky below; ligule short. Flowers white, in terminal spikes;bracts oblong reddish; staminodes medium, petaloid; capsule globose; seeds black with white aril.

Rare but found throughout the state.

The rhizome is used as medicine in Ayurveda, Sidda medical systems. It is used to treat fever, asthma, bronchitis and intestinal worms.
Costus speciosus Chengalva koshtu చెంగల్వకోష్టు (Tel.); Crape gingerEng.) Pushkaramula(San.)
ZINGIBERACEAE Martinov, nom. cons.   
Tuberous geophyte;rhizomes fibrous, plane of distichy at right angles to the ground;inflorescence bracts deciduous; labellum adnate to filament and forming tube, median A of outer whorl 0; nectaries 2, on top of ovary; ovules (1-)many/carpel;capsule fleshy.Phenylpropanoids and related curcumins, ethereal oils +;

Rhizomes branched, fleshy, aromatic. Leaves basal; leaf blade broadly lanceolate or oblong. Inflorescence a terminal spike on pseudostems or on separate shoots arising from rhizomes, peduncle erect; bracts connate for half of their length and forming pouches, spreading at free ends, each subtending  2-7 flowers, apical bracts often differently colored, large, sterile, forming a coma; bracteoles free to base. Labellum with a thickened; lateral staminodes petaloid; filament short, broad; anther versatile, base usually spurred.
Curcuma amada cultivated for the rhizome
It is used as spice, edible. ginger(Eng.) Maamidi allamమామిడిఅల్లం(Tel.)
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Rhizomes palmately branched; deep yellow inside, aromaic; leaves often variegated; flowers pink, fragrant, shorter than bracts; corolla lip yellow deflexed. Wild turmeric(Eng.), Kasthuri pasupuకస్తూరిపసుపు (Tel.)
The tubers are used as medicine in Ayurveda for its antibacterial activity.
Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP districts and cultivated for the rhizomes in some medicinal plants gardens.
Curcuma aromatica inflorescence.

Curcuma longa L. Rhizomes orange and bright yellow; coma bracts white and green, sometimes tinged reddish purple; labellum yellowish with central, yellow band. Turmeric (Eng.); Pasupu పసుపు (Tel.) 
Used as spice,condiment, and medicine.
Widely cultivated in many districts for the rhizomes.

Rhizomes of Turmeric
Globba marantina L., 
A slender  herb with creeping rhizome; leaves distichous, pubescent beneath;spikes terminal orange yellow,fragrant;buds some times replaced by bulbils;corolla yellow, tubular slender, longer than calyx, labellum bifid;lateral staminodes petaloid, stamen with a long 2 appendaged filament;style filiform
Occasional in moist localities through out the state. Dancing girl ginger, yellow dancing girl ginger(Eng.) 
Globba marantina -image from wickipedia; coutesy JMGarg.
Tuberous geophytes or epiphytes;Pseudostems erect, leafy. Ligule conspicuous;Inflorescence a terminal spike, densely numerous flowered, 1 flower per bract;bracteoles tubular;. Calyx tubular, usually split on 1 side; corolla slender tubular;. Lateral staminodes petaloid, larger than corolla lobes. Labellum suborbicular, large, apex usually 2-cleft; claw long or short. Filament usually long, rarely absent; anther dorsifixed, base divaricate; connective appendage absent. Ovary 3-loculed; placentation axile. Capsule globose, 3-valved. Seeds numerous; aril lacerate.
 Hedychium coronarium Koen
Tuberous hemicryptohyte; rhizome fleshy jointed. Flowers  white, fragrant in spikes; bracts imbricate;labellum broadely orbicular/subcordate, corolla lobes linear, equal;stamens shorter than lip, staminodes petaloid.
In moist localities in hilly areas of E.Godavari dist. Butterfly Ginger Lily, White Ginger Lily, Garland Flower(Eng.), Vasanthi,వాసంతి  pitchichiligaddaకిచ్చిలిగడ్డ(Tel.)
Grown as an ornamental also.
Tuberous geophyte; rhizomes, aromatic. Pseudostems erect, leafy. Leaves distichous, petiole swollen, cushion like; Inflorescences conical, arising from rhizomes on erect peduncle clothed with scale like sheaths, bracts 1-flowered, persistent closely imbricate; bracteoles not tubular. Calyx tubular, split on 1 side, apex 3-toothed. Corolla tube slender; monosymmetric; Lateral staminodes adnate to labellum, forming a 3-lobed labellum; central lobe  cleft at apex; filament short; connective with elongate appendage wrapped around style. G(3) ovules numerous per locule; placentation axile. Style slender, stigma not expanded. Capsule dehiscent loculicidally or irregularly. Seeds black, covered by aril; aril white, margin irregularly lacerate.
 Zingiber officinale Rosc. is widely cultivated and extensively used as spice and as medicine in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Ginger (Eng.); Allamఅల్లం (Tel.)
Zingiber capitatum Roxb.
Tuberous geophyte; spikes arise at the end of the leafy stem;bracts green with a brown margin;corolla tube pale yellowbasal auricle large and bright red.
rare in VSKP, Mahaboobnagar and Warangal districts.
Zingiber purpureum Rosc.
Large slender aromatic herb;root stock perennial, yellow inside; Spikes from the root stock, on long peduncles; bracts red or greenish red;pubescent.
Rare in some moist localities through out the state.
Zingiber roseum (Roxb.)Rosc.
A tall herb; spikes sessile arising from the root stock; bracts red; corolla tube red.
Rare in VSKP and E.Godavari hills at high altitudes.
  Aquatic herbs; roots 0; vascular cambium 0;  stomata 0; leaves opposite, lamina margins spiny-toothed; plant monoecious; flowers extra-axillary, alternating with leaves; anthers extrorse, arrangement unclear.G-1 , ovule 1/carpel, endosperm 0, embryo large.
Fragile alga like herb. Leaves whorled, spiny-toothed, often dichotomously-branched; flowers small, sessile; and achenes spiny.
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Only genus with the chatacters of the family.
Rare, in unpolluted waters throughout the state. Hornwort, rigid hornwort, coontail, or coon's tail(Eng.)
Ceratophyllum demersum
Thank you for the encouragement and support.
continued... Eudicots in the next post- visit the next post
Copyright @A.lalithamba.
It is under construction; To be continued .....
The authors are A.Lalithamba Rtd.Lecturer in Botany(Her other bloglist is given below) and D.C.S.RAJU. FLS.;For his works and history of plant taxonomy please visit 


  1. Wonderful information, let me tell you, your website gives the best and the most interesting information. This is just the kind of information that i had been looking for, Thanks a ton once again, Regards, muslim baby names

  2. Thank you Sir. Your work is invaluable and is required in todays world with all the health misseries and worries. Please keep up with the same spirit to extend the list of other hebs/plants/trees. Without this translated and pictorial information it is quite difficult to acquire much of the ayurvedic raw materials.

    Thank you once again.

  3. thank you Sir, interesting information.

  4. can you give me the location of neeli kaluva - i promice to take only a few tubers ( less than 10 )