By DCS RAJU & A.L
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh); the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795). W.Roxburgh is considered as the father of Indian Taxonomy, began his work in A.P only.
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at
Rewritten of this blog is taken up with some changes; The notes for some plants is given in flickr with images; all the plant species given in floras is listed here to facilitate location of plants. The exercise is taken up to facilitate easy access.
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao; 3. Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008,
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
List of species:
Photographed at Nellore.
|Magnolia champaca సంపెంగ|
LIST OF PLANTS:
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms.,
Trees or shrubs. Pedicel slender, usually elongate. Torus elevated, usually long pubescent.Stamens many; connectives narrow and not concealing anther locules, apex subapiculate. Carpels many, oblong;monocarps many, subsessile to long stipitate, globose to ovoid. Seeds 1 to several per monocarp.
M.velutina(Dunal) Hook.f& Thoms.
Small trees, leaf margin entire; flowers solitary, extra axillary;berries purple, globose.
Found in the dry forests of E.ghats.
Common name: Budda dudugaబుడ్డ దుద్దుగ, చిలక దుద్దు
List of Plants:
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd.ex Hook.f
Evergreen pubescent trees, dioecious; leaves nearly verticillate;flowers creamy on naked branches; perianth tube short; fertile stamens 9 in 3 whorls; fruit seated in shallow cup shaped perianth tube.Found in Nallamala and Seshachalam hils, and Vishaka, Srikakulam districts.
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees
Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.
Rare in Vishakapatnam hills.
common name not known.
Moderate sized trees; leaves alternate; flowers in umbels or umbellate cymes in leaf axils; flowers unisexual; perianth 3+3;anthers 4-celled; fruit seated on enlarged perianth tube.
A glabrous moderate sized tree; leaves sub coriaceous, glaucous beneath; flowers in sessile-subsessile pedunculate umbels; fruit a berry, seated on the perianth tube.
Rare along the ghats of Rampa hills.
Litsea deccanensis Gamble
Frequent in shady moist places along hill slopes in Godavari and Vishakapatnam districts.
Common name: చిరుమామిడి ;
Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott,
Acorus calamus L.
LIST OF SPECIES
ALOCASIA (Schott) G.Don.,
Tuberous geophytes;tuber renewed seasonally, tubers ovoid; Spathe deciduous, tubular, widely spreading outward,spathe limb occasionally with a long tail at apex. Spadix sessile,neuters at the apendix; flowers filiform, subulate. Infructescence upright or nodding. Berries reddish, several seeded.
Arisaema leschenaultii Bl.
Leaf solitary, radiatisect; leaflets 5-13;spathe 15 cm, with longitudinally white stripes; berries 1-few.
Rare in Nellore district.
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.)Schott&Endl. Leaves 2; sortly pediatisect, sheaths mottled with purple;spathe green, apex gradually dilated into acuminate incurved limb;berries orrange red.
Occassional in mooist forests of North circars.
Ver.name: Whipcord cobra lilly(Eng.) For images
Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook.f.,
Ver.name: Adavi chema(Tel.) Gaint Elephant Taro(Eng.)
Plesmonium margaritiferum(Roxb.)Schott.Syn. Arum margaritiferum Roxb.
Tuberous geophyte;leaf solitary;panicle as long as petiole;spathe leathery, green, deep purple at base within; spadix very stout,neuters large; berries ovoid 2-3 celled.
Rare in Nalla malai and E.Godavari, VSKP districts. for images
Raphidophora decursiva (Roxb.)Schott.
A lofty climber; leaf large,pinnately divided to midrib;peduncle up to 20cm long,; spathe yellow, berry pulp orange, fragrant.
Rare in north circars
Plants < 50 cm, leaves sagittate, spadix exerted from spathe.
list of plants:
List of Plants:
Aquatic submerged herb; leaves heterophyllous, 7-9 nerved, stipule keeled;spike leaf opposed, flowers 4-merous; drupelets ovoid beaked.
List of species: Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines,(E.Godavari, VSKP) , Dioscorea bulbifera L. , Dioscorea esculenta L., Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.,
Dioscorea hispida Denns. , Dioscorea oppositifolia L., Dioscorea pentaphylla L., Dioscorea pubera Bl.,Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng., Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f.
Ver.name:Aerial yam, Air potato, Air yam, Bitter yam, Cheeky yam, Potato yam, Wild yam(Eng.) పెండలం (Tel.)
Common through out the state.
Leaves simple, opposite, coriaceous, stems twining to right, male spikes clustered 10-30cm, female spike 6-10 cm, solitary/paired, stamens 6, fruit 3-winged.
Common through out the state.
Leaves compound, 5 foliate, pubescent below, stem twining to left, prickled, male racemes solitary, axillary, <15cm, Stamens 3+staminodes 3, female spikes 5-15cm, flowers distant, fruit oblong, glabrous, angled.
|Pandanus male flower|
Smilax aspera L.,(VSKP), Smilax perfoliata Lour., (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP), Smilax zeylanica L.
|Smilax in vegetative state|
Aerides multiflora Roxb. Leaves crowded, obtuse, deeply channeled and keeled; flowers rose-purple; or spotted; lip3-lobed, violet-red; spur upcrved;capsule sub clavate.
In hill forests of E.Godavari.
|Aerides multiflora courtesy image by Bimal Sarkar|
Leaves oblong-lanceolate; flowers purple-white;petals obovate, lip white, violet blotched; spur uncinately incurved, capsule oblong- clavate.
In moist deciduous forests of North Circars.
|Aerides odorata; courtesy, photo by Bimal sarkar's symbiosis collection|
Leaves thick loriform; flowers whitish pale pink, lip as long as sepals; spur subclavate, mid lobe rounded; capsule fusiform.
Rare in cool moist forests of W.Godavari
Terrestrial leafless saprophyte; stem sheathed and tubular; raceme up to 10-20cm, flowers sraw colored with purple strips; lip broader than sepals; column very slender.
Rare in undisturbed hills of Chittoor district.
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons
Epiphytes; Column prolonged into a foot, lip erect, articulate on foot;.
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f.
Rhizome creeping, plant caespitose; slender pseudobulbs aggregating; leaves 2 subsessile; flowers yellowish green, lip toungue shaped.
In shady semi evergreen forests of Vishakha patnam.
Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.
1-leaved psuedobulb;leaves linear oblong, scape slender; umbels many flowered; column very short.
In semi evergreen forests of Tirumala .
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume
Rare in moist forests of Kadapa district.
Tufted epiphyte; stem fleshy, clothed in membranous sheaths; leaves linear, lorate; racemes pendulous; flowers creamy stained reddish purple down middle of the sepals,lip sessile purple blotched; midlobe hairy, column incurved; polinia 2 ovoid.
|Cymbidium intermedium courtesy image by Bimal Sarkar|
Epiphytes; lip not articulated, pubescent, erect from the base; column prolonged into foot;
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr
Stem slender, pendulous; flowers pale rose; 2-3 on short peduncles; spur conical,lip broadely deltoid, yellow streaked with purple at the base,cuculate pubescent.
Dendrobium aquem Lindl
Stem stout thick, flowers 2-3 from axils; creamy white, lip with yellowish disc; spur short;midlobe of lip triangular.
Rare in moist hill forests of E.Godavari
Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl
Pendulous with much branched stem; racemes terminal; flowers yellow, pedicels filiform; spur minute, lip oblong; fruit ellipsoid.
Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl
Stem slender, pendulous; flowes pale green tinged with pink, in short lateral racemes;lip longer ovate-oblong, long clawed, finely pubescent.
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.
Pseudobulb geophyte; leaves appearing or after anthesis; flowers <2cm, many on lateral scape; resupinate; lip 3 lobed; spurred;anther incompletely 2 locular, pollinia 2.
Flowers ash-green with membranous sterile bracts. Petals lanceolate; lip small, mid lobe recurved; spurs purple dotted,parallel to ovary.
Pseudobulbs conical; flowers greenih, with white lip on panicles; petals elliptic-lanceolate, tasellate,lip obovate, erect,lateral lobes embracing the column, mid lobe obovate; discwith ridges and hooked processes; spur short, incurved, column short.
Roots tuberous, fleshy;flowers membranous, greenish, in densely flowered racemes with ochreate sheaths below; lip ovate,side lobes0; spur saccate; nerves all fringed.
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr
Rhizomatic geophyte; flowers greenish white, slightly fragrant on terminal spikes; floral bracts irregularly serrate,glandular pilose;lip brownish-white,when spread out cymbiform with infolded margins;rostellum bifid.
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f.,
Terrestrial geophyte. Flowers white on about 10 cm racemes; sepals greenish white, with 3 nerves,petals 2 partite, upper segment sub falcate,3-nerved, lowershorter; lip 3 lobed;spur elongate, sub clavate,with an erect ligule at the mouth.
Terrestrial geophyte; stem slender; leaves appressed to the ground, orbicular; flowers greenish white on spikes;petals linear subfalcate;lip longer than sepals,lobes filiform,laterals spreading; spur as long as ovary, inflated.
Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra,
Tuberous geophyte, 20-30 cm tall. Tuber globose, 1-2cm across. Leaves alternate, lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 5-10 × 1.5-3.5cm, margin entire. Flowers greenish, 1.5-2cm long, on 15-20 cm long terminal lax spike. Bracts ovate-lanceolate. Sepals 3, oblique, similar attached to the top of the ovary. Petals 6, greenish, entire, linear, lip spurred, 3 lobed, mid lobe narrow and longer than laterals. Pollinia enclosed in tubes. Ovary inferior, 3 lobed, oblong. Capsule curved and beaked; seeds many, dusty.
Terrestrial geophyte; leaves narrowly elliptic, margin pilose;flowers purplish-white on terminal rcemes;petals bipartite, lip 3 lobed, laterals filiform, mid lobe deflexed; spur narrowly cyllindical, column short.
Terrestrial geophyte;leaves usu.3;flowers white, 1-3 in short racemes; lateral sepals subfalcate; petals 2 partite,lip 3 lobed,laterals filiform;spur longer than the ovary,upcurved; anther large,theca parallel, upcurved; rostellum erect slender, stigmatic processes clavate.
Tuberous geophyte; leaves 2-3 in a rosette, orbicular, flat appressed on the ground, fleshy, waxy, glaucous.Flowers white on a simple spike;petals linear, lip 3 lobed, mid lobe narrower; spur slender and linger,clavate at tip; anther cells divergent; stigmatic processes subglobose; rostellum short, triangular.
Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet
In semi evergreen forests of coastal districts.
Rare on moist forest floor of SriSailam.
Pseudobulb epiphyte; pseudobulbs close together in a cyllindric; leaves2; elliptic lanceolate; flowers pale yellowish green, on racemes; sepals linear-oblong, subacute, petals linear, reflexed, lip as long as sepals, recurved, column short incurved.
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
Leaf broadly cordate, margin undulate; peduncle green or purple, with 3-5 tubular sheaths; floral bracts reflexed; raceme 4-15-flowered; flowers yellowish green; resupinate, usually opening widely, emitting an unpleasant odor; lip villous on purplish veins; column white, apex dilated; stigma suborbicular.
Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden
Leaf cordate, with 7 main veins, with fine white reticulate venation, inflorescence 1-flowered; flower not resupinate; lip with a yellowish patch at the centre, apical margin irregularly lacerate.
In hills of E.Godavari and Visakhapatnam.
Epiphytic herbs. Stems clustered, enclosed in leaf bases; . Leaves iridiform and unifacial, rarely terete, often fleshy, distichous, usually equitant,; Flowers on unbranched racemes; often in whorls on peduncle; not resupinate, flat, very small, usually only 1-2 mm in diam.; ovary glabrous or papillate; lip usually spreading, sessile, entire or lobed, margin sometimes erose or fimbriate, occasionally concave at base, with or without calli, spur absent; lateral lobes often embracing column. Column erect, short, lacking a foot, wings usually absent; anther cap terminal, firmly attached to column apex, 2-locular; pollinia 4, cohering in 2 unequally sized pairs, waxy; viscidium absent or abbreviated; stigma transversely reniform to ovate; rostellum protruding.
Oberonia arnottiana Wight
Leaves linear, ensiform; scape terete, raceme slender;flowers pale yellowish green, short pedicelled;lateral lobes of lip large, midlobe narrow with diverging lobes;
Rare, in moist hills of E.Godavari, and VSKP
Oberonia brunoniana Wight.
Leaves linear, oblong; scape adnate to the upper leaf, 2 edged;flowers pale yellow in dense stiff spikes; Lip brown, cordate at base,apex 2 lobed; not toothed.
Rare in semi-evergreen forests of E.Godavari.
Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley,
Tufted, pendulous; leaves coriaceous, acuminate; flowers yellow, minute, in dense interrupted spikes; petals reflexed, gland dotted; pubescent with blackish stiff bristles; lip with a callus at either side of sinus
Raceme densely flowered, flowers reddish brown, with several hundred flowers borne less than 1 mm apart from each other; lip broadly ovate or suborbicular base decurrent backward, inconspicuously 3-lobed, margin irregularly incised or fimbriate.
In moist hill slopes of
PERISTYLUS Blume nom cons
Tuberous geophyte; Leaves basal, clustered midway along stem or widely spaced; Flowers spirally arranged, resupinate, small; ovary and pedicel usually erect and held close to rachis, twisted,; Sepals free; mid one erect, lateral spreading; petals white, slightly fleshy; lip 3 lobed, connate with column at base; column very stout, erect; anther with 2 parallel or slightly divergent locules; pollinia 2; stigmatic lobes 2, adnate to the base of lip.
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley
Geophyte; stem stout, covered with sheaths below; leaves elliptic-oblong, flowers yellowish green in dense spikes;sepals unequal; petals obovate rounded; strongly nervedlip without a claw, 3 fid; pollinia clavate, rostellum erect toothed.
In moist deciduous forests of Nallamali hills.
Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley
Tubers cylindric oblong; roots fleshy;stem covered by loosesheaths; leaves oblong-lanceolate;flowers greenish white, in racemes; petals and lip white; petals broad,obliquely orbicular; nerves branched;tips recurved;lip 3 lobed;rostellum short, stout.
In moist hill forests of E.Godavari.
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.
Pholidota pallida Lindley.
Pendulous epiphytic herb; pseudobulb aggragated; leaf solitaryelliptic-lanceolate;flowers small pinkish in terminal drooping racemes; floral bracts pale brown; sepals and petals free; lip entire with ornamental callus; column winged, stigmatic lobes 3, surface funnel shaped.
Rare in hilly tracts of
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet
Epiphyte;leaves narrowly oblong; scape compressed, rachis angular; Flowers small, purple on racemes;petals much smaller, very narrow, lip broadly oblong,3 lobed, mid lobe tongue shaped;column short.
Rare in moist deciduous hillforests of VSKP.
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.
Small epiphytes; leaves many distichous, narrow, leathery; flowers small, ±resupinate; Lip firmly attached to column, immovable, fleshy, shortly spurred or saccate, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, deltoid, small; mid-lobe often recurved; Column short, stout, foot absent; rostellum large, hamulate, ± bifid; pollinia 4.
Flowers yellow, flushed with red;bracts minute; side lobes of lip indistinct; spur saccate;slightly inflated at apex;
Rare in semi evergreen shaded hilly forests of VSKP
Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.
Floral bracts acuminate; flowers yellow, paillose;lip mid-lobe narrower than spur; rostellum beaked.
Small epiphyte; lower parts leafless; leaves strap shaped; recurved; flowers white tinged with violet pink; on drooping racemes; bracts cordate; lip 3 lobed, clawed,middle lobe elongated; cuneiform;spur saccate;rostellum shortly beaked.
Rare in E.Godavari and VSKP
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.
Tuberous, unbranched geophyte; leaves few, very variable; flowers pink and fragrant on many flowered dense spikes; bracts much larger than the flowers; lip broadly oblong, keeled, variable; spur is also variable; column erect, terete.
Rare in the hills of E.Godavari
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume
Geophyte; leaves elliptic ovate; flowers small, white on peduncled spikes; bracts linear spreading;sepals enclosing the spur and lip; lip oblong, spur cylindric, column short.
I thank Bimal Sar kar for providing excellent images of Orchids for the blog
Stem less, tuerous geophytes; Leaves radical, linear, plicate, prominantly nerved; Flowers on short scape, yellow, 1-1.2cm across, buds subterranean;T-6; A -6,anthers sagittate, linear. Ovary inferior, hidden among the leaves, stigmas -3. Capsule indehiscent.
LIST OF SPECIES:
Bulbous geophyte; tuber loose bulb; flowers pinkish white.
Widely cultivated for bulbs throughout the state.
Bulbs are used as spice and for medicinal applications.
Ver.name: vellulli వెల్లుల్లి , తెల్లబాయలు/ తెల్లగడ్డలు (Tel.); Garlic (Eng.)
|Allium sativum bulbs|
Geophytes; leaves (spiral), flat or revolute to involute, vascular bundles inverted; base sheathing; flowers large, monosymmetric, with median member of outer tepalline whorl adaxial; T ± free, ovary inferior, stigma capitate to deeply trifid
Bulb ovoid;leaves coriaceous, canaliculate, apex gradually tapering;flowers white, fragrant, in 10-20 cm long umbels; stamens 6 red.
Crinum latifolium L.,
Perenial bulbous geophyte. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers solitary on a solid scape, scape shorter than leaves. Flower white, 8-10 cm aross; P -6, connate, linear. Stamens 6 on the throat of the P, filaments fiiform, united by a membranous corona, 2 toothed between filaments, anthers versatile. Ovary 3 celled,ovules many, 2 seriate.
Aloe vera L.,
Common on way sides in dry trcts of Chittor and Nellore districts.
Cultivated for fragrant night blooming flowers; flowers are used for decorations and manufacture of perfumes..
LIST OF PLANTS:
Sub family: Calamoideae Beilschmied
Plant spiny; flowers in dyads;pollen equatorially disulcate - Calameaestyle branched; fruit covered by reflexed scales, seeds 1-3.
Calamus rotang L.,
Armed scandant shrub in marshy areas, stem ringed at nodes; Spadix axillary, elongate up to 1m, branched, polygamodioecious flowers.
As large mats in drier coastal areas.It is used to make cane furniture and leaflets for making mats. Fruit pulp is edible.
Ver.name: Pemu పేము (Tel.) Rattan’s palm(
Ver.name: Solitary fishtail palm, toddy palm, wine palm, jaggery palm(
All parts of the plant are useful. Kernal is edible, oil is obtained from dried kernel which is used as hair oil, cooking oil and for manufacture of various cosmetics. The fibrous mesocarp is used to make carpets and ropes.
Ver.nme: Coconut palm(
Through out the state in marshes. The leaves are used for thatching in villages.
Common in marshy areas of coastal districts.
Ver.name: Soft rush, Branched rush(Tel.)
Herbs with solid, sharply three-angled stems and leaves with closed sheaths. The flowersare very reduced and often aggregated into spikes or heads, the perianth, when recognisable, is scarious, (G ), (gynophore +); ovule single, and the fruit is an achene.
Culms tufted, very slender. Leaf sheath with long silky hairs at apex; Spikelets ovoid to ellipsoid, many flowered. Glumes spirally arranged or rarely distichous, herbaceous or membranous, deciduous, subtending a flower but basal 1 or 2 empty. Flowers bisexual. Perianth bristles absent. Stamens (1 or)2(or 3). Style filiform, base thickened, bulbous, and persistent in fruit; stigmas 3. Nutlet obovoid to obpyriform, 3-sided with persistent style base.
Stems slender,striate up to30cm long.Inflorescence capitate, brown, achenes smooth.
A very common species through out the state.
2.Bulbostylis densa (Wall.)Hand.
Slender herbs, leafblades filiform, Inflorescence loose, achenes transversely wrinkled.
Common in open wet grassy places.
3. Bulbostylis thouarsii (Roem. & Schult.) ined.Syn.Bulbostylis puberula (Kunth) C.B.Clarke
Cyperus alternifolius is grown as ornamental plant
Ver.name: Umbrella palm; umbrella sedge(Eng.)
Perennial, erect stout herb;culms terete, transversly septate;compound umbel, involucral bracts 5, much shorter than the corymb;primary rays 5-9, spikes racemose;spikelets oblong, narrow,compressed,35-40 flowered.
Usually found in standing waters,in ponds, canals, sea coast in large colonies.
Cyperus compressus L.,
Annual, culms patent; leaves 4 to a culm;Anthela up to 10 cm, with 7 foliaceous unequal bracts; spikelets 10 on abbreviated axis per spike; compressed; rachilla flexuose;achenes broadly obovate; dark brown, shiny.
Common in grass lands as weed in cultivated fields.
Ver.name: Annual sedge, hedgehog sedge(Eng.).
Annual, roots reddish; culms triquertous; leaves few shorter than stem; spikes contracted into a head; involucral bracts foliaceous; spikelets many in dense heads;dusty brown, compressed;achenes ellipsoid, trigonous.
Very common in rice fields.
Perennial, tuberous hemicryptophyte; stolons slender; leaf blades flat, flaccid, shorter
than culms;spikes peduncled and arranged in umbellate form; spikelets linear; achenes ellipsoid with 3 sharp angles.
Rare in marshy areas in coastal areas. tubers are medicinal and used in cosmetic industry.
Ver.name: Yellow nutsedge, nut grass, tigernut sedge(Eng.)
Cyperus haspan L.
Cyperus javanicus Houtt
Rhizomatous coarse geophyte, 1-2m long. Leaves longer than culms; coarse, margins scabrous; nodes purplish; inflorescence umbelliform, spikes cyllindrical, spikelets many; rachilla winged, glumes reddish brown; achenes ellipsoid blackish brown.
Common in coastal marshy areas.
Ver.name: Marsh cyperus; java flat sedge, java cyperus(Eng.)
Tufted annual therophyte; roots yellowish red; culms 3-angled; up to 1m tall; leaf sheath reddish or purplish brown, enveloping the stem at base.compound umbel composed of numerous erect flattened spikelets; achene with slightly concave sides, and shiny dark brown to black.
Common weed in wet and flooded rice fields.
Perennial, erect tufted herb; leaves shorter than culms;sheaths purple brown; inflorescence simple, reduced to a single head; involucral bracts 8;spikelets compressde;straw colored.
Occasional in marshy areas, rice fields and along water streams.
Fimbristylis bis-umbellata (Forssk.)Bubani,
Annual, culms upto 30cm; leaves pubescent; umbels compound,primary rays 3-5, secondary rays 3-5,spikelets solitary, 7-12 mm many flowered.
Common in rice fields and wet marshy areas.
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.)Vahl.
Ver.name: Grasslike fimbristylis, and hoorahgrass(Eng.)
Fimbristylis ovata(Burm.f.) J.Kern
Perennial caespitose herb; culms filiform, leaves crowded at base;scabrid;spikelets solitary on the stem;compressed, ovate;achenes obovoid, trigonous, stipate.
On wet grass lands, stream banks and on rice fields.
Ver.name: Ibha muluka(San.)It is used against adenitis, scrofula, syphilis; also in
Ver. name: Rusty sedge(Eng.)
Ver.name: Five angle fimbry(Eng.)
FUIRENA Rottb.(Umbrella grass)
Caespitose marshy land herbs of tropics; leaves hairy;spikelets sessile in clusters of 2–5; flower bisexual; perianth in sets of 3; outer with short bristles; stamens exerted; style hispidous. Achenes are usually prominently stipitate; apex stiff, hispidulous, beak+.
Ver.name: Umbrella sedge(Eng.)
Ver.name: shortleaf spikesedge, green kyllinga, and perennial greenhead sedge.(Eng.)
Ver.name: Fragrant spike sedge(Eng.)
Lipocarpha chinensis (Osb.)Kern.
Annual, caespitose; leaves 4 to a culm; inflorescence a head with 7 spikes, spikes oblong ellipsoidal; glumes white; achenes trigonous weakly curved, straw colored
Common in marshy areas and rice fields.
Ver.name: Goosetongue sedge(Eng.)
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl.) G.Tucker
stems round, leaf blades flat, inflorescence appears to come from side of the stem as the bract looks like an extension of the stem.stems unbranched; nuts brown, covered with scales.
Found in Vedurupattu of A.P
Ver.name: smallflower halfchaff sedge, small flowered dwarf bulrush(Eng.)
Annual densely tufted therophtye;leaves few setaceous;blades plicate,Anthela congested in a head like cluster of spikelets; spikelets spreading,flattened densely flowered, reddish brown;achenes narrowly obovate.
Near water falls in marshy localities of forests.
Annual, densely tufted herb; culms slender, triquertous; leaves few, surpassing the stem; blades soft, light green; Anthela simple; involucral bracts 4, spikes subglobose, densely bearing many spikelets; spikelets flattened, spreading, light greenish; Achenes elliptic, laterally flattened.
Along the drying beds of canals of soft sticky soil, marshy fields.
Ver.name: Low flat sedge(Eng.)
RHYNCHOSPORA Vahl nom.cons
woody herbs; stems 3 angled, leaves grass like, 3ranked; spikelets solitary or fascicled in bracteate heads, 1-9 flowered.glumes imbricate;hypogynous bristles when present scabrid or plumose;nut ovoid, biconvex with a persistent beak like bristles.Cosmopoliton in distribution.
Rhyncospora corymbosa (L.)Britton; Syn. Scirpus corymbosus L.
Rhizomatous, perennial; culms solitary; leaves many aggregated at the base;leaf margin and underside of mid vein finely toothed; inflorescence bearing 4 anthelas, each one corymboform; glumes 4-6; tepals scabrous; achenes spindle shaped.
Found in swamp areas in hilly region.
Ver.name: Beaked seed sedge, matamat(Eng.)
Rhyncospora wightiana (Nees) Steud.
Perennial caespitose herb; spikelets aggregated into terminal solitary heads;reddish brown; glumes elliptic lanceolate; achenes compressed, dark brown.
Found in paddy fields, and grassy grounds in forests.
Ver.name: Wight's beak sedge.(Eng.)
Annuals or perennials. Rhizome creeping, or short, with or without stolons. Stem terete or trigonous, smooth. Leaves mostly reduced to 2-3, soft, ephemeral sheaths; ligule+. Inflorescence pseudolateral spikes, small; Flowers bisexual, with or without perianth bristles, nut trigonous or bi-convex, compressed, surface transversely rugulose.Cosmopoliton.
Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.)Palla Syn. Scirpus articulatus L.
Perennial robust herb; culms transversely septate, hollow,green;clothed at base by 3 leaf blade less sheaths; inflorescence pseudolateral globose head with about 40 brownish spikelets.spikelets cyllindrical,achenes obovoid, triquertous.
A common species found along shallow waters in marshy areas.
Ver.name: Bul rush(Eng.)
Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.)Palla.
Schoenoplectus senegalensis (Hochst. ex Steud.) Palla
Perennial caespitose herb; culms slender, sub terete; inflorescence pseudolateral, capitate, spikelets 20 in a cluster, ovoid subglobose, fulvous;involucral bracts >20cm; achenes obovoid, triquertrous, sharply angled.
Schoenoplectus supinus (L.)Palla,
Annual tufted herb; culms trigonous; sheaths with a mucro; inflorescence a pseudolateral head;with about 15 spikelets;pale green and lightly straw colored;achenes elliptic, triangular, suddenly contracted at both ends, mucronate at apex.
Common in wet grassy places and rice fields.
Scirpus tuberosus Desf.
Perennial rhizomatous herb with woody tubers;culms stout, trigonous;leaves coriaceous, many;inflorescence umbellate with3-8 spikelets;solitary on each ray; achenes obovoid, brown.
Ver.name: Tuberous bulrush(Eng.)
List of species:
ACRACHNE Wight&Arnott ex Chiovenda
Acrachne racemosa (Heyne ex Roem. & Schult.) Ohwi
Erect or decumbent perennial herbs.Culms 5-10 cm tall, rooting at nodes.Leaves distichous lanceolate, margins scaberulous, folded, sheaths compressed; Spike 3-4 mm across, elliptic oblong, pinkish white; clustered into 1-1.5 cm across.
Occassional along salt marshes of the coast forming mats,through out the state.
Plant excretes excessive salt in the form of crystals. This grass may be grown for reclamation of salt soils.
Alloteropsis cimicina (L.)Stapf.
|Alloteropsis cimicina -image courtesy JMGarg|
Annual, tufted, decumbent; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, amplexical; panicle densely flowered; spicate; spikelets paired,laterally compressed, ciliate; lower glume lanceolate, sessile spikelets lower glume rounded;upper glume finely tapering into awn like point; stamens 2.
Common in damp habitats through out the state.
Arthraxon hispidus (Thunberg) Makino
|Bamboosa arundanacea stem with spines|
Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A.Gardner & C.E.Hubb., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3363 (1938). Decumbent annual rooting at nodes. Leaf-blades ovate-lanceolate. Inflorescence panicle, racemes on an axis with a triquetrous rhachis. Spikelets, glabrous, narrowly ovate, borne in pairs and crowded on the rhachis.
|Chloris barbata inflorescence|
|Coix lacryma-jobi-Courtesy from Wikipedia|
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.,
Perennial tuftes, coarse grass; geniculately ascending; panicle upto 15cm;loose and grey rachis scabrid; glumes oblong 1-nerved;lemma 4-toothed, pilose below, palea pilose on keels,stigmas 3, plumose
Occasional in moist places in dry districts.
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link,
Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.,
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.,
|Spike of Eragrostis japonica|
Annual, tufted; ligule soft hairy; panicle up to 15 cm, open;branches filiform;spikelets linear oblong, 5-12 flowered.
Common therough out the state.
|Eragrostis uniloides spike|
Hemarthria compressa (L.f.)R.Br.
Perennial tufted; culms up to 1.5m, leafsheaths below internodes, compressed;Racemes few, upto 15 cm, Pedicelled and sessile spikes similar-lower glume coriaceous,5-7 nerved upper membranous, lemmas subequal.
Occasional in wet lands of Godavari, Krishna and Pennar deltas.
Ver.name: Shervu panukuచెరువుపణుకు(Tel.); Jove grass, whip grass(Eng.)
Heteropogon contotus(L.)Beauv. ex Roem.&Schult.
Annual, tufted; ligule fimbriate;blades scaberuous;racemes solitary, awns forming a twisted spire; lower spikelets homogamous, awnless, either male or 0;glumes hispidous.
Very common through out the state in waste places.
Ver.name: Eddigaddi,ఎడ్డిగడ్డి kaserigaddiకసేరిగడ్డి (Tel.)Black spear grass, tangle grass(Eng.)
Hygroryza aristata (Retz.)Nees ex Wight&Arn.
Aquatic floating grass;culms spongy; feathery whorled roots at nodes;leafsheaths compressed, auricled.spikelets 2cm, glumes absent.
Occasional in coastal areas.
Ver.name: Asian water grass(Eng.)
Imperita cylindrica (L.)Raeusch.
Perennial tufted; nodes bearded;blades coriaceous, glabrous; spike like panicle;very dense,calus bearded, unawned, covered with long silky hairs;glumes hayline, lanceolate.
Common hedge grass on field bunds throughout the state.
It is used in Ayurvedic medicine; and for control of soil erosion.
Ver.name: Thatch grass; Dharbha gaddi దర్భగడ్డి(Tel.)Cogon grass, blady grass(Eng.)
ISCHAEMUM RUGOSUM L.
|Oryza sativa(white);Oryza rufipogon(Red)|
Annual, cultivated grass;panicle up to 30cm, compound, spikelets unawned; caryopsis narrowly oblong compressed.
Widely cultivated through out the state.
Ver.name: Vadlu, వరి, వడ్లుvari(Tel.) Rice, paddy(Eng.)
Annuals or perennials. Culms erect or decumbent; leaf bldes fat, linear lanceolate; Inflorescence usually a terminal open panicle; Spikelets usually symmetrical and dorsally compressed, disarticulating below the glumes; 2-flowered, the lower floret staminate or barren, the upper bisexual.Glumes membranus; lower usually shorter than the spikelet, upper glume as long as spikelet;upper floret coriaceous;the margins of the lemma inrolled and clasping the palea; stamens 3; stigmas plumose.
Panicum maximum Jacq.
Perennial, tufted grass; branching from base; leaf sheaths ciliate near the mouth, blades large,mid rib prominent; lax panicles;spikelets linear oblong dense;caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid.
Cultigen; used as fodder, found as an escape also.
Panicum miliaceum L.
Annual tufted grass; leaf sheaths hirsute, ligule a ciliate rim, sparsely hairy on both surfaces; panicle narrowly oblong, branches alternate;spikes ovate oblong; glumes persistent, unequal;caryopsis ovoid.
A cultigen; the seed is eaten as millet.
Ver.name: Varigalu వరిగలు(Tel.)Proso millet, common millet, hog millet or white millet(Eng.)
Perennial tufted grass; ligule fimbriate membrane; leaf blades elliptic oblong; panicle upto12 cm effusive;branches numerous, alternate; spikelets 3 mm, deciduous;caryopsis ellipsoid.
Common in shady marshy areas.
Panicum repens L.
Perennial, stoloniferous grass; creeping at base, rooting from nodes;leafsheaths densely ciliate on margin; leaf blade linear-lanceolate; panicle medium sized; spikelets 3mm; caryopsis ellipsoid.
Ver.name: Torpedo Grass, Torpedograss, Quack Grass, Bullet Grass, Couch Panicum, Creeping Panic, Panic Rampant, Wainaku Grass(Eng.)
Perennial stoloniferous grass, up to 2m tall; branching from lower nodes; racemes up to 20 cm long, cyllindric, solitary, purplish or yellowish; involucral bristles many, very long, scabrid; spikelets solitary, sessile; caryopsis ovoid.
Found in hill slopes of many districts, also cultivated as fodder.
Ver.name: Elephant or elefante grass, Napier grass(Eng.); Napear gaddiనేపియర్ గడ్డి (Tel.)
Perennial tufted, upto 1m tall, branched at nodes; leaf blades slightly hairy; racemes 10 cm long, purplish brown;involucral bristles unequal, inner with long silky hairs.
Occasional in hill slopes of Godavari and some Telangana districts.
Perotis indica (L.)O.Ktze.
Perennial tufted grass; upto 50cm, leaf blades ovate-lanceolate; racemes up to 15 cm, solitary terminal; spikelets 2mm, glumes linear,awned.
Very common in sandy tracts and plains.
Ver.name: Indian comet grass(Eng.); Nakka thoka/ nakka peechu నక్కతోక (Tel.)
Rottboellia cochinensis (Lour.)W.D.Clayton
Perennial coarse grass; up 3 m tall, with stilt roots;leaf sheaths up to 12 cm, leaf blades linear flat; racemes solitary, cyllindric, rachis fragile;spikelets 4mm, binate;glumes unequal,crustaceous.
Occasional in plains and hills of all districts.
Saccharum officinarum L.
Cultivated tufted grass, culms up to 3m tall, solid, coated with white wax; panicle upto 1m long;densely branched, silvery fragile; caryopsis oblong.
Widely cultivated through out the state.
Ver.name: cheraku చెరుకు(Tel.); Sugar cane(Eng.)
Saccharum spontaneum L.
Perennial tufted grss upto 2m tall; leafblades linear flat; panicle upto 60cm long, contracted, rachis villous;spikelets binae with silky hairs.
Very common along the streams and ponds in all districts.
Ver.name: Rellugaddi రెల్లుగడ్డి, kakicheruku కాకిచెరుకు (Tel.)Kans grass(Eng.)
Sacciolepis indica (L.)Chase
Annual tufted grass,up to 70cm tall; ligule absent, leaf blades linear, filiform; panicle spikelike, contracted, cyllindric,dense; spikelets linear;caryopsis linear.
Near marshy areas.
Annual or perennial, tufted grass; slender to robust or canelike. Leaf blades linear-lanceolate; ligule ciliate from a membranous base. Dense and spikelike panicle; or open with the spikelets contracted around the primary branches; spikelets (or some of them) subtended by one to several bristles which persist on the branches after the spikelets fall. Spikelets elliptic, awnless, florets 2; glumes and lower lemma membranous ; lower glume ovate from a clasping base, lower floret staminate or neuter. Caryopsis ellipsoid.
Setaria italica (L.)Beauv.
Annual cultivated grass, upto 1m tall; panicle contracted;involucral bristles introrsely barbed.
Ver.nmae: Korraluకొర్రలు(Tel.)Foxtail millet(Eng.)
|Setaria italica grain|
Setaria pumila (Poir.)Roem.
Annual, tufted; leaf sheaths glabrous; panicle cyllindric, densely flowered; bristles barbed, caryopsis ovoid- ellipsoid.
Common in hill slopes through out the state.
Ver.name: Nakka thoka gaddiనక్కతోకగడ్డి (Tel.)yellow foxtail, yellow bristle grass, pigeon grass, and cattail grass.(Eng.)
Annual, tufted grass; ligule a fringe of hairs;panicle spiciform, cyllindric, up to 10cm; Bristles retrorsely barbed. Caryopsis ellipsoid.
Common in all districts.
Ver.name: Nakkathoka gaddi(Tel.),Bristly foxtail and hooked bristlegrass(Eng.)
|spike of Sorghum|
Tetrapogon tenellus (Koen. ex Roxb.)Chiov
Annual tufted grass; 60cm tall; leaf sheaths 3-7cm, leaf blades 2-8cm; racemes upto 8cm, solitary, terminal; spikelets 3-4 awned;glumes persistent, callus densely hairy, awned; caryopsis elipsoid, awnless.
Common in dry sandy tracts in Rayalaseema and south coastal districts.
Perennial or annuals, culms tufted, leafsheath keeled, leafblade membranous or papery; flowers in leafy compound panicle, with short racemes; each raceme with large sessile homogamous spikelets; spikelets subterete,compressed, callus acute and bearded, lower glume leathery, upper glume awnless; lemma hayline, stipriform;
Themeda triandra Forsk.
Annual stoloniferous grass, culms ascending, rooting at lowernodes, nodes pubescent.
Leafsheath loose, glabrous, ligule with ciliate rim, leafblade lanceolate; spicate racemes, rachis terete, serrate; spikelets solitary, dorsally compressed,; glumes unequal, hayline, densely ciliate, lemma similar to palea; stamens3; stigma plumose; caryopsis compressed.
VETIVERIA Bory de St. Vincent
Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash
A perennial tufted robust aquatic grass; nodes glabrous, leafsheath glabrous, ligule a scarious ring; blades linear, flat glabrous; panicle, branches whorled; racemes upto 10cm long, spikelets lanceolate, binate; bisexual;lowerglume spinulose, boatlower lemma hayline,caryopsis oblong.
Common in marshy areas through out the state.
Ver.name: Vattiveruవట్టివేరు (Tel.)
Zea mays L.
Annual cultivated, monoecious robust grass; nodes bearded; leafsheaths densely pubescent, panicle monoecious, male terminal, racemosely arranged; female solitary, axillary; spikelets 2-nate, 2 flowered; caryopsis triangular.
Cultivated in all districts.
Ver.name: Mokkajonna మొక్కజొన్న (Tel.); Maize (Eng.)
Zoysia martella (L.)Merr.
Annual tufted grass, culms upto 10cm; leafblades 1-2.5cm, linear, convolute, base pilose; raceme spicate, solitary; spikelets 3mm, ovoid, spiral, compressed, 1-flowered, appressed to rachis; caryopsis ovoid, within lemmas and glumes;
in sea-shore sands of coastal districts.
Cyanotis fasciculata(Heyne exRoth)Schult.f.,
A decumbent herb;leaves linear,chartaceous,silky cobwebby;cymes axillary or terminal in 2-3 in a cluster;bracts narrowly lanceolate,recurved,flowers cottony, pinkish rose.capsule oblong.
Common through out the state.
|Cyanotis tuberosa tubers|
Tiny branched herbs.Leaves alternate. Flowers in terminal panicles. K-3, membranous, free.C-3 obovate, subequal. A- 3 fertile stamens alternate with 3 staminodes; ovary 3 celled, 1 ovule per cell.Fruit subglobose, seed pitted.
|Murdannia nudiflora from Wikipedia -Courtesy JMGarg|
The plant is found in Tamilnadu
coast recently. It is a new record. The reason may be due to frequent visits of
travelers and boat men from
and Tamilnadu the plant is spread and
naturalized . Found near sea Sri
Lanka and Nelatur. shore of Dugarajaptnam
Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn. in H.G.A.Engler,
Ver.name: Asiatic dew flower(Eng.)
|Flower of Rhopalephora|
PONTEDERIACEAE Kunth, nom. cons.
Water or marsh plants; vegetative stems indeterminate;leaves spiral or spirally two-ranked (whorled), sheath open or closed, colleters +; inflorescence subtended by two bracts; flowers open for one day, tristyly, monosymmetry T ± undifferentiated, pseudomonocyclic, (large), mostly blue or yellow, ± connate; A adnate to T, ( staminodes +), of different lengths, filaments hairy;septal nectaries 0; placentation parietal; 1 carpel fertile, stigma small; ovule (1/carpel) fruit an achene surrounded by P base.
Stem slender, cyllindric;leaves linear oblong, thick;flowers in erect or drooping spikes; bracts lilac or reddish;basal flowers pistillate, upper staminate;fruit linear oblong,in the size of a finger, slightly incurved, 4-5 angled;seeds many black; fruit not edible.
Tuberous geophyte;rhizomes fibrous, plane of distichy at right angles to the ground;inflorescence bracts deciduous; labellum adnate to filament and forming tube, median A of outer whorl 0; nectaries 2, on top of ovary; ovules (1-)many/carpel;capsule fleshy.Phenylpropanoids and related curcumins, ethereal oils +;
Rhizomes branched, fleshy, aromatic. Leaves basal; leaf blade broadly lanceolate or oblong. Inflorescence a terminal spike on pseudostems or on separate shoots arising from rhizomes, peduncle erect; bracts connate for half of their length and forming pouches, spreading at free ends, each subtending 2-7 flowers, apical bracts often differently colored, large, sterile, forming a coma; bracteoles free to base. Labellum with a thickened; lateral staminodes petaloid; filament short, broad; anther versatile, base usually spurred.
Curcuma amada Roxb.is cultivated for the rhizome
It is used as spice, edible.
Ver.name:Mango ginger(Eng.) Maamidi allamమామిడిఅల్లం(Tel.)
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Rhizomes palmately branched; deep yellow inside, aromaic; leaves often variegated; flowers pink, fragrant, shorter than bracts; corolla lip yellow deflexed.
Ver.name: Wild turmeric(Eng.), Kasthuri pasupuకస్తూరిపసుపు (Tel.)
The tubers are used as medicine in Ayurveda for its antibacterial activity.
Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP districts and cultivated for the rhizomes in some medicinal plants gardens.
|Curcuma aromatica inflorescence.|
Rhizomes of Turmeric
|Globba marantina -image from wickipedia; coutesy JMGarg.|