Friday, November 16, 2012

Part I: Introduction, Gymnosperms, Nymphaeales to Asparagales

Taxonomy has a major role in interpreting the knowledge base of Globosphere. The aim of this attempt is to make information very accessible and flexible. Preparation of Floristic accounts and databases are also vital for providing taxonomic knowledge to the people. The role of taxonomist   is crucial in the identification of the biological diversity. With fast depleting biological resources and increasing habitat changes from national level down to  the micro level of ecological  niches of fragile environments  there is an immediate need for application of newer tools to aid traditional methods. It is useful in storaging the morphological repositories which are essential for universal availability of raw data of descriptive taxonomy.With  advent television, remote sensing, mobile communication etc and mapping of our resources it  has become easy to digitize information.  The digital libraries through out the world take advantages of computers in the form of desktop or tablets to map any plant or animal of smallest area and provide information to every one at any place in shortest time. An attempt is made is here to explain the benefits of using computers in botanical studies particularly in utilization of data for the conservation of plant resources of Andhra Pradesh.
We have adopted the title Flora Andhrika (Andhram is the mother tongue of Andhra Pradesh);  the name of the book of the first floristic publication of Telugu speaking areas.This is the region where  Binomial nomenclature was adopted by JG Koenig(1782) and W. Roxburgh(1795).
JGKoenig described many plants used in Indian Medicine. He is considered as the founder of Indian Botany. Many plant species are named in his honour, Eg.,  Chionachne koenigii
JG Koenig
 W.Roxburgh is considered as the father of Indian Taxonomy, began his work in A.P only. Many plant species are named in his honour, Eg.,Oropetium  roxburghianum,  Capparis roxburghii,  endemic to A.P
William Roxburgh
The  Flora Andhrica is the title of the book by Walter Elliot FLS who spent five years in Telugu districts of Northern Circars of erstwhile Madras Presidency.He included the names of plants in Telugu and English.
Walter Elliot
He consulted Sabdartha Kalpataruvu by Mamidipudi Venkayya Sreshti of Masulipatam and compiled the Telugu names of flowering plants  and their Latin names following binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus adopted in India by Koenig. 
Colonel Richard Henry Beddome (11 May 1830 – 23 February 1911) extensively surveyed several remote and then-unexplored hill ranges in India and Sri Lanka, which include Eastern Ghats,  he explored Nallamala Hills, and Visakha patnam hills in A.P. Many plant species were named after him as an honour. Eg. Cycas beddomei is endemic to Seshachalam Hills of Andhra Pradesh. 
 The British Surgeons William Roxburgh ,Buchanan-Hamilton( Francis Hamilton who is successor of Roxburgh and Konig. He was with Tipu at Bangalore. He was first Surveyor at Barack pore, Calcutta. He acted for Roxburgh on leave at Gdn. He became Buchanan Hamilton and retired in 1815.), Wight, Cleghorn, Beddome, Lushington and many pioneers studied  our plant wealth leading to publication of  Plants of  the Coast of Coromandel in 1795 and Flora Indica in 1820 followed by Hookers Flora of British India in 1872-97.

Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn (9 August 1820 – 16 May 1895) sometimes known as the father of scientific forestry in India,made collections from A.P.
Botanical Survey of India brought out Flora of India vol-1 in 1993 coinciding with bicentenary of Col Robert Kyd the founder of Botanic garden at Calcutta.
An English Index to plants of India by H.Piddington in 1832  he compiled a list of the plants of economic importance, gives names of plants in Bengali, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Cyngalese and Nawar languages known at the time of publication of 3rd vol of Flora  Indica by Roxburgh posthumously. Sir Walter Elliot,F.R.S.
a great Orientalist inspired by his fluency in seven Dravidian languages and stationed at Visakhapatnam, he learnt Telugu names of plants, so he named Andhrica. He mentioned Yanadi of Nellore, Chenchus of Guntur, Koyas of Rajamandry and Konda Doras of Vizagpatam as ancient people of Gondwana land with fossils, fuels and primitive cultures. Ayurveda and Herbal folklore  and traditional usage of plants in Eastern Ghats, Coramandel Coast and Deccan Plateau with common script for over 13 centuries since the visit of Huensong and Telugu usage enabled the European Physicians to describe our native plants and their uses known to world in modern languages.
Robert Wight (6 July 1796 – 26 May 1872) made extensive collections from southern India from 1826 to 1828. His collection consisted of specimens from around Madras up to Vellore and from Samalkota and Rajahmundry,
in Andhra Pradesh. many plant species are named in his honour Eg., Clematis wightiana 
Robert Wight

A.W.Lushington(1915) - then Conservator of forests who worked at Madgole hills of Visakhapatnam published a  a book named Vernacular list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency, with all local names  in all languages  spoken in the presidency. Eg. Eriolaena lushingtonii is named in his honour.
C.A. Barber collected plants extensively in the Nallamalai hills of Kurnool district(1915)
C.E.C. Fischer intensively collected plants throughout the Presidency of Madras, and included the plants collected from this region in their Flora of the Presidency of Madras.
 Rampa agency in Rajahmandry became the  source for Garden of East India Company and included in Flora Indica. Dr.J.G.Koenig, Dr Roxburgh and Dr.Patrick Russel are  visitors to Pulicat lake, Nagari Hills, Tirupati, Kakinada, Annavaram and Simhachalam temples too and so made plant collections as pioneers in plant science. These European surgeons had good friendly relations with local land-lords and indeed much liked by some ancient families leading to progress of English usage. Ochna gambleii, is named after Gamble.
M.S.Ramaswamy (Rampa hills, Velugonda hills), V.Narayana swamy (Rampa hills and Gudem agency), V.Venkateswarlu are some othe contributors. K. Subramanyam (aquatic plants), K.M. Sebastine (Medak, Warangal), R.S. Rao (East and West Godavari districts), G.V. SubbaRao and his wife G.R. Kumari (Visakhapatnam district), K. Thothathri (Guntur), D.C.S. Raju (Cuddapah, West Godavari), J.L. Ellis (Cuddapah, Nallamalais of Kurnool), N.P. Balakrishnan (Tirupati, Visakhapatnam), A.N. Henry (Warangal) and A.R.K. Sastry (Mangroves, Coastal Andhra Pradesh) are some of the important contributors from Botanical Survey of India to the flora of Andhra Pradesh.
  The formation of linguistic states in  Indian Republic and adoption of Telugu as official language and making it compulsory for communication it is obvious  that digital applications for use of desirable botanical data is made accessible to common man and students in particular to know our plants with help of images and simple easily understandable documents.Hence the Flora Andhrika  as title for Blog/Page/Docs for Google users is chosen here with a view to revise old classics with updated information and wide field of the area of study for practical purposes.
Statistics: A total of 2803 taxa belonging to 1051 genera under 185 families are included.
About 65 endemic angiospermous taxa of Peninsular India are reported to occur in Andhra Pradesh (Reddy & al., 2008a).
Endemic angiospermous species of A.P are
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd. ex Hook.f.;
 Alysicarpus monilifer (L.) DC. var. cuddapahensis Almeida & Almeida; 
Albizia thompsonii Brandis, (sporadic in Rayalaseema districts)
Andrographis beddomei C.B.Clarke;(from Nallamala hills)
  Andrographis nallamalayana J.L.Ellis,(from Nallamala hills)
Argyreia arakuensis N.P.Balakr. (from Araku of A.P);
 Boswellia  ovalifoliolata N.P.Balakr. & A.N.Henry,(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
 Brachystelma penchalkonensis(New record)(from Penchalakona of Nellore district); 
Brachystelma nigidianum Raja Kullayisw, Sandhyar. & Pull.,
Cleome chelidonii L.f. var. pallai V.S.Raju&C.S.Reddy,
Cleome viscosa L. var. nagarjunakondensis Toth.,
Croton scabiosus Bedd.(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
Crotalaria madurensis Wight Var. Kurnoolica Ellis ;(from Nallamala hills)
Dimorphocalyx kurnoolensis Venkatraju &Pullaiah, (from Nallamala hills)
Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar,(from Udayagirim Nellore district)
 Eriolaena lushingtonii Dunn; (from Nallamala hills)
Euphorbia cattimandoo Elliot,
Euphorbia deccanensis V.S.Raju var. nallamalayana (Ellis) V.S. Raju, 
Euphorbia kadapensis  Sarojinidevi & Venkataraju,
Euphorbia senguptae N.P.Balakr. & Subr.,
Euphorbia seshachalamensis Prasad & Prasanna,(from Seshachalam hills)
Euphorbia venkatarajui Sarojin.,
Glochidion tirupathiense Rasingam et al.,(from Seshachalam hills)
Glochidion talakonense Sankara Rao etal.,(from Talakona of Chittoor district)
 Heterostemma deccanense (Talb.) Swarup. & Mangaly, 
Hybanthus vatsavayae C.S.Reddy;
Leucas zeylanica var. walkeri (Benth.) Hook.f. (from Seshachalam hills)
 Memecylon jadhavii K.N.Reddy, C.S.Reddy & V.S.Raju, 
Memecylon madgolense Gamble, (from Madgole hills of A.P); 
Neolitsea gamblei Chakrab. & P. G. Diwakar,(From Rampa hills);
 Phyllanthus narayanswamii Gamble, (From Rampa hills);
Pimpinella tirupatiensis N.P.Balakr. & Subr.,(from Seshachalam hills)
Pterocarpus santalinus L.f.,(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
Rhynchosia beddomei Baker,(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb.,(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
Syzygium alternifolium (Wight) Walp.,(Velugonda, Seshachalam hills)
Gymnosperms: Cycas beddomei Dyer, Cycas seshachalamensis sp.nova (From Tirumala) 
Cycas sphaerica Roxb., (from Orissa borders) 
   Photographs of the champions of Indian Taxonomy are collected by DCS Raju
From this part the exercise is revised by A.Lalithamba;
  APG system of classification is followed;  date of revision:21-08-2019  
With the efforts of many naturalists, scientists a lot of work is done. This is a simple effort. 
The compilation of list of plant species, and the vernacular/local names, etymology are given for the entire flora including cultivated, exotic species for the benefit of researchers as well as common men who are interested in plants.
The entire work is posted in 6 posts  
Description of some species and images are posted in my flickr post  which is linked here 
Referrence:1. Flora of Andhra Pradesh by Prof. T.Pullaiah 
2.district floras such as Flora of Nellore district by B.Suryanarayana and A.Srinivasa Rao;  Flora of E.Godavari by R.S.Rao garu,Flora of Chittoor district, 
4. Flora of Presidency of Madras By Gamble;
5. Additional Supplement to Flora of Andhra Pradesh, India,by SudhakarReddy.C, K.N.Reddy, V.S.Raju,2008, 
6. Eflora of India (google group) and BSI
7.and my own work on Velugonda hills of Eastern ghats and other validly published papers.
 For images and description link is given, other species will be briefly described.
8. For Etymology references are- David Gled Hill, CRC Dictionary of Plant names, Daves Garden Website; Flora of North America , Flora Fauna web.
For regional/ Telugu names, district floras of Andhra Pradesh, Medicinal plants by R.S.Rao, K.Hemadri, research papers on ethno medicinal plants of Eastern Ghats published by different authors in many scientific journals, my survey, Forest plants published by Department of Forests A.P and  Flora Andrica by T.S.Elliot, A.W.Lushington -Vernacular list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency,  are scrupulously followed. Slang, pronunciation variations, local variations are  solved with my desecration, for example మల్లి / మల్లె  is written as malli, malle in english are solved . 
Note: this blog is revised shortly 

 Local names in bold are common and popular/well known/widely used names.
Etymology of plant names are added(it is in the process)
Due to space problem few images are included here;
2350 plant images(1500Plant species) are given in the following flickr post.
for images visit 
Gymnosperm flora is very poor with least diversity. The following are native and cultivated species
CYCAS L.,(Etymology:Theophrastus’ name, "koikaj" , for an unknown palm)
Cycas beddomei Dyer,(Species name in honour of R.Beddome); perita, పేరీత ,madana kaamaakshi మదన కామాక్షి) (Endemic to A.P)  It is  endemic to Tirumala hills of Chittoor distict.  (Use: Medicinal)
Cycas circinalis L.(Queen sago),(Species name from the Latin word “circinus” meaning inrolled leaflets in developing leaves) dzavvubiyyamu, జవ్వుబియ్యము, madana kamakshi,మదన కామాక్షి madana mastu,మదన మస్తు   perita, పేరీత  rana guvva,రణ గువ్వ,  tanaguva kamakshi,తనగువకామాక్షి, varaguna వరగుణ , varugudu,వరుగుడు (Use: Medicinal)
Cycas rumphii Miq.(in honour of George Everhard Rumpf-a Dutch botanist)
,ranaguvva రణ గువ్వ, (Use: grown as ornamental)
 Cycas revoluta Thunb.,(refers to leaf margin rolled back)
Cycas sphaerica Roxb. (refers to globular ovules) Syn. Cycas circinalis Haines var. orixensis- (Endemic to A.P)Arjuna chettu,అర్జున చెట్టు, Naasi chettuనాసి చెట్టు It is also endemic to Srkiakulam district.
Cycas seshachalamensis sp.nova (Endemic to A.P) endemic to Seshachalam (Tirumala )Hills.(for its occurance in Seshachalam hills)
 GNETUM L. ( is derived from the Moluccan name of the tree, G.gnemon)
 Gnetum montanum Markgraf, (montanum- related to mountains.)
 Gnetum ula Brongn.( from Latin ula equates to small) ,apajuttiliఅపజుట్టిలి ,loluga లోలుఁగ , kaloiకాలోయ్, luluti లులితి, lulludiలుల్లుడి    (In North coast)(Use: Medicinal)
Gnetum ula
cultivated: (the following gymnosperms are cultivated as ornamentals) 
CALLITRIS Vent.[Beauty (refers to the general morphology)]
 Callitris cupressiformis F. Muell.,(like Cupressus )
Callitris glauca Mirb.,(refers to bluish-green colour of the foliage)
CUPRESSUS L. (It is the Latinised form of French common namecyparissus of the plant)
Cupressus sempervirens L.,jeedakara జీడకర్ర, jeekaka జీకాక , jeelakarraజీలకర్ర , jeerakaజీరక , jeerana జీరణ 
Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.)D.Don,
Juniperus communis L.,(the ancient Latin name, iuniperus (with cognates such as Juncus, for binding, Geneva and gin); (communis refers to growing in clumps, gregarious, common, )
 Thuja occidentalis L.(from Latin thujas refers to the tree of life),(occidentalis refers to western, occidental, of the West,) nemali eekaనెమలి ఈక 
Platycladus orientalis (L.)Franco,(from Greek platy-flat, cladus -stemmed) (orientalis-from East or India)
PINUS L.(Etymology:the ancient Latin name, pinus, for a cone-bearing tree, pine (cognate with pineus, piñon and pine[-apple])
Pinus roxburghii Sarg.(in honour of W.Roxburgh  (1751–1815), Director of Calcutta
Botanic Garden and author of Plants of Coramandel coast),daevadaaru chettu,దేవదారు చెట్టు , saralaసరళ ,
Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex Bui ,
Pinus hartwegii Lindl. 
Aquatic herbs, plant rhizomatous; 4-celled uniseriate secretory trichomes with a large terminal cell; diaphragms in root aerenchyma; mycorrhizae 0; primary stem with ± scattered vascular bundles; protoxylem lacunae +; vascular cambium 0; P persistent; fruit maturation underwater. Pollination by wind or aquatic beetles.
Perennials or annuals; quintessential waterlilies. A root arises below each leaf.  Flowers large, flowers neither terminal nor axillary, haplomorphic, usually many free perianth parts differentiated into sepals and petals; stamens and carpels many ovules 3 to many in each carpel; carpels laterally connate only, whorled . Fruit baccate. Myricetin, sesquiterpene [pseud]alkaloids are present. Distribution is worldwide.
NYMPHAEA L. (Etymology:derived from the Greek mythology Nymphaia (water goddess)
Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f; Syn.N.stellata Willd.,  kaluvaకలువ, alli taamara అల్లితామర,allikada,అల్లి కాడ,  indeevaramu,ఇందీవరము, nalla kalava,నల్ల కలువ  nallani padmamuనల్లని పద్మము, neeti tamara నీటి తామర , tellakaluvaతెల్ల కలువ,,kumudaకుముద,vutpalamuఉత్పల,(Use: Medicinal, flowers for worship; tuber edible)
Nymphaea pubescensWilld.,(having pubescens);  Looks similar to N.nouchali, but flowers are white., changaluvaచెంగలువ, kaluvaకలువ,chandovaచందోవ, chitti kaluvaచిట్టి కలువ , errakuluva ఎర్ర కలువ, thellakalava తెల్ల కలువ(Use: Medicinal, flowers for worship)
Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex. Andrews.,( rubra- related to red colour); erra kaluva,ఎర్రకలువ   thaamaraతామర 
Nympahea caerulea Savigny ;(related to cerulean blue);  the blue lotus(నల్లకలువ) is cultivated in coastal areas.నీలోత్పలము

Nympahea 'Panama Pacific'
Tropical Water Lily, is a common cultivated variety(ornamental)

Victoria amazonica(Poepp.)Sowerby Gaint water lilly is also cultivated in some coastal areas as ornamental plant. 
Vessels in multiples; secondary phloem stratified; pith septate; leaves two-ranked; "bract" sheathing; P whorled; G occluded by fusion and secretion;  irregularly ruminate endosperm. 
(Includes Annonaceae, Magnoliaceae and Myristicaceae)
Deciduous trees; leaves spiral, leaf blade entire or lobed; often glaucous below; large stipules that entirely surround the stem but are open on the side opposite the petiole. The flowers are rather large, solitary, receptacle elongated, bearing many petals, stamens and carpels that are obviously spirally arranged. Perianth 3+3 or 3+many, calyx and corolla distinguishable.  Fruit dehiscing abaxially; endosperm ruminate
MAGNOLIA L.(Etymology:named after Pierre Magnol (1638–1715), Professor of Botany and Director of Montpellier Botanic Garden)
Magnolia champaca (L.)Baill. ex Pierre,(champaca-for champak sanscrit name of the plant); campakamu,చంపకము,sampenga puvvu/sampagnipuvvu, సంపెంగ/ సంపంగిపువ్వు champeyamu,చాంపేయము  gandha-phali, గంధ ఫలి , hemaangamu,  హేమాంగము, hemapushpamu హేమ పుష్పము , kaanchanamu,కాంచనము  vandanamalaiవందన మలై(It is tamil name) (Flowers used for worship/puja; used in perfume industry) 
Trees/shrubs; branches are not strictly axillary. Leaves are distichous, aromatic, entire. The flowers are nearly always pendulous and their development is more or less open. The tepals are usually in three whorls of three. Stamens are numerous, enclosed in some sort of bowl-shaped structure; they are short with a tough, truncate connective extending over the apex of the anthers. The seeds are quite large and most have a regularly ruminate endosperm. Protoberberidine alkaloids are reported from Annonaceae (Wink 2008). Largely tropical in distribution. Pollination is by small insects.
ALPHONSEA Hook.f.& Thoms.(Etymology: In honour of Alphonse De Candol)
Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thw.,( sclero-stome, carpa-fruit-having stone like fruit); pulusu maamidi పులుసు మామిడి, muvvi మువ్వి; 
Alphonsea madraspatana Bedd., (related to Madras state.)
ANNONA L.,(Etymology:Derived from the Haitian vernacular name, menona/ name, ‘Annona’ is from the Latin word ‘anon’, meaning ‘yearly produce’, referring to the production of fruits of the various species in this genus. ) 
 Annona muricata L., (muricata-rough with short superficial tubercles,- refers to spiny nature of fruit wall) lakshmana phalamuలక్ష్మణ ఫలము;(Use: Cultivated for edible, medicinal fruits)
Annona reticulata L.,( conspicuously net-veined, netted) raamaphalamu,రామ ఫలం raamaseethaphalamu,  రామసీతాఫలము;(Use: Fruits edible)
Annona squamosa L.,( from Jamaica/ with irregular shape of fruitlets) seethaphalamu, సీతాఫలం,  ganda gaathramu, గండ గాత్రము, seethapandu సీత పండు , (Use: Fruits edible)
ARTABOTRYS R.Br.,(Etymology: From the Greek artane, artao "that by which something is hung up" and botrys "cluster, a bunch of grapes, a cluster of grapes"; in reference to the hanging clusters of fruits.
Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.) Bhandari,(with six petals)   manoranjithamu,మనోరంజితం, thiga sampangi తీగసంపెంగ, 
muddasampengaముద్దసంపెంగ , phalasampangaఫలసంపెంగ, sakalaphalasampanga సకలఫలసంపెంగ, sampengaసంపెంగ.(Flowers used for worship/puja; used in perfume industry) 
Desmos chinensis Lour., chilakadudugaచిలకదుద్దుగ Rare, in Visakhapatnam dist.


Huberantha cerasoides (Roxb.) Chaowasku 

Syn. Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Bedd.,(refers to fruits resembling cherries)(  chilakadudugaచిలకదుద్దుగ,gutti chettu గుత్తిచెట్టు,  chilkadadduచిలకదుద్దు,  chittiduduga చిట్టిదుద్దుగ, dudduga, దుద్దుగ , govaగోవ ;

 Huberantha korinti (Dunal) Chaowasku

Syn.Polyalthia korintii (Dunal) Thw., elli dabba, ఎల్లిదబ్బ, nella gutti నెల్ల గుత్తి, korintiకోరింటి

Huberantha korinti flower


MILIUSA Lesch. ex A. DC.,(Etymology: for Pierre Bernard Milius (1773-1829), French naval officer, governor of Réunion and French Guiana, participated with the author in Baudin's expedition to Australia. /named for Italian botanist Josephus Milius Vottolinus, author of De Hortorum Cultura/ or from a vernacular name) 
Miliusa indica Lesch. ex A.DC., Rare in Maredumilli forest. New record to A.P.
Miliusa montana Gard. ex Hook. f. & Thoms., 
Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair,( thickly matted with hairs,)barre dudduga, బర్రెదుద్దుగ,gaadidalotta, గాడిద లొట్ట , budda dudduga, బుడ్డదుద్దుగ, duddugaదుద్దుగ,  kamarakoru కమరకోరు , nalla chika duddi నల్లచిలకదుద్ది, pedda chiluka duddugaపెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ
Miliusa velutina (Dunal ) Hook. f. & Thoms.,(with a soft silky down-like covering, velvety,
velutinus from French velouté) nalla dadduga, నల్ల దుద్దుగ , pedda chiluka dudduga, పెద్దచిలకదుద్దుగ,   
POLYALTHIA Blume,(Etymology:meaning many healing;  refers to many medicinal properties of the genus)
Polyalthia longifolia (Sonner.) Thw.,(with long leaves)  ashokamu, అశోకము(Known as weeping Ashoka),naramaamidi,రమామిడి asvattamu, అశ్వత్థము , daevadaaru,  దేవదారు ,   nettlingum నెత్తి లింగం, (Cultivated as ornamental)    
Polyalthia fragrans (Dalzell) Benth. & Hook. f., (having fragrant flowers)chilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ (Cultivated as ornamental)
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw., (slightly bitten or corky)
 buddadudduga,బుడ్డదుద్దుగ chilaka duduga, cilukadudduga,చిలకదుద్దుగ etidudduga ఏటిదుద్దుగ, kopu కోపు;   
UVARIA L.,(from the Latin Uva meaning grape ikely because the edible fruit of some species in the genus resemble grapes)
Uvaria hamiltonii Hook. f. & Thoms.,( in honour of Hamilton)  uvva వువ్వ
 CANANGA;( Etymology: Cananga from a Tagalog name, alang ilang,) 
Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. &Thoms.,(for the
perfume produced from its flowers),   chettu sampangi చెట్టు సంపంగి, apoorvachampakamu అపూర్వ చంపకము 
The plants are cultivated in gardens and houses for fragrant flowers.
MYRISTICA L., (Myrrh-fragrant(true nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, the dried outer covering of which provides mace)
Myristica attenuata Wall ., (tapering, drawn out to a point, refers to attenuate leaves)
Rare in E.Godavari dist.,
 Myristica dactyloides Gaertn.,(finger like) adavijaajikaaya అడవి జాజి కాయ ;
 Myristica fragrans Houtt.,(for fragrant mace) jajikaya,జాజి కాయ& జాపత్రి   jajipattiri, జాజిపత్రి  jatipatri,జాతిపత్రి/జాపత్రి  (It is a valuable spice)
Myristica malabarica Lam.,(from Malabar region)  
Compsoneura sprucei (A.DC.) Warb.,syn. M.laurifolia,  Except M.attenuata remaining are not found in A.P, but products widely used.  
KNEMA -(internodal  distinctly nodal)
Knema attenuata  (Hook.f. & Thomson) Warb., 
   LAURALES Berchtold & Presl  
 leaves opposite; inflorescence ± cymose; hypanthium +, P spiral; inner staminodia +; receptacle ± concave, stylulus long, (extragynoecial compitum +); megaspore mother cells several; fruits indehiscent, hypanthium persistent
(Includes Lauraceae, Hernandiaceae) 
 Trees or lianas; branching is from previous flush; lamina venation ± palmate; inflorescence thyrsoid/ cyme; flowers very small ; 4-5-merous; Perianth 3-10 uniseriate; stamens 3-5(-7), nectaries outside the stamens, or 0 ; ovary inferior, stigma peltate ; ovules variable; fruit  samara; cotyledons much folded. Pantropical in distribution. Aporphine alkaloids are common.
GYROCARPUS  N.J.Jacquin-(Etymology: having twisted fruit (fruit is winged)
Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq.,(-from America);(Syn.G.asiaticus Willd.,G.jacquini Gardner.)  kumaari polikiకుమ్మరిపొలికి, nallaponakuనల్ల పొణకు , papurapu kaayaపావురాయి కాయ, ponaku పొణకు , tanuku తణుకు, tanakurతనకురు  (wood used to make toys)  
The twigs are ridged. Leaves spiral, entire, thick, coriaceous, with steeply ascending secondary veins, glaucous below; often aromatic, with long-petiole. The flowers are rather small, trimerous, and have valvate anthers; the fruit has a single, large seed that lacks endosperm and the pedicel - and sometimes also tepals and hypanthium - is often swollen and conspicuous. distribution

pantropical. Flavones, 5-O-methyl flavonols, polyketides [acetogenins],are present. 
ACTINODAPHNE Nees- (Actino -Ray +Daphne=old name for bay-laurel, from that of a Dryad nymph of chastity, Daphne,in Greek mythology (spurge laurel)-that look like laurel tree)
Actinodaphne madraspatana Bedd. ex Hook.f.( refers to Madras state) (Nallamala forest) mungiliముంగిలి,nette నెట్టె,kovanguttiకోవంగుత్తి  (Endemic to A.P)
BEILSCHMIEDIA Nees  (named for German botanist Carl (Karl) Traugott Beilschmied 1793-1848)
Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Nees,(in honour of William Roxburgh)
 Beilschmiedia sikkimensis King ex Hook.f.,( from Sikkim)(E.Godavari)
CASSYTHA L.,(Etymology:-Greek kasytas, name for Cuscuta-the plant much resembles Cuscuta); 
Cassytha filiformis L., (Latin fili, a thread; Latin form,shape, referring to the threadlike stems of the species)sitamma nulu poguluసీతమ్మనూలుపోగులు, teegapaachiతీగ పాచి,antharavallithigeఅంతర వల్లితీగ , nooluthige, నూలు తీగ , paachithige,పచ్చి తీగ pachatigeపచ్చతీగ, seethammapogunoolu సీతమ్మ పోగునూలు,seethammaavaari jadaalu సీతమ్మవారి జడలు, (It is a stem parasite on shrubs and trees; it is a medicinal herb)
CINNAMOMUM Scheaffer.,(Etymology:Cinnamomum the Greek name, kinnamwmon, used by Theophrastus, from Hebrew, qinnamon, cinnamon)
Neocinnamomum caudatum (Nees)Merr., 
Syn. Cinnamomum caudatum Nees (Rare, in VSKP)(with caudate(tail like) leaves)
NOTE: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) PRESL, karppooramuకర్పూరము ,hemavyayamu హేమవ్యయము , himavalukaహిమవకుళ , candrasanguyamu చంద్ర సాంగుయము , chandramu చంద్రము ,gamuburamu గంబూరము , ghanasaramu ఘనసారము,
Cinnamomum zeylanicum BL.,[( Latin zeylanica, from Sri Lanka (Ceylon)],
/ C.verum Presl., dalchinachekka, దాల్చిన చెక్క dalcini,దాల్చిని  lavanga-pattaలవంగ పట్ట ,Cinnamomum tamala NEES & EBERM.,talisha-patri,తలిశపత్రి,tamala తమాలవృక్షము, biryaani aaku బిర్యాని ఆకు
These species are not available in A.P, but products are widely used.     
LITSEA Lam.(,Etymology:from the Mandarin characters li; plum, and tse, little, referring to the plant’s Chinese name-tree with little plums.)
Litsea chinensis Lam.,(from China) naranalikeనారనలికె, kanujunalikeకణుజు నలికె , medaమేడ , naraనార , naramamidiనరమామిడి; 
Litsea ligustrina (Nees) Fern.-Vill., 
Syn. Litsea deccanensis Gamble., (from deccan region of Indianaramamidiనరమామిడి;
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., (with glutinous or sticky nature)(E.ghats of Nallamala, sehachalam, velugonda) nara-nalikeనారనలికె,kanugu nalikeకనుగు నలికి, kanujunalikeకణుజు నలికె , konda-wargu కొండ వరఁగు ,  medaaమేడా , nara-chettuనార చెట్టు , nara-mamdiనర మామిడి ,   narra alagiనర్ర అళగి , pulusu maamidi పులుసు మామిడి .(the gum-resin has been used in incense stick indusrty)
 Litsea monpetala (Roxb.) Pers., (mono=sigle, petala- with qne whorl of petals)chiru mamidi, చిరుమామిడి (rare, VSKP)
Litsea laeta (Wall, ex Nees) Hook. f.(pleasing or bright)(Rare, E.Godavari)
NEOLITSEA (Benth.) Merr.(Etymology:-Greek neos, new; Litsea)
Neolitsea cassia (L.) Kosterm.(with helmet shaped fruit) (Chittoor) (Syn.N.zeylanica (Nees)Merr. (VSKP),
 Neolitsea foliosa (Nees) Gamble(leaved), 
Neolitsea scrobiculata (MEISSNER) GAMBLE,(with scurfy nature) aakupathrikamu ఆకు పత్రికము, bodedaబోడెద,buroyidaబురోయిద;
Neolitsea gamblei Chakrab. & P. G. Diwakar,(in honour of J.S. Gamble) (Endemic to A.P)

MACHILUS Rumph. ex Nees

Machilus glaucescens (Nees) Wight,
Syn. Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm.,(large flowered)naaraనార  (Rare in VSKP)
PHOEBE Nees (etymology uncertain -for feminine form of the male name Phoebus  an epithet of Apollo meaning "bright".)
Phoebe wightii Meisner (VSKP)(in honour of Robert Wight)
PIPERALES Dumortier  
Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; primary stem with distinct bundles; wood with broad rays, interfacicular cambium lacking fusiform initials; nodes often swollen; leaves two-ranked, lamina heart-shaped, secondary veins palmate; inflorescences/flowers terminal; A in 3's.
(Includes Aristolochiaceae, Piperaceae)
Herbaceous plants (they are quite often vines) prophylls adaxial; secondary thickening odd; leaves exstipulate with palmate venation and entire margins; flowers 3-merous, monosymmetric( resupinate); stamens extrorse (inserted in Aristolochia). The ovary is usually inferior and the perianth is uniseriate and connate; fruit septicidal schizocarp. Seed winged or arillate. World-wide. Flavonols and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are present in the family. 
ARISTOLOCHIA L.(Etymology:Best-childbirth, (Theophrastus’ name, for
one species with abortifacient property) It is the combination of the Greek words “aristos” = the best, and “locheia” = delivery, with reference to the belief that the plant should help the childbirth; )
Aristolochia acuminata Lam. 
Syn.Aristolochia tagala Cham.,(probably a Philippine vernacular name, tagal,) nallayisvariనల్లఈశ్వరి,
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.,(with conspicuous  bracteoles) gadida gadapaగాడిదగడప; gadaparakuగడపారాకు, gadathigadaparaku, గాడిదగడపారాకుkadapara కడపార;(It is toxic and medicinal)
Aristolochia indica L.,(from India) eswaramulliఈశ్వరిమూలి,  isvaravaeruఈశ్వరి వేరు, nalla eeshvari నల్లఈశ్వరి doolagovila, దూలగోవిల, eshwariఈశ్వరి,  govilaగోవిల ,  tellaeeshvari  తెల్లఈశ్వరి,(It is toxic and medicinal)
Aristolochia elegans Mast., and Aristolochia ringens are cultivated as ornamental. nallaisvara నల్ల ఈశ్వర ,(Ornamental)
Plant habit various; nodes swollen; leaves simple, cordate at base, soft and fleshy, secondary venation pinnate. Flowers minute, naked, often borne in dense spikes; individual flowers are subtended by peltate to clavate bracts.Anthers 2-3, thecae not dehiscing their entire length; ovule single basal. Fruit flesh berry.  
PEPEROMIA Ruiz.&Pav. (Etymology: Piper like plant)
Peparomia dindygulensis Miq.,(from dindygul) E.Godavari dist
Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forster) Hooker & Arnott, (with 4 leaves at each node)E.Godavari dist
PIPER L.,(Etymology: From Greek-pepper/ derived from Sanskrit Pippali)
Piper attenuatum Buch.-Ham. ex Miq.,(with attenuate leaves)
Piper attenuatum
 Piper betle L.,(from the Malayan vernacular name, vettila, for the masticatory leaves, betel, of Piper betle) 
tamalapakuతమలపాకు,akumadupu,ఆకుమడుపు, kammeraku,కమ్మేరాకు   nagavalli,నాగవల్లి, phanirajavalli,ఫణి రాజవల్లి, vitikaవితిక ,(Cultivated as commercial crop),
Piper cubeba L.f.,(the Arabic vernacular name, kubaba, for the unripe fruits of Piper cubeba (used medicinally and to flavour cigarettes)
 chalava-miriyalu, చలవ మిరియాలు  thokamiriyaalu, తోక మిరియాలు ;
Piper longum L., (longum -for long;elongated spikes) pippalluపిప్పళ్లు, modi,మోది, pippali-katteపిప్పలి కట్టె ,  (Cultivated for medicinal purpose)
Piper hymenophyllum Miq.,(delicate or membranous leaf)(Kurnool, Chittor dist),
Piper nigrum L., (nirum-for black colour fruit)(Cultivated as spice) miriyaalu,మిరియాలు,nalla miriyaalu నల్లమిరియాలు maarichamu, మారీచము,  miriyalatige,మిరియాల తీగ, miriyamu, మిరియము  moloovookodi,మోలోవూకోడి , paluka,పలుక  savyamuసవ్యము, ;
Piper trichostachyon (Miq.) C.DC.,E.Godavari 
Piper trioicum Roxb.(In E.Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool and VSKP dist)pamu miriyaalu పాము మిరియాలు 
Herbs; vessels 0; inflorescence a spadix with large associated inflorescence bract [spathe]; flowers dense, sessile, small [<5 mm across], weakly monosymmetric,  carpels ascidiate-plicate, ovules straight, perisperm +. With 1 Family 1 genus.
Rhizomatous herbs, leaves sweetly-smelling, two-ranked, isobifacial. Flowers are small, perfect and pentacyclic in densely spikes overtopped by lateral leaf-like spathe.  Bracts and bracteoles 0, P persistent; anther thecae hooded, intra ovarian trichomes +, style broad. Fruit berry.
ACORUS L. (etymology: without pupil(Greek) for its use for treating cataract)
Acorus calamus L.,(species name for the reed like stems.)  vasa,  వస, vadaja,వడజ,vaja  వజ- (it is a medicinal herb, also cultivated)
Starch grains pteridophyte-type, amylophilic; inflorescence scapose; anthers extrorse; tapetum amoeboid [?here], cells uninucleate; carpels with completely unfused canals, styles +,  embryo (chlorophyllous), large, cotyledon large; seedling with hypocotyl and root well developed, collar rhizoids +. The root stele is often tri- to pentarch; When the leaves are petiolate, the vascular bundles are in an arc; inverted bundles are also common.
 (Includes Araceae, Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Aponogetanaceae and Potamogetanaceae)
ARACEAEJussieu, nom. cons. 
Araceae are herbs with leaves that are usually divided into a petiole and expanded blade. They have a distinctive inflorescence of a more or less petal-like spathe plus a spadix made up of densely-packed, sessile, ebracteate flowers; in many taxa the spadix has a large, terminal, sterile part. The fruit is a berry.
ALOCASIA (Schott) G.Don.,(Etymology: allo-kalokasia meaning distinct-from-Colocasia)
Alocasia decipiens Schott, (misleading, deceiving,) charakanda చారకంద;
Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott,
Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don,(large rooted) pichi chemaపిచ్చి చేమ;
Alocasia montana (Roxb.) Schott.,
AMORPHOPHALLUS Blume ex Decaisne,(Etymology:Deformed-phallus, (the enlarged spadix)
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume(having bulbs)(Rare in hills of E.Godavari)adavi dumpa, అడవి దుంప ,
Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth,
Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth , (wild or restricted to woods)adavi chaama అడవి చామ;
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, ( like the leaves of Paeonia)(Cultivated as vegetable)kandagodda,కందగడ్డmanchi kanda,మంచికంద,duradakandagadda,దురదకందగడ్డ ghemikanda,ఘేమికంద   kanda,  pottikanda,పొత్తికంద thiya-kandhaతియ్య కంద 
ARISAEMA Martius-(Etymology:Blood-Arum (Spathe colour))
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume( after Leschnault )(Reported in1970 by B.S.R.)Now not tracedout)
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott ( with complicate or winding stem growth, )
(Godavari and VSKP dist)
CALADIUM Vent.,(Etymology:from the Indian name, Kaladi )
Caladium bicolor (Aiton)Vent., (refers to with 2 coloured leaves)(ornamental)
COLOCASIA Schott.,(Etymology:Greek name from the Arabic, kulkas )(for taro, the root of
Colocasia antiquorum)
Colocasia antiquorum Schott,(of the ancients, of the former, old-world, )
  chamagadda,చామగడ్డ chemaచేమ,  
Colocasia esculenta (L.)Schott, (esculenta-being fit to eat, edible by humans, full of food,) chema,చేమchamadumpa,చామదుంప, chaamakoora,చామకూర  chamagadda, చామగడ్డ,(Tubers are known as gadda or dumpa, leaves as kura)  kaladi కాలడి , sari kanda సరికంద(cultivated as vegetable)
DIEFFENBACHIA-(for Herr Dieffenbach, gardener of Schönbrunn, Austria )(dumb cane)
Dieffenbachia bowmannii Carrière, (Cultivated)(for orig.coll., Edward Macarthur Bowman (1826-1872).Australian traveller and plant collector)(ornamental)
EPIPREMNUM Schott.,(epiphytic on tree stumps and stems)
Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting,(with golden-yellow foliage)(Ornamental) known as money plant.)
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.)Engl.(with pinnate-sect leaves)
LASIA Lour. (meaning shaggy or rough)
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (with spines)(Rare in north circars)
Lasia spinosa
LEMNA L.,)Theophrastus’ name, for a water-plant)
Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.,(of the equinox refers to flowering time,or of equatorial
regions)chirisanagalu చిరిశనగలు 
 Lemna gibba L.,(gibba- swollen on one side)
MONSTERA-Monstrous,( monstrum, of huge size or monstrous foliage, but the derivation is uncertain)
Monstera deliciosa Liebm;(with pleasant flavour)
PHILODENDRON Tree loving (habit of epiphytic aroid)
Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. (cultivated)(twice pinnatifid)
PISTIA L.,(Etymology: watery )   
Pistia stratiotes L.,(etymology: Soldier,  (Dioscorides’ name, for an Egyptian water plant with sword-shaped leaves)
antharathaamara, అంతరతామర, budaga tamara,బుడగ తామర, aakaasathaamara, ఆకాశతామర,   neeraaku నీరాకు,  nirubudiki,నీరు బుడికి  thoodi kooraతూడికూర  
REMUSATIA Schott(for Abel Remusat (1785–1832), physician and student of the orient)
Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott(producing plantlets (often in place of flowers, or from bulbils, or as precocious germination on the parent plant) viviparous,) 
RHAPHIDOPHORA Hassk.,(etymology-needle bearing) 
Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott,(in a downwards series,)
 Rhaphidophora pertusa  (Roxb.) Schott ,(perforate, with holes, pierced through, refers to leaves with holes) yenuganalleru ఏనుగు నల్లేరు
Raphidophora pertusa
SCINDAPSUS Schott,(Etymology:an ancient Greek name,  for an ivy-like plant)
Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott,(officinalis-of the apothecaries, officinal medicines, sold in shops,)enugapippalu,ఏనుగు పిప్పళ్లు,Enugu tippali ఏనుగుతిప్పలి  gaja-pippalluగజపిప్పళ్లు (medicinal plant)
SPATHIPHYLLUM (Etymology: with leafy spathe)
Spathiphyllum commutatum Schott,(changed (e.g. from previous inclusion in another species)(Cultivated as ornamental)
SPIRODELA Schleiden,(Etymology:Obvious-spiral, (the mode of budding daughter thalli of
the colony )
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.,(with many roots)
THERIOPHONUM Bl.(etymology: From Greek therion-wild animal, phonis-dead, refers to the habitat)
Theriophonum dalzellii Schott.(for for Nicholas Alexander Dalzell (1817–78), Scottish botanist in India)
Theriphonum minutum (Willd.)Baill(for small size)
TYPHONIUM Schott,(Etymology:from an ancient Greek name; some derive as  a hurricane)
Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume,(long and slender, whip-like,(refers to the spathe shape)]
 Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott,(with 3 lobed leaf)(Medicinal)
 ALISMATACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Alismataceae are laticiferous, aquatic herbs. Leaves floating or aerial; petiolate, leaf-blade elliptic to sagittatemidrib prominent, and parallel veins linked by fine transverse veins. Plant mon- or dioecious, inflorescence branches whorled; Their petals are crumpled in bud; stames 3-many, anthers extrorse; carpels 2-many, free; embryo is strongly curved.
LIMNOPHYTON  Miq.,(Etymology:From Greek Limno- water, phyton-plant- marsh plant)
Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.)Miq.,(with obtuse leaves) gurrapu dekka chettuగుర్రపు డెక్క చెట్టు 
SAGITTARIA L.,(Etymology: Arrowhead, sagitta, (herba sagittaria, the shape of the
leaf-blades re-emphasized in Sagittaria sagittifolia)
Sagittaria guayanensis subsp.  lappula (D.Don) Bogin,(from Guyana region of America)
Sagittaria sagittifolia L., (with arrow-shaped leaf-blades,)
HYDROCHARITACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Hydrocharitaceae are aquatic plants with petiolate or (usually) undifferentiated leaves. The inflorescence often has two fused (sometimes free) bracts at the base and the ovary is inferior, often with laminar or more or less strongly intruded parietal placentation, and the stigma lobes are bifid.
BLYXA Noronha ex Thouars, Blyxa-possibly from Greek blyzo-gush forth or blyzen-flow out refers to the habitat
Blyxa aubertii Richard,(for Père GeorgeAubert, French missionary in China c. 1899),
Blyxa echinosperma (C. B. Clarke) J. D. Hooker, (seeds covered in small prickles)
Blyxa octandra (Roxb.) Pl. ex Thw.,(with 8 stamens)naachu,నాచు paachi,పాచి paathala banthi పాతాళబంతి  
HALOPHILA Thouars,(Etymology: from Greek halo-salt, philous-loving)
Halophila beccarii Ascherson,(for Odoardo (Odordo) Beccari (1843–1920), botanist
and traveller in Borneo)
 Halophila ovalis (R. Brown) J. D. Hooker,(with egg-shaped leaves)
HYDRILLA L.C.Richard,(Etymology:Water serpent)
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle,(having whorls (several leaves or flowers all
arising at the same level on the stem),poonaachu,పూనాచు, valakadaవలకాడ
NAJAS L.,(Etymology: Naias, one of the three mythological freshwater nymphs, or Naiads)
Najas indica (Willd.)Cham,(from India);
Najas marina L.,(of marine habit) (Nellore);
Najas minor Ali.,(small refers to with small leaves)(E.Godavari)
Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. ex Wight) Thwaites,(with alternate leaves)
OTTELIA Pers., (Etymology:reputedly from the Malabar vernacular, ottel)
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.,(resembling Alisma)edukula thaamara,ఎడుకులతామర,neeru venikiనీరు వెనికి 
VALLISNERIA L.,(for Antonio Vallisnieri de Vallisnera (1661–1730), Italian physician and
naturalist, professor at Padua)
Vallisneria spiralis L.,(refers to very long spirally coiled filiform scape of female flowers)panchadub,పంచదుబ్బు  punatsuపునాసు 
APONOGETONACEAE Planchon, nom. Cons
Water plants with short rhizome or corm; leaves spiral, pseudopetiolate, the sometimes fenestrate leaf blades have a midrib, parallel veins, and strong cross veins; the finest veins are reticulate. The inflorescence is densely spicate, coloured and has a long scape.  Flowers are small, monosymmetric, often with less conspicuous tepals. Staminate flowers have more than 10 stamens. Carpellate flowers have G 2-9, free; ovules 1-12 per carpel. Seed coat mucilaginous.
APONOGETON L.,(Etymology: Without-trouble-neighbour,(some derive it from the Celtic, apon) (water hawthorn)
Aponogeton crispus Thunb.,(with a wavy margin ) namma puvvumokka,నమ్మ పువ్వు మొక్క, (It is an aquarium plant with crispy or wavy leaves)
Aponogeton natans (L.) Engl. & K.Krause,( floating on water, swimming,) 
nava dumpaనవ దుంప, namma dumpa,నమ్మ దుంప,natta naachuనత్త నాచు , 
POTAMOGETONACEAE Berchtold & J. Presl, nom. Cons
Often freshwater plants, leaves spiral, 2-ranked or opposite. inflorescence spicate, flowers sessile 4-merous; tepals clawed, adnate to stamens; stamens 1-4; G 4, carpels stipitate,  stigma expanded. Fruit a drupelet, tepals persistent.
POTAMOGETON L.,(Etymology: from Greek potamos, "a river," and geiton, "a neighbor," because of the habitat; Watercourse-neighbour)
Potamogeton crispus L.,
Potamogeton nodosus Poir.,(many-jointed, conspicuously jointed, knotty);
Potamogeton perfoliatus L.,(the stem appearing to pass through the
completely embracing leaves,)
STUCKENIA Boerner(Etymology: probably for Wilhelm Adolf Stucken (1852-1901) headmaster of the Gottingen Gymnasium and amateur botanist associated with the Bremen herbarium)
Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner(comb like)(syn. Potamogeton pectinatus L.,)In Kurnool district.
Branches well developed, adaxially grooved vascular bundles in rings; vessels also in stem and leaf; flowers or inflorescence with glandular hairs; styles free early in ontogeny; T persistent in fruit; embryo at most short.
DISCOREACEAE R.Brown nom.cons
Herbaceous climbers; leaves petiolate, with broad blades and pulvini at both ends of the petiole; the leaf base does not surround the stem; lamina has several strong longitudinal veins and transverse secondary veins, or reticulate fine venation. Flowers small and not very brightly coloured; 3 merous, the ovary is inferior and often ridged or winged in fruit. Tropical in distribution.
DIOSCOREA Linn.(Etymology:for Dioscorides Pedanios of Anazarbeus, Greek military physician(yams)


Burmannia disticha L., Rare in Chittoor, Vishakhapatnam dist. 
Dioscorea alata L. ,(with wing-like (fruits), pendalamuపెండలం, daeshavaali pendalam,దేశవాళీ పెండలం dukka pendalam,దుక్కపెండలం, gadimidondapendalamu గడిమిదొండపెండలం, gunapendalamuగుణపెండలం , kavili-gaddaకవిలిగడ్డ, naarathegaనార తీగ ,  niluvu pendalam, నిలువు పెండలం, yadduthoka dumpaఎద్దుతోక దుంప 
Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines,(dart-leaf, terrifying-leaf,) (E.Godavari, VSKP) ,
Dioscorea bulbifera L., (carrying bulbs,often bulbs take the place of flowers)
adavidumpa అడవి దుంపchedupaddudumpa చేదుపదుంప, malaakaakaayapendalamu, మాలాకా కాయపెండలం,(cultivated for the tubers)
Dioscorea esculenta L.,(being fit to eat, edible by humans, full of food,)  shilakdamశిలకడం, tivvi teega తివ్వి తీగ;
Dioscorea glabra Roxb., (without hairs or smooth) eddutokadumpaఎద్దుతోక దుంప, naratega,నార తీగ,
Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f.,(for William Hamilton, American naturalist)
Dioscorea hispida Denns.,(plant with bristly nature) pulidumpaపులిదుంప, tellaagini-geddaluతెల్లగిణి గడ్డలుkolli, కొల్లి pedda anem,పెద్ద అనెం  pedumpaపేదుంప ,  thandrabisalathigeతాండ్రబిసలతీగ,
Dioscorea oppositifolia L.,(with oppositely arranged leaves) yella gaddaయెల్ల గడ్డ,tella gaddaతెల్లగడ్డ, adavidumpathige,  అడవిదుంపతీగ,adaviyatagatigeఅడవి యాట తీగ,  aretegalu, ఆరె తీగలు, atyaga,అత్యాగ, avathengathige,అవతెంగ తీగ, chenchu dumpaచెంచు దుంప , ganuga గానుగ , karrapendalamu కర్రపెండలం, naarabadluనారబడులు ,  tsuntsugaddaత్సు-త్సు గడ్డ,
Dioscorea hispida
 Dioscorea pentaphylla L.(with 5 leaf-lets leaves)dukka pendulamu దుక్కపెండలం,adavi-ginusu tiga,అడవిగినుసు తీగ  adavigummaditiga,అడవిగుమ్మడి తీగ  chenchu gadda,చెంచుగడ్డ  , kaaruchembaకారుచెంబ , kanta aluకంటాలు,  moyyakku-pendalam మొయ్యా క్కుపెండలం, mullupendalamu ముళ్ల పెండలం, nuludumpa నూలు దుంప , pandi mukku dumpa పంది ముక్కు దుంప , pandigadda పందిగడ్డ,
Dioscorea pubera Bl.,(grown-up; downy,refers to downy growth on leaves of the plant) 
Dioscorea tomentosa J.König ex Spreng.,(thickly matted with hairs,)
 teega dumpaతీగ దుంప, subbadumpa సుబ్బ దుంప,
Dioscorea wallichi Hook.f.,(for Nathaniel (Nathan Wolff) Wallich
(1786–1854), Danish botanist and author, Curator of Calcutta Botanic Garden)kummara baddu,కుమ్మరబద్దు verrichaada, వెర్రి చాడ  
TACCA J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.(Etymology:from a Indonesian vernacular name, taka, for arrowroot)
Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze(with petals similar to that of a lion) 
Syn. Tacca pinnatifida J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.,vurakanda ఊరకంద , ritta kandaరిత్త కంద,adavi dumpa, అడవిదుంప,kanda కంద, peddakandagadda పెద్దకందగడ్డ Fiji Arrowroot, batflower, East Indian arrowroot, Polynesian arrowroot, Tahiti arrowroot (Eng.);
PANDANALES Berchtold & J. Presl
Nucellar cap +; endosperm with reserves starch, embryo minute.
(Includes Pandanaceae, Stemonaceae)
Plant woody, shrubs, or climbers with roots from leaf axils, not rhizomatous; leaves spirally three- or four-ranked, M-shaped when mature, spiny, plant di-(mon)oecious; inflorescence bracts usually colored; staminate flowers: A 2-many, carpellate flowers: G 1-several, free to connate, fruit baccate or drupaceous; primary root branched. 
PANDANUS L.f.(Malayan name, pandang, for screw-pines )
Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.) Kuntze(with fragrant flowers); Syn.Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.,mogili,మొగలి,ketaki,కేతకి, gajangi, గజాంగి, gedangimogaliగెడంగిమొగలి , gojjangi,గొజ్జంగి; (flowers harvested for worship and for perfume industry )
Pandanus dubius Spreng. (doubtful)(Cultivated species)
STEMONACEAE Caruel, nom. cons.
Plant monopodial, (tuberous), with cataphylls, stem erect (twining); plant glabrous; leaves two-ranked or opposite, with petiole,  conspicuous, ladder-like transverse veins between the very close to distant longitudinal veins; when dry, the leaves are often very thin. The inflorescences are axillary, cymose; and the flowers are 4- or 5-merous. A adnate to base of T, ± connate, connective expanded;  style branches long; ovules 2 to many/carpel; fruit capsule, seeds longitudinally ridged, aril of uniseriate or vesicular hairs from hilum, raphe or micropyle.  
STEMONA Lour. (Etymology:having wraped stamens)
Stemona tuberosa Lour., (with tubers)kaniputeega కనిపుతీగ,ijedigadda,ఇజెడిగడ్డ
Stemona tuberosa  var.minor (with small leaves and flowers)(medicinal)
Stemona tuberosa  
 Plants geophytes; leaves elliptical, (main veins seven or fewer), fine venation reticulate, (leaf base not sheathing); inflorescence terminal; T large (small), free, (spotted), tepal nectaries +anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap +; P deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls.
(Includes Colchicaceae, Smilacaceae)
COLCHICACEAE de Candolle, nom. cons.
Cormose or sometimes rhizomatous geophytes that may be recognised by their rather large flowers with six, usually free tepals, each more or less enveloping a stamen and with nectaries on the adaxial surface at or towards the base, and a superior ovary.
DISPORUM Salisbury,(Etymology: Plants with 2 seeds)
Disporum calcaratum D.Don,(having a spur)
Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.,
Syn.Disporum pullum Salisb.,(raven-black, almost dead-black,) (E.Godavari, VSKP )
GLORIOSA L.(Etymology: Superb, full of glory(the flowers))
Gloriosa superba L.,(superb) adavi nabhi,అడవి నాభి, agni-shikha, అగ్నిశిఖ, naageti gadda నాగేటి గడ్డ, deyyapu mokka, దెయ్యపుమొక్క  deyyapu poola chettu దెయ్యపు పూల చెట్టు , ganjeri గంజేరి , kalaga puvvu కలగ పువ్వు , kalapagadda, కలపగడ్డ ,  kannu nopi mokka కన్ను నొప్పి మొక్క ,kumkumapuvvu కుంకుమపువ్వు laangali, లాంగలి , nabhi,నాభి  posala poligodi gaddaపొసలపోలిగోడి గడ్డ , potti nabhi,పొట్టి నాభి   potti-dumpa,పొట్టి దుంప, tarigorreతరిగొర్రె  vasa naabhiవస నాభి,  (Medicinal)
IPHIGENIA Kunth,(Etymology:Valiant-occurrence,  (for the deep crimson flowers); in mythology, Iphigenia was the brave daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra)
Iphigenia indica (L.) A.Gray ex Kunth, (from India)kaki katuka కాకి కాటుక Nellore, Kadapa dist
Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & R.S. Rao, Nellore dist 
Iphigenia  mysorensis Arekal&Swamy;
Iphigenia pallida Baker,(pale greenish)(Rare in Godavari, VSKP)
SMILACACEAE Ventenat, nom. cons.
Prickly climbers. The leaves are spirally-arranged and petiolate, there are paired petiolar tendrils, and the blade has several strong longitudinal veins and reticulate fine venation. Plant dioecious. The flowers are rather small, "typically monocot", and are borne in umbels; the fruit is a berry. 
SMILAX L.(Etymology:from an ancient Greek name, (smilh a scraper, for the prickly stems)
Smilax aspera L.,(rough texture)pala sugandhi,సుగంధి  sugandhipalaసుగంధిపాల (VSKP),
Smilax perfoliata Lour., pirangi chekka పిరంగి చెక్క (Chittoor, Kadapa, VSKP);(Medicinal)
Smilax zeylanica L.,konda gurivatheegaకొండ గురివ తీగ , adavi konda teega అడవి కొండ తీగ, konda dantena,కొండదంతె న konda garbha-tige కొండ గర్భ తీగ ,   kondathaamara కొండ తామర , kummarabaddu,కుమ్మర బద్దు  kummeritheega,కుమ్మెరితీగ , kushtaputamara కుష్టపు తామర , phirangi mokka,ఫిరంగి మొక్క,  sithapaసితాప
Smilax zeylanica 
Dimorphic root, hypodermal cells +;(velamen +);  anthers longer than wide; tapetal cells bi- to tetranuclear; microsporogenesis simultaneous; seeds exotestal, tegmen not persistent; endosperm helobial;Chelidonic acid +, steroidal saponins 0
(Includes Asparagaceae, Orchidaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asphodelaceae)
(species etymology is given in brackets; Reference to etymology of Orchids: The Vocabulary of Orchids: An amateur prespective by Allen B.Martin)
ORCHIDACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
Mycorrhizal herbs, root hairs often lacking. Flowers monosymmetric, resupinate, Tepals free, median inner tepal forms a labellum; stamens 3 basally adnate to style; ovary inferior, septal nectaries 0, placentae branched, style solid, stigma wet; ovules more than 1500 per carpel, fruit dehiscing laterally by six valves, seeds minute, dust-like, endosperm 0, fruit splitting down its sides, tepals deciduous in fruit. Worldwide in distribution.
Flavone C-glycosides, flavonols present, SiO2 bodies in leaf vascular bundle sheaths. 
ACAMPE Lindl.,(Etymology: Greek word akampas, meaning "rigid", referring to the small, brittle, inflexible flowers.)
Acampe carinata (Griff.)Panigrahi(having keel like ridge );
Acampe ochracea (Lindl.)Hochr.(with pale yellow coloured flowers),
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.)Blatt.&Mc Cann,(as if nibbled at the tip)
Acampe praemorsa
AERIDES Lour. (Etymology: From Greek aer-air +edios-shape-Of the hair (Epiphytic))
Aerides multiflora Roxb.,(with many flowers); 
Aerides odorata Lour.,(with fragrance) 
Aerides ringens (Lindl.)C.E.C Fisch.,(with a two-lipped mouth, gaping)
Aerides multiflorum
APHYLLORCHIS Blume(Etymology: From Greek Aphyllo-leaflesss+orchis- Testicle, (the shape of the root-tubers)
Aphyllorchis montana (Thw.) Rchb.(pertaining to mountains)
BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars nom.cons (Etymology: From Greek a combination of 2 words Bulbos-bulb +phyllum-leaf with reference to leaves growing from the apex of pseudobulbils.)
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f., (having keeled or boat-shaped flowers) 
Bulbophyllum kaitense Rchb.f. syn. Cirrhopetalum neilgherrensese Wight.(for place name (+ from), one major ref. says it’s from Kaitea, Nilghiri Hills, of TamilNadu)
Bulbophyllum kaitense
CLEISTOSTOMA Blume(Etymology:Closed-mouth,   (entrance to spur is obstructed)
Cleistostoma tenuifolium(L.)Garay.(slender-leaved, with narrow leaves)
CORYMBORKIS Thouars(Etymology: derived from the Ancient Greek words korymbos meaning "bunch of flowers or fruit" and orchis meaning "testicle" or "orchid", referring to the bunched flowers of these orchids)
Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw.)Blume(false-hellebore-leaved, with leaves like Veratrum,)
CYMBIDIUM O.Swartz (Etymology: From Greek-(cymbe) = pot, cup shaped like a small boat, with reference to the shape of the labellum)
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.(like the leaves of Aloe)
DENDROBIUM  O.Swartz.,(Etymology: Greek terms epi = over, and déndron = tree, with reference to the numerous species of the genus which live on the trees)
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)Fischr,(without leaves) 
Dendrobium aphyllum

Dendrobium aquem Lindl., 
Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl.,(with herbaceous habit) 
Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.,(with large spikes);
Dendrobium ovatum(Willd.)Kranz
DIDYMOPLEXIS Griff. (Etymology: From Greek didymo-twin or paired + plexus -knitted)
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.(pale greenish flowered)
DIPLOCENTRUM Lindley (Etymology: from Greek diplo-double+ centrum -spurred(refers to double spurred flowers)
Diplocentrum recurvum Lindl.(recurved)
ERIA Lindley(Etymology:  comes from the Greek substantive  (erion) = wool, with reference to the down present in many species)
Eria bambusifolia Lindl.(leaves resemble that of Bamboo)
EULOPHIA R.Br. ex Lindley (Etymology:formed by the Greek prefix (eu) = well and by the substantive (lophos) = height, with reference to the crests present on the mid-lobe of labellum)
Eulophia epidendraea (J.Koenig ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch,(those being upon trees (: epiphytic) gooru chutu gadda,గోరుచుట్టుగడ్డ    raayeduru dumpa,రాయెదురుదుంప ,  veduru gadda వెదురు గడ్డ 
Eulophia explanata Lindl.,(flattened; spread out.)
Eulophia graminea Lindl., (gramen=grass,(those being grass-like). Alluding to the leaves.)
Eulophia ochreata Lindl.,(ochre coloured. could be having yellow coloured flowers)
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh(worth looking at; admirable; notable; showy. flowers)
GASTROCHILUS D.Don. (Etymology:Bellied-lip (the swollen lip)]
Gastrochilus calceolaris  [Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.] D. Don (A general term for any
kinds of plants producing a slipper shaped flower or having a flower with
slipper-like parts.)
GEODORUM G.Jackson.[Etymology:Comes from Greek geo- on earth +dorium –pole like –tall single stemmed (refers to single stemmed terrestrial  habit of the plant)]
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schlt.,(having densely arranged flowers)
Geodorum densiflorum
GOODYERA R.Br.(Etymology: for John Goodyer (1592–1664), English botanist who translated Dioscorides’ Materia medica into English)
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook., (could be tall or long, or slender)
HEBENARIA Willd.[Etymology: comes from the Latin substantive “habena, ae” = rope, lace, with reference to the long and thin divisions of the lateral lobes of the labellum)
Habenaria barbata Wight ex Hook.f., (bearded-refers to bearded labellum)
Habenaria digitata Lindl., (For any organ, or part likened to a digit or finger like)
Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell, (with 2 leaves)
Habenaria furcifera Lindl.,having deeply divided or forked or V, or Y shaped labellum).
Habenaria intermedia D.Don, vrddhi వృద్ధి (in between)
Habenaria longicorniculata J.Graham,(having long horn like spur)
Habenaria marginata Colebr. , the floral segments, edged with fine, rusty-brown hair.
Habenaria panigrahiana S.Misra,(belonging to Gopinath Panigrahi (b1924), phytologist and author. exIndia, 
Habenaria plantaginea Lindl., (look like Plantago)
Habenaria ramayyana Ram.Chary & J.J.Wood,
Habenaria rariflora A.Rich.,(refers to distant spacing of the flowers)
Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson, chukka dumpaచుక్క దుంప (for William Roxburgh(1751-1815)]
KINGIDIUM P.F.Hunt(Etymology: for Sir George King (1840–1909), English physician and botanist, Director of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta]
Kingidium deliciosum (Reichb. F.)Sweet(delightful; pleasurable; agreeable; joyful)
LIPARIS L.C.Rich.(Etymology:shining (the shining leaf-texture)
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl.,(prominently veined)
Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl.,(with green flowers)
LUISIA Gaudich. [Etymology:for Don Luis de Torres, a Portugese botanist.]
Luisia zeylanica Lindl.(from Ceylone)
NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudich,[Etymology: Veined, nerva, nervae (the prominent leaf veins of some)
 Nervilia aragoana Gaudichaud ,[the author, whilst on an expedition on the French vessel “Uranie”, to the Pacific Islands,found it and named it for Mt.Arago of New Caledonia ]
Nervilia crociformis (Zollinger & Moritzi) Seidenfaden,[as (likened to) a crocus: an Iris plant (family: Iridaceae) + shape. Ref.the flower.] 
Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schlechter, (pleated, folded like a closed fan)
OBERONIA Lindley [Etymology:Oberon, is the king of the fairies.Many authors liken orchids to fairies, nymphs, little people, etc. and because this one is a “king” amongst them(the flowers are very beautiful) hence: of Oberon, king of the fairies. ]
Oberonia arnottiana Wight,(belonging to Arnott, ex Nilgiri region, India. )
Oberonia brunoniana Wight.,(Latinized. adaption of the surname of Robert Brown)
Oberonia denticulata Wight 
Oberonia ensiformis (Smith) Lindley,(leaf blade in the form of a sword)
Oberonia falconeri J. D. Hooker,(for phytologist and authority, Hugh Falconer (1808-1865). Director of the Calcutta Bot. Garden.)
Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenfaden(Terminating with a short sharp point.)
Oberonia denticulata
PAPLIONANTHE Schlechter.-butterfly like flower
Paplionanthe teres (Roxb.)Schltr.(rounded; cylindrical; shapely; smooth.refers to leaves)
Paplionanthe teres
PECTEILIS Rafinesue comb-like (the outward pointing teeth)
Pecteilis gigantea (J.E.Smith)Rafin (very large)
PERISTYLUS Blume  nom cons peri-around +stylus style
Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don)Lindley,(this one resembled a Goodyera)
Peristylus plantagineus (Lindley) Lindley,(like plantain refers to leaves)
PHOLIDOTA Lindley ex Hooker.Ear-scaled  (the shape of the bracts of rattle-snake orchid) Pholidota pallida Lindley.(with light coloured flowers)
Platanthera edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) R.K.Gupta, riddhiరిద్ధి   
POLYSTACHYA Hooker Many spiked  (many spike-like panicles)
Polystachya concreta(Jacq.)Garay &Sweet(stiff; hardened)
POMATOCALPA Breda, Kuhl&V.Hasselt.poma = drinking cup and kalpe = pitcher and refers to the cup-like shape of the labellum. 
Pomatocalpa mannii(Rchb.f.)J.J.Smith.,(for phytologist Gustav Mann(1836-1916). Explorer, botanist, naturalist and for some years was with the Indian Forestry Department.) 
Pomatocalpa spicata Breda Gen.,(having, or like a spike; spiky; spiked; pointed. )
RHYNCHOSTYLIS Blume(Etymology:  with beaked style or with beaked column)
Rhyncostylis retusa(L.)Blume,(organs, or parts having an obtuse apex with
a centrally broad shallow notch.)
SATYRIUM Swartz. (Etymology:Dioscorides’ name for an orchid (in mythology, Satyrion was a drunken woodland god) 
Satyrium nepalense D.Don.(from Nepal or borders of Indo-nepal)
TROPIDIA J.Lindley(Etymology: tropidos: keel (as of a boat) + of, or tropideion: small keel. Refers to the labellum.)
Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.) Blume (having obvious, or prominent bends; corners.) 
VANDA W.Jones ex.R.Brown.(Etymology: From the Sanskrit name Vanda, thought to apply to many parasitic, or epiphytic is the local name for V.tasellata)
Vanda tessellata Hook ex. G.Don,(refers to the chequered pattern on the floral segments.)chittiveduri, చిట్టి వెదురు  kanapa badanika, కణపబదనిక  mardaaru,మర్దారు, marsaruమర్సరు, saga సాగ , vadanika,  వదనిక  badanike,బదనిక 
VANILLA Plum.ex Mill.1754(Etymology: from Spanish, for “little pod”, or,  a small sheath) 
Vanilla wightii LINDL.EX WIGHT, (for Robert Wight (1796-1872), author, phytologist and authority on the flora of India.) naaga naleru నాగ నల్లేరు 
HYPOXIDACEAE R. Brown, nom. Cons
Tuberous herbs. Leaves in rosette, plicate or folded with persistent leaf bases; non-glandular indumentum is quite prominent. Flowers bisexual, regular, on short racemes. The outer whorl of tepals tends to be green outside and the ovary is inferior and sometimes subterranean; it is often narrowed and beaked at the apex.
CURCULIGO Gaertn.,(Etymology: Weevil, curculio (refers to the beak of the fruit)
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.,(resembling an Orchid)
 nelatadiనేలతాడిnallathaadigadda,నల్లతాడిగడ్డలు  nilapthaaligaddaluనిలపతాడిగడ్డలు
HYPOXIS L.(Etymology: Sharp-below, (refers to the seed pod shape) 
Hypoxis aurea L., (golden yellow)
Molineria finlaysoniana Baker. (Chittoor, Vijayanagaram) 
AMARYLLIDACEAE J. Saint-Hilaire, nom. cons.
Bulbous herbs. Leaves fleshy, two-ranked; inflorescence scapose,  umbellate, or cymose,  inflorescence bracts 2 or more, scarious, internal bracts small; flowers large, pedicels not articulated; tepals free ; stamens 6, connate basally; style long, ovary inferior.   
ALLIUM L.,(Etymology: the ancient Latin name for garlic) 
Allium cepa L.,(the old Latin name,  for an onion,) 
 vulligaddaluఉల్లిగడ్డలు, erragaddaluయెర్రగడ్డలు, nirulli,నీరుల్లి,erra ulligadda,ఎర్రఉల్లిగడ్డ,  vullipayaluఉల్లి పాయలు;
Allium sativum L.,( cultivated, not wild,)
vellullipaayaవెల్లుల్లిపాయలు,tellagadda, తెల్ల గడ్డ,, thellavayaluతెల్ల వాయలు , vellulliవెల్లుల్లి,  
CRINUM L.,(Etymology:Lily)
Crinum asiaticum L.,( belonging to Asiaan continent) chengalva, చెంగలువ  kesara-chettu,కేశరచెట్టు, lakshmi-narayana-chettu,  లక్ష్మీనారాయణచెట్టు , visha-mungali, విషమంగలి;
Crinum latifolium  L.,(with broad leaves) chembu gadda చెంబు గడ్డ , tella puriతెల్ల పూరి 
Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J.Nair, kaesarachaettuకేసరచెట్టు, kaja gaddaకాజగడ్డ 
HIPPEASTRUM Herb.,(Etymology: Knight-star,(the equitant leaves suggest being astride a horse)
Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss,(with reddish purple/pomegranate coloured  flowers)(Ornamental)
PANCRATIUM L.,(Etymology:All-potent, (a name used by Dioscorides)
Pancratium longiflorum Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.,(with long flowers)thonda thoka chettuతొండతోకచెట్టు 
Pancratium triflorum Roxb. (having 3 flowers) 
SCADOXUS (Etymology: Shade-glory,  (the parasol-like flower-heads,)
Scadoxus multiflorus  (Martyn) Raf., 
ZEPHYRANTHES Herb.,(Etymology: West-wind-flower (refers to the flowering time)
Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) Herb.,(with white flowers) 
Zephyranthes citrina Baker,(with citrus-yellow flowers)
 Zephyranthes rosea Lendl.,(with pink coloured flowers)
ASPARAGACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons.
 Plants rhizomatous or bulbous, never cormous; flowers small, inflorescence umbel or raceme; bracts 4 or more; tepals connate, corona may be present, ovary superior. 
AGAVE L.,(Etymology:Admired-one, (Agave was one of the mythical Amazons)
Agave angustifolia Haw.,(narrow-leaved )kittanara,కిత్తనార, balurakkisaబలురక్కిస , brahmarakasiబ్రహ్మరాకాసి,  peddakalabandaపెద్దకలబంద, piyyatikalalebandaపియ్యటికలబంద, samataసమత;
Agave americana L.,(from America) chagera-matta, చంగర మట్ట, banda-kattalaబండ కట్టల,  kalambandaకలబంద, kittanara,కిత్తనార  , rakashi-mattalu, రాకాసిమట్టలు, rakshasimattaరాక్షస మట్టలు , saga-nara, సాగనార ,
Agave cantala (Haw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck(from Sanskrit spiny) kitthanaaraకిత్తనారpichikalabandaపిచ్చి కలబంద piyyatikalabandaపియ్యటికలబంద,, raakshasikalanbandaరాక్షసికలబంద,, raakshasimadalu రాక్షసిమడలు , raakshasimattaరాక్షసిమట్ట 
ALOE L.,(Etymology:from Arabic alloch or halal in Hebrew meaning bitter shiny substance.
Aloe vera L.,(Latin vera, feminine of verus true because it is widely used in managing feminine diseases in many countries) kalabandaకలబంద,kumaari కుమారి, chinnakalabanda చిన్నకలబంద, chinnaraakasimattaచిన్నరాక్షసిమట్ట, errakalanbandaఎర్రకలబంద,  kunthi kalabandaకుంతి కలబంద,, manchikatthaaliమంచి కత్తాలి , musambaramuమూసామ్బరం ,   
ASPARAGUS L.,(Etymology: the Greek name, for plants sprouting edible turions from
the root stock (David Gledhill) Latin Asparagus ancient name used by Roman historian C.Suetonius Tranquillus of 1st Century A.D and by Pliny,; from ancient Sanskrit word sphurjati Greek asparagusasparagos may be derived to burst with a noise or crack)
Asparagus aethiopicus L.,(of NE Africa (the land of burnt faces)
Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop, cultivated;
Asparagus gonoclados Baker,(with angled cladodes) challagaddalu,చల్లగడ్డలు  pillipichara,పిల్లి పీచర;
Asparagus racemosus Willd.,(with racemose inflorescence) pilli teegalu,పిల్లి తీగలు, shathaavari,శతావరి,challaచల్ల, challa-gaddalu, చల్లగడ్డలు , erravaaluduthige, ఎర్ర వాలుడు తీగ ,  pillipeechara, పిల్లి పీచర,  sathaananduduశతానందుడు,  seethammajata సీతమ్మ జట,     
CHLOROPHYTUM Salisbury,(Etymology: Green plant-foliage of spider plant)
Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker,(Arundo rheed -like) (North Circars,Kurnool), 
Chlorophytum glaucum Dalzell, (rare in W.Godavari), 
Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.,(distantly arranged)
Chlorophytum malabaricum Baker,(Chittoor),
Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker, kuchhela,కుచ్చెల  sarala pagada సరళ పగడ ,
DIPCADI Medik.,(Etymology: from an oriental name for Muscari)
Dipcadi krishnadevarayae B.R.P.Rao,(Endemic to A.P)(A famous Telugu ruler of 15th Century of S.India,)
Dipcadi montanum (Dalzell) Baker, (New addition)
DRACENA L.,(Etymology: -Female dragon)
Dracaena marginata hort. ;(having a distinct margin)(Cultivated);
Dracena reflexa (Cultivated)
Dracaena terniflora Roxb.,(with flowers in threes) (Rare in E.Godavari, VSKP)
DRIMIA Jacq.,(Etymology: Acrid-the pungent juice from the bulbs)
Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop,adavi vulli అడవిఉల్లి; 
Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar,(with reference to Nagarjuna an ancient Bhuddhist monk of A.P)(Endemic to A.P)
Drimia congesta (Wight)Ansari&Raghavan(arranged very close together, crowded,)
FURCRAEA  Ventenat,(Etymology: for Antoine François Fourcroy (1755–1809), French chemist)
Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw.,(with bad smelling refers to flowers)
LEDEBOURIA Roth,(Etymology:for Carl Friedrich von Ledebour (1785–1851), student of the Russian flora)
Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop, kaachu gadda కాచుగడ్డ ;adavitheela gadda అడవి తీలగడ్డ, 
OPHIOPOGON Ker-Gawl.,(Etymology: Snake-beard)
Ophiopogon intermedius D.Don, 
POLIANTHES L.,(Etymology:many flowered)
Polianthes tuberosa L.,(with tubers)
gaddasampenga  గడ్డసంపంగిnelasampenga నేలసంపంగి, thella sampenga, తెల్లసంపెంగ vaerusampenga వేరుసంపంగి,  
SANSVERIA  Thunb.,(Etymology: for Prince Raimond de Sansgrio of Sanseviero (1710–71), Swedish botanist)
Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook.,(Ornamental),(tubular or cylindrical refers to leaf shape)
Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult.f.,  saganara,సాగ నార,miyanda మియంద,  chaga, చాగ chama kada nara,చామకాడనార   ishaura-kodu ఈశ్వర కోడు , junappu,జున్నపు, saggai సగ్గయి
Sansevieria trifasciata Prain,(Ornamental)(three-banded, refers to leaves)
YUCCA L.,(Etymology: from a Carib name, yuca, for cassava (Manihot), for its enlarged roots, incorrectly applied by Gerard)
Yucca gloriosa L.,(superb in appearance) goli gulaabi గోలీగులాబి 
ASPHODELACEAE Jussieu, nom. cons., (Xanthorrhoeaceae)  
They have a dense tuft of long, narrow leaves terminating a stout, woody stem (and persisting as a skirt of dried leaves if there are no fires) and a long, erect, densely spike-like inflorescence with small flowers; pedicels articulated; A not adnate to T; fruits capsular.
ASPHODELUS L.,(Etymology: Silver-rod, the Latin name, asphodilus, in Homer,) 
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.,(slender or narrow leaved)  seema vulli సీమఉల్లి 
Crocus sativus L., saffron (it is not found, grown or cultivated in A.P but it is used in A.P.) Kumkumapuvvu, కుంకుమపువ్వు   Kashmiramu కాశ్మీరము     

Continued .....
The authors are A.Lalithamba Rtd.Lecturer in Botany(Her other blog list is given below) and D.C.S.RAJU. FLS.;For his works and history of plant taxonomy please visit